Liposomes for drug delivery in stroke.


:Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Due to its poor prognosis, there is a major negative impact on the patients and their family's life quality. However, despite the severity of this pathology tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA approved treatment for ischemic stroke. Moreover, there is no effective treatment for hemorrhagic stroke and only some palliative procedures are often performed to improve the patient's quality of life. Considering this, nanotechnology can offer some advantages for the development of new therapies for stroke. Among the various types of nanomaterials, liposomes are the most extensively studied due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity. Liposomes, as a drug delivery system, are able to mask therapeutic compounds and allow their passage through the blood-brain barrier. Liposomes also protect drugs from degradation in a biological environment, increasing the circulation time and accumulation in the target tissue. Hence, this review highlights the potential of liposomes applications for delivery of therapeutic compounds for treating stroke.


Brain Res Bull


Brain research bulletin


Bruch GE,Fernandes LF,Bassi BLT,Alves MTR,Pereira IO,Frézard F,Massensini AR




Has Abstract


2019-10-01 00:00:00












  • Delayed visual maturation in infants: a disorder of figure-ground separation?

    abstract::Delayed visual maturation (DVM) is characterised by visual unresponsiveness in early infancy, which subsequently improves spontaneously to normal levels. We studied the optokinetic response and recorded pattern reversal VEPs in six infants with DVM (aged 2-4 months) when they were at the stage of complete visual unres...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris CM,Kriss A,Shawkat F,Taylor D,Russell-Eggitt I

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal raphe and hippocampal transplants into adult and aged C57BL/6N mice: a preliminary immunocytochemical study.

    abstract::Fetal mouse raphe and hippocampal tissue (from embryos with crown-rump length (CRL) 13-16 mm) was transplanted into adult and aged isogenetic mice to study the growth of serotonergic fibers between host and donor tissue. A specific antibody against serotonin (5-HT) was used to immunocytochemically visualize 5-HT conta...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Azmitia EC,Perlow MJ,Brennan MJ,Lauder JM

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Brain beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in adult rats given beta-endorphin neonatally.

    abstract::beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay in the brains of adult rats treated neonatally with beta-endorphin, naloxone, or vehicle. After treatment with beta-endorphin, the decreases observed in beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, pineal, midbrain, pons-medulla, hippoc...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moldow RL,Kastin AJ,Hollander CS,Coy DH,Sandman CA

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Integrated metabolic control of food intake.

    abstract::Inhibition of glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation by combined treatment with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and methyl palmoxirate, or inhibition of glycolysis and lipolysis by combined treatment with 2DG and nicotonic acid synergistically increased food intake in rats. Methyl palmoxirate treatment alone increased food intake i...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedman MI,Tordoff MG,Ramirez I

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • The history of the Golgi apparatus in neurones from its discovery in 1898 to electron microscopy.

    abstract::We celebrate in 1998 the centenary of the discovery of the Golgi apparatus. Neurones have played a special role in the history of this cell organelle, primarily because the endocellular apparatus was discovered in nerve cells by Camillo Golgi when he was studying the cerebellum of an owl. In the following years, the a...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dröscher A

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Lesions dorsal to the suprachiasmatic nuclei abolish split activity rhythms of hamsters.

    abstract::Constant light exposure (LL) can result in "splitting" of circadian rhythms into two components coupled about 12 hr apart. Splitting has been interpreted as evidence for the presence of two main oscillators or groups of oscillators underlying circadian rhythms. Abolition of splitting after unilateral suprachiasmatic n...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrington ME,Eskes GA,Dickson P,Rusak B

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAr) administration reduces cerebral ischemic damage in the Mongolian gerbil.

    abstract::Cerebral ischemic damage in gerbils was assessed by locomotor activity studies and histopathological examination of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Pretreatment with AICAr (50 and 500 mg/kg) 30 min prior to a 5-min ischemic episode in unanesthetized gerbils, significantly attenuated the degree of ischemic ne...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clough-Helfman C,Phillis JW

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in hippocampal theta following intrahippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) infusions in the rat.

    abstract::Hippocampal theta activity is a large amplitude, sinusoidal wave that occurs during attentive immobility and exploratory behaviour in the rat, and it is thought to be involved in memory formation. Recent reports suggest that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has pro-mnemonic effects in rodents. Because memory-enha...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kortekaas R,Costall B,Smythe JW

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperthermic effect of prostacyclin injected into the third cerebral ventricle of the cat.

    abstract::Prostaglandin E2 may not be solely responsible for hyperthermia produced by central administration of sodium arachidonate. To determine its effect, if any, on body temperature prostacyclin sodium salt, another product of prostaglandin endoperoxides, was injected into the third cerebral ventricle of unrestrained, unane...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clark WG,Lipton JM

    更新日期:1979-01-01 00:00:00

  • 5-HT immunoreactive hypothalamic neurons in rat and cat after 5-HTP administration.

    abstract::Using immunohistochemistry for serotonin (5-HT) after administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), we have demonstrated the existence of a particular group of 5-HT accumulating neurons in the posterior hypothalamus of the rat and cat. This cluster of neurons, which we termed "5-HT immunoreactive (IR) posterior hypot...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sakumoto T,Sakai K,Jouvet M,Kimura H,Maeda T

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Early exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A affects socio-sexual behavior of juvenile female rats.

    abstract::Play behavior is affected by alteration of the hormonal environment during development. In fact, congenital adrenal hyperplasia or early administration of diethylstilbestrol are able to modify female play behavior in mammals. In this research, play behavior of female rats was used to explore the effects of perinatal e...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Porrini S,Belloni V,Della Seta D,Farabollini F,Giannelli G,Dessì-Fulgheri F

    更新日期:2005-04-15 00:00:00

  • Conditioned place-preference analysis in the goldfish with the H1 histamine antagonist chlorpheniramine.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate whether the histamine H1-receptor blocker, chlorpheniramine (CPA), has a reinforcing effect in goldfish. We used a place-preference procedure in an aquarium with two chambers colored black and white. On day 1, the animals were placed in the test chamber for 10 min for habituati...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mattioli R,Nelson CA,Huston JP,Spieler RE

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dopamine in the hippocampal dentate gyrus modulates spatial learning via D1-like receptors.

    abstract::Increasing evidence supports that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the hippocampal function via activation of D1-like receptors (D1Rs). As the entry structure of the hippocampal formation, the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is critically involved in spatial learning and memory. Despite a number of studies inve...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang F,Wan P,Wang W,Xiao B,Jin H,Jin Q

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological and pathological roles of the γ-secretase complex.

    abstract::Gamma-secretase (GS) is an enzyme complex that cleaves numerous substrates, and it is best known for cleaving amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Aberrant cleavage of APP can lead to Alzheimer's disease, so much research has been done to better understand GS structure and function in ho...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carroll CM,Li YM

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Role of P2 receptors in normal brain development and in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.

    abstract::The purinergic signaling system, including P2 receptors, plays an important role in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Over the last few decades, a substantial amount of accumulated data suggest that most P2 receptor subtypes (P2X1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7, and P2Y1, 2, 6, 12, and 13) regulate neuronal/neurogli...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Huang L,Otrokocsi L,Sperlágh B

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro autoradiographic localization of 5-HT1A receptor-activated G-proteins in the rat brain.

    abstract::Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. Receptor activation of G-proteins can be determined by agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in the presence of excess GDP, and in vitro autoradiographic adaptation of this technique allows visualization of receptor-activated G-pr...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sim LJ,Xiao R,Childers SR

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Studies of the slow bidirectional transport of iron and transferrin across the blood-brain barrier.

    abstract::Although iron is involved in brain function, very little is known about the regulation of its concentrations in the central nervous system. We quantitatively measured the entry and exit rates of iron, transferrin (its major transport protein), and albumin in mice. The blood to brain transport of iron greater than tran...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Banks WA,Kastin AJ,Fasold MB,Barrera CM,Augereau G

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleus accumbens neuronal activity in freely behaving rats is modulated following acute and chronic methylphenidate administration.

    abstract::Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant that enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system by using mechanisms similar to cocaine and amphetamine. The mode of action of brain circuitry responsible for an animal's neuronal response to MPD is not fully understood. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) h...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chong SL,Claussen CM,Dafny N

    更新日期:2012-03-10 00:00:00

  • Effects of intraamygdaloid microinjections of acylated-ghrelin on liquid food intake of rats.

    abstract::Ghrelin (Ghr) has two main forms in the blood: the acylated (A-Ghr) and non-acylated (NA-Ghr) Ghr. A-Ghr was discovered as a potent growth hormone (GH) secretion increasing substance acting on GH secretagouge receptor (GHS-R) type 1a. A-Ghr facilitates food intake after its i.p., i.c.v. or direct hypothalamic applicat...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tóth K,László K,Bagi EE,Lukács E,Lénárd L

    更新日期:2008-09-30 00:00:00

  • A modified horizontal capillary puller for fabrication of patch-clamp pipettes.

    abstract::A simple low-cost modification to a conventional horizontal two-stage micropipette puller is described. It allows the production of pipettes suitable for patch-clamp studies. It requires that the hard-pull stage of the fabrication process be disabled and two heating cycles, each with a different heating filament tempe...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mealing GA,Schwartz JL

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals oxidative phosphorylation activation in an adolescent social isolation rat model.

    abstract::Complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors exert a sustained influence on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Adolescent social isolation is regarded as a typical paradigm for SCZ. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, adolescent Sprague-Dawle...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun L,Min L,Li M,Shao F,Wang W

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Short-term green tea supplementation prevents recognition memory deficits and ameliorates hippocampal oxidative stress induced by different stroke models in rats.

    abstract::This study investigated the effect of green tea (GT) on short and long term declarative memory and oxidative damage induced by transient ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 according the stroke type induced: Sham IR, Sham IR+GT, IR, IR...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Altermann CDC,Souza MA,Schimidt HL,Izaguirry AP,Martins A,Garcia A,Santos FW,Mello-Carpes PB

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Guanosine protects against behavioural and mitochondrial bioenergetic alterations after mild traumatic brain injury.

    abstract::Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous cerebral insult induced by traumatic biomechanical forces. Mitochondria play a critical role in brain bioenergetics, and TBI induces several consequences related with oxidative stress and excitotoxicity clearly demonstrated in different experimental model involv...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Courtes AA,Gonçalves DF,Hartmann DD,da Rosa PC,Cassol G,Royes LFF,de Carvalho NR,Soares FAA

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • The neurobiologic consequences of Down syndrome.

    abstract::Trisomy of the whole or distal part of human chromosome 21 (HSA 21) (Ts21) results in Down Syndrome (DS), which is characterized in part by mental retardation and associated neurological abnormalities. Structural abnormalities observed frequently include reduced brain weight, decreased number and depth of sulci in the...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Coyle JT,Oster-Granite ML,Gearhart JD

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dose-dependent brainstem neuropathology following repeated arteether administration in rats.

    abstract::Histopathological effects of the artemisinin antimalarial, beta-arteether, were evaluated in rats. Arteether (3.125-12.5 mg/kg/day, IM, in sesame oil) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Seven days following the last injection, histological evaluation of the brainstem was performed. Rats treated with 12.5 mg/kg s...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Genovese RF,Newman DB,Li Q,Peggins JO,Brewer TG

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evolutionary development of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) systems in vertebrates.

    abstract::Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the neuropeptide that links the brain to the reproductive system. Most vertebrate species express two forms of GnRH, which differ in amino acid sequence, localization, distribution, and embryological origin. The GnRH system in the ventral forebrain produces a species-specific G...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dubois EA,Zandbergen MA,Peute J,Goos HJ

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Widespread dopaminergic projections of the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus in the rat.

    abstract::The subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (Spf) contains a substantial number of dopaminergic neurons. The present study was designed to investigate in the rat whether or not Spf neurons projecting to a variety of central nervous system structures are dopaminergic. The following eight structures were tested for projectio...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takada M

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Beta-endorphin injected into the nucleus of the raphe magnus facilitates metastatic tumor growth.

    abstract::Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray of the rat's midbrain analgesia leads to an increase in the number of artificial pulmonary metastases from the Walker 256 tumor. In an effort to investigate the influence of the pain suppression system and its associated peptides on this phenomenon, we activated the pa...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simon RH,Arbo TE,Lundy J

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Increased levels of mRNA for beta- but not alpha-subunit of calmodulin kinase II following kindled seizures.

    abstract::We studied levels of mRNA for the alpha- and beta-subunits of calmodulin (CaM) kinase II using the amygdaloid kindling model of epilepsy. There were significant increases in mRNA for the beta-subunit of CaM kinase II in the hippocampus 4-24 h after stage 5-kindled seizures. Moreover, this mRNA was significantly increa...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morimoto K,Sato K,Kashihara K,Hayabara T

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of lithium chloride on the activity of the afferent nerve fibers from the abdominal visceral organs in the rat.

    abstract::The effect of lithium chloride on the activity of the afferent nerve fibers from the abdominal organs was studied in anesthetized rats. The administration of the lithium chloride solution (0.15 M) over the mesentery increased afferent discharge rate of the splanchnic and vagal gastric nerve. Injection of the same solu...

    journal_title:Brain research bulletin

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Niijima A,Yamamoto T

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00