Vertebral artery variations revised: origin, course, branches and embryonic development.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:The vertebral artery originates from the subclavian artery and is divided into four segments. The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomical variations in the course and branches of the vertebral artery. M: ATERIALS AND METHODS: : A research was performed via Pubmed database, using the terms; "variations of vertebral artery AND cadaveric study", "variations of vertebral artery AND cadavers" and "anomalies of vertebral artery AND cadavers". RESULTS:A total of 24 articles met the inclusion criteria, 13 of them referring to variations of the origin of the vertebral artery, 9 to variations of the course and 3 to variations of its branches. On a total sample of 1192 cadavers of different population, origin of the left vertebral artery directly from the aortic arch was observed at 6.7%. In addition, among 311 cadavers, 17.4% were found with partially or fully ossified foramen of the atlas for the passage of the vertebral artery, while the bibliographic review also showed variants at the exit site of the artery from the transverse foramen of the axis. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the fact that variations of both the course and the branches of vertebral artery are in most cases asymptomatic, good knowledge of anatomy and its variants is of particular importance for the prevention of vascular complications during surgical and radiological procedures in the cervix area.

journal_name

Folia Morphol (Warsz)

journal_title

Folia morphologica

authors

Magklara EP,Pantelia ET,Solia E,Panagouli E,Piagkou M,Mazarakis A,Skandalakis P,Troupis T,Filippou D

doi

10.5603/FM.a2020.0022

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-02-19 00:00:00

eissn

0015-5659

issn

1644-3284

pii

VM/OJS/J/66697

pub_type

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