Where Do We Stand with Closed-Loop Systems and Their Challenges?


:Treatments for type 1 diabetes have advanced significantly over recent years. There are now multiple hybrid closed-loop systems commercially available and additional systems are in development. Challenges remain, however. This review outlines the recent advances in closed-loop systems and outlines the remaining challenges, including post-prandial hyperglycemia and exercise-related dysglycemia.


Diabetes Technol Ther


Jackson M,Castle JR




Has Abstract


2020-07-01 00:00:00












  • The effect of local subcutaneous delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor on the function of a chronically implanted amperometric glucose sensor.

    abstract::The foreign body capsule that forms around implanted devices such as glucose sensors is hypovascular and has limited permeability to glucose. Such a capsule may function better if well vascularized. We hypothesized that capsular vascularization achieved by local release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) wou...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ward WK,Wood MD,Casey HM,Quinn MJ,Federiuk IF

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Adiponectin and carotid intimal medial thickness in subjects with and without glucose intolerance (CURES-82).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study assessed the association of serum adiponectin with carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) in Asian Indians with different grades of glucose intolerance. METHODS:Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 520), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 115), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gokulakrishnan K,Indulekha K,Ganesan S,Anuradha S,Mohan V

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Peripheral leptin levels in narcoleptic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder that in most patients is characterized by the deficiency of central orexin. Clinically, narcolepsy is associated with obesity. Currently, there is a literature controversy about the potential alteration of leptin levels in narcoleptic patients. Theoretically, diminished ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dahmen N,Engel A,Helfrich J,Manderscheid N,Löbig M,Forst T,Pfützner A,Tonn P

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Preserving Skin Integrity with Chronic Device Use in Diabetes.

    abstract::Skin integrity and diabetes device placement are ongoing concerns for people with diabetes who utilize continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps. This is especially significant for individuals with skin sensitivities, pediatric patients, and those who use devices chronically...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Messer LH,Berget C,Beatson C,Polsky S,Forlenza GP

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Feasibility of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and daily supplemental insulin glargine injection in children with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an effective method of insulin substitution with increased risk of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in rare situations. The lack of subcutaneous long-acting insulin and short half-life of serum insulin increases the risk of ketosis and DKA follow...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alemzadeh R,Parton EA,Holzum MK

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • The association of self-monitoring of blood glucose use with medication adherence and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating non-insulin treatment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The value of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for persons with type 2 diabetes who do not use insulin remains controversial. This observational study compares the likelihood of medication adherence and change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) for non-insulin-using patients using SMBG versus those not using...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Virdi N,Daskiran M,Nigam S,Kozma C,Raja P

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ activity predicts progression of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ (Lp-PLA₂) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme that cleaves oxidized phosphatidylcholines, generating pro-atherosclerotic lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids. Lp-PLA₂ is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a variety of populati...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kinney GL,Snell-Bergeon JK,Maahs DM,Eckel RH,Ehrlich J,Rewers M,Hokanson JE

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cutaneous blood perfusion as a perturbing factor for noninvasive glucose monitoring.

    abstract::It is widely accepted that noninvasive glucose monitoring (NIGM) has the potential to revolutionize diabetes therapy. However, current approaches to NIGM studied to date have not yet demonstrated a level of acceptable functionality to allow real-time use, beyond restricted fields of application. A number of reviews ha...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Caduff A,Talary MS,Zakharov P

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Glycemic Variability Is Associated with Frequency of Blood Glucose Testing and Bolus: Post Hoc Analysis Results from the ProAct Study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The ProAct study has shown that a pump switch to the Accu-Chek(®) Combo system (Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) in type 1 diabetes patients results in stable glycemic control with significant improvements in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with unsatisfactory baseline HbA1c a...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Pfützner A,Weissmann J,Mougiakakou S,Daskalaki E,Weis N,Ziegler R

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Home blood glucose prediction: validation, safety, and efficacy testing in clinical diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with diabetes do daily self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). For such patients, we devised an engine that predicts not only the expected blood glucose level at the next meal but also the pending risks of hypoglycemia. The purpose of this study was to validate the predictions and provide evidence ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albisser AM,Sakkal S,Wright C

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a Nurse-Managed Insulin Infusion Protocol.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an insulin infusion protocol targeting a blood glucose (BG) level of 140-180 mg/dL and to characterize protocol adherence. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a retrospective observational cohort study including patients for whom the protocol was order...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Passarelli AJ,Gibbs H,Rowden AM,Efird L,Zink E,Mathioudakis N

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Continuous glucose monitoring and diabetes health outcomes: a critical appraisal.

    abstract::This paper presents a critical review of continuous glucose monitoring studies that address accuracy, utility in assessing glucose variability, detection of hypoglycemia for improved metabolic control or reduced glucose variability, impact on quality of life, reduced fear of hypoglycemia, and applicability in helping ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reach G

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy and Safety of Biosimilar SAR342434 Insulin Lispro in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Also Using Insulin Glargine-SORELLA 1 Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:SAR342434 is a biosimilar follow-on of insulin lispro-Humalog®. This study aimed to show similar efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SAR342434 (SAR-Lis) versus insulin lispro-Humalog (Ly-Lis) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) treated with multiple daily injections while using basal insulin gl...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Garg SK,Wernicke-Panten K,Rojeski M,Pierre S,Kirchhein Y,Jedynasty K

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • What we can really expect from telemedicine in intensive diabetes treatment: results from 3-year study on type 1 pregnant diabetic women.

    abstract::Existing standards of the management of the diabetic patients are not efficient enough, and further improvement is needed. The major objective of this paper is to present and discuss the therapeutic effectiveness of an intensive care telematic system designed and applied for intensive treatment of pregnant type 1 diab...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Wojcicki JM,Ladyzynski P,Krzymien J,Jozwicka E,Blachowicz J,Janczewska E,Czajkowski K,Karnafel W

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • A Real-World Prospective Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of the Loop Open Source Automated Insulin Delivery System.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Loop Do-It-Yourself (DIY) automated insulin delivery system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A prospective real-world observational study was conducted, which included 558 adults and children (age range 1 to 71 years, mean HbA1c 6.8±1.0%) who initiated Loop either ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lum J,Bailey R,Barnes-Lomen V,Naranjo D,Hood K,Lal RA,Arbiter B,Brown A,DeSalvo DJ,Pettus J,Calhoun P,Beck RW

    更新日期:2020-11-23 00:00:00

  • Design and Clinical Evaluation of the Interoperable Artificial Pancreas System (iAPS) Smartphone App: Interoperable Components with Modular Design for Progressive Artificial Pancreas Research and Development.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is an unmet need for a modular artificial pancreas (AP) system for clinical trials within the existing regulatory framework to further AP research projects from both academia and industry. We designed, developed, and tested the interoperable artificial pancreas system (iAPS) smartphone app that can int...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deshpande S,Pinsker JE,Zavitsanou S,Shi D,Tompot R,Church MM,Andre C,Doyle FJ 3rd,Dassau E

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluating rate of change as an index of glycemic variability, using continuous glucose monitoring data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is no consensus as to the best method to assess glycemic variability from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. Rate of change has been suggested as a preferred method of assessing glycemic variability, but this assertion has not been validated. METHODS:Forty-eight hours of CGM data were analyzed ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Whitelaw BC,Choudhary P,Hopkins D

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy and Safety of SGLT2 Inhibitors in Type 1 Diabetes After the Introduction of an Off-Label Use Protocol for Clinical Practice.

    abstract:: Aims: We evaluated the real-life efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in combination with optimized insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: This was a prospective study, including 27 patients with T1D t...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bayona Cebada A,Nattero-Chávez L,Alonso Díaz S,Escobar-Morreale HF,Luque-Ramírez M

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Combining basal insulin analogs with glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics.

    abstract::Basal insulin analogs are recognized as an effective method of achieving and maintaining glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the progressive nature of the disease means that some individuals may require additional ways to maintain their glycemic goals. Intensification in these circumstances ha...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Perfetti R

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Can continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion improve health-related quality of life in patients with Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome and diabetes?

    abstract::We report the first case of the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a patient with Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) and diabetes. An Italian boy received diagnosis of SBDS at the age of 7 months (SBDS gene mutation: c.183-184TA → CT and c.258 + 2 T → C in compound heterozygous). The patie...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terlizzi V,Zito E,Mozzillo E,Raia V,Franzese A

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Using multiple measures of glycemia to support individualized diabetes management: recommendations for clinicians, patients, and payers.

    abstract::By the year 2030, the diabetes pandemic will likely affect more than 10% of the world's population. The personal, public health, and economic crises implicit in this trend call for decisive action. Yet, escalating dilemmas thwart full realization of current therapies. First, controversial studies, such as the Action t...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hirsch IB,Amiel SA,Blumer IR,Bode BW,Edelman SV,Seley JJ,Verderese CA,Kilpatrick ES

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Reimbursement for Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    abstract::Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have been available for more than 15 years by now. However, market uptake is relatively low in most countries; in other words, relatively few patients with diabetes use CGM systems regularly. One major reason for the reluctance of patients to use CGM systems is the costs ass...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heinemann L,DeVries JH

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Oral insulin product hexyl-insulin monoconjugate 2 (HIM2) in type 1 diabetes mellitus: the glucose stabilization effects of HIM2.

    abstract::This study was designed to determine plasma glucose and insulin levels after administration of three escalating doses of the oral insulin product hexyl-insulin monoconjugate 2 (HIM2) in fasting, insulin-deprived adult patients with type 1 diabetes. The study was also designed to assess the safety of the product. Sixte...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clement S,Still JG,Kosutic G,McAllister RG

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence and Predictors of Dysglycemia and Regression to Normoglycemia in Indian Adolescents and Young Adults: 10-Year Follow-Up of the ORANGE Study.

    abstract:: Background: The prevalence of diabetes in youth is increasing worldwide in parallel with the obesity epidemic. This study aimed to determine the incidence rates of dysglycemia (diabetes or prediabetes) and evaluate the predictors of its progression or regression to normal ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mehreen TS,Kamalesh R,Pandiyan D,Kumar DS,Anjana RM,Mohan V,Ranjani H

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Active assistance technology reduces glycosylated hemoglobin and weight in individuals with type 2 diabetes: results of a theory-based randomized trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Type 2 diabetes is an individual health challenge requiring ongoing self-management. Remote patient reporting of relevant health parameters and linked automated feedback via mobile telephone have potential to strengthen self-management and improve outcomes. This research involved development and evaluation o...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Orsama AL,Lähteenmäki J,Harno K,Kulju M,Wintergerst E,Schachner H,Stenger P,Leppänen J,Kaijanranta H,Salaspuro V,Fisher WA

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of continuous glucose monitoring data from non-diabetic and diabetic children: a tale of two algorithms.

    abstract::Use of the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in non-diabetic children has revealed many low and high sensor glucose (SG) values, suggesting that the original analytical algorithm (Solutions 2.0) might be overreading glycemic excursions. A revised algorithm (Solutions 3.0) was introduced in ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinzimer SA,DeLucia MC,Boland EA,Steffen A,Tamborlane WV

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of a Collaborative Algorithm for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes during Ramadan: An Anchor on Empowerment.

    abstract::Empowerment plays significant roles in the complex management of type 2 diabetes. International guidelines have provided recommendations on management of Muslims who fast during Ramadan. However, there remains a lack of patient-centered epistemic tool to empower healthcare providers and patients in managing diabetes d...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lum ZK,See Toh WY,Lim SM,Rusli KDB,Abdul Shakoor SAKK,Tsou KYK,Chew DEK,Dalan R,Kwek SC,Othman N,Lian JX,Lee JY

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Time is glucose, can't miss gestational diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, if not treated. International guidelines recommend screening "all or high-risk women" at the initial prenatal visit, when a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 92 and 126 mg/dL is diagnostic for GDM. However, glucose testing ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Festa R,Carta M,Ceriello A,Testa R

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • The Effectiveness of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides glucose trend information that can be used to guide treatment and motivate patients with diabetes. Currently, the evidence on effectiveness of CGM in patients with type 2 diabetes is debatable. We aim to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize ...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Park C,Le QA

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Point accuracy of interstitial continuous glucose monitoring during exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies of aerobic exercise have found lower sensor accuracy during exercise. Whether or not resistance exercise would also be associated with lower sensor accuracy has not yet been examined. This study sought to investigate the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring sensor values at rest, during...

    journal_title:Diabetes technology & therapeutics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yardley JE,Sigal RJ,Kenny GP,Riddell MC,Lovblom LE,Perkins BA

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00