Interaction effects may actually be nonlinear effects in disguise: A review of the problem and potential solutions.


:It is common in addictions research for statistical analyses to include interaction effects to test moderation hypotheses. Far less commonly do researchers consider the possibility that a given predictor may exert a nonlinear effect on the outcome. This lack of attention to the possible nonlinear effects of individual predictors is problematic because it may result in identification of entirely spurious interactions with other, correlated predictors. Given the commonplace practice of testing interactions, and the rarity of testing nonlinear effects, we speculate that some of the significant interactions reported in the literature may actually be spurious, reflecting only the misspecification of nonlinear effects. We outline the mathematical reasons for this problem using the relatively simple case of a quadratic regression model. Within this context, prior research by Busemeyer and Jones (1983) clearly demonstrated that quadratic effects of individual predictors can masquerade as interaction effects between correlated predictors. Furthermore, the explosive growth of mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation analyses in behavioral research makes this issue especially relevant for researchers of addiction. In this article, we (1) call further attention to the potential problems of omitting nonlinear effects in linear regression, (2) extend these findings to the more complex moderated mediation model, and (3) provide practical recommendations for applied researchers for differentiating nonlinear from interactive effects.


Addict Behav


Addictive behaviors


Belzak WCM,Bauer DJ




Has Abstract


2019-07-01 00:00:00












  • Assessment of nicotine dependence among adolescent and young adult smokers: a comparison of measures.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Tobacco use often starts in adolescence, yet assessment of dependence among adolescent smokers remains a challenge, particularly given the potential discord between self-reports of smoking behavior and actual use. We could find no prior study, among adolescents, that directly compares the association betwe...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Carpenter MJ,Baker NL,Gray KM,Upadhyaya HP

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking in African American women: an integrative review.

    abstract::Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not con...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mickens L,Ameringer K,Brightman M,Leventhal AM

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differences between abstinent and non-abstinent individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Non-abstinent goals can improve quality of life (QOL) among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, prior studies have defined "recovery" based on DSM criteria, and thus may have excluded individuals using non-abstinent techniques that do not involve reduced drinking. Furthermore, no prior stu...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subbaraman MS,Witbrodt J

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Psychological and behavioural factors associated with relapse among heroin abusers treated in therapeutic communities.

    abstract::The authors carried out a comparative study on two groups of heroin abusers treated in several therapeutic communities: One group consumed heroin on at least three occasions between the fifth and sixth months of treatment (n = 130), and the other continued without consuming heroin after 7 months of treatment (n = 130)...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Llorente del Pozo JM,Fernández Gómez C,Gutiérrez Fraile M,Vielva Pérez I

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Gene-environment interplay and the importance of self-control in predicting polydrug use and substance-related problems.

    abstract::Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the current study applies a general biosocial theoretical model to polydrug use and associated substance-related problems. Along with measures of molecular genetic polymorphisms, neurocognitive skills, self-control, and environmental pathogens a ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaughn MG,Beaver KM,DeLisi M,Perron BE,Schelbe L

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Psychosocial functioning among college students who misuse stimulants versus other drugs.

    abstract::The misuse of prescription stimulants (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall) is a large and growing problem on college campuses. Emerging research examines not only the demographic predictors of stimulant misuse but also the potentially role that stimulant misuse plays in a college student's overall functioning and mental health. ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cole VT,Hussong AM

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Craving patterns in methadone maintenance treatment with dextromoramide as adjuvant.

    abstract::A study was performed to establish the effect on opiate craving among six long-term opiate-dependent subjects in methadone maintenance treatment. Subjects currently stabilised on methadone, received 5 or 10 mg dextromoramide besides methadone. During the study the usual methadone dose was diminished according to the i...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Vos JW,Ufkes JG,van den Brink W,van Brussel GH,de Wolff FA

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking-related weight control expectancies among African American light smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.

    abstract::Concern about weight gain following smoking cessation has been frequently described in the literature. However, little is known about smoking-related weight expectancies among African American, light smokers (defined as < or = 10 cigarettes per day [CPD] for > 25 of last 30 days). Given the high rate of obesity among ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Thomas J,Pulvers K,Befort C,Berg C,Okuyemi KS,Mayo M,Nazir N,Ahluwalia JS

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with successful vs. unsuccessful smoking cessation: Data from a nationally representative study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:A substantial proportion of smokers who attempt to stop smoking relapse in the first months. Yet to date, there is limited understanding of the predictors of smoking attempts and their success. We examine the role of tobacco use characteristics, other substance-related factors, as well as socio-demographic...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El-Khoury Lesueur F,Bolze C,Melchior M

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol content variation in the assessment of alcohol consumption.

    abstract::Most investigators have not adequately accounted for the alcohol content of different beverages when assessing alcohol consumption. Considerable research has assessed consumption in terms of the number of standard drinks. A problem with standard drink measures is that different distilled spirits, wines, and malt bever...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin CS,Nirenberg TD

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gender, smoking status, and risk behavior attitudes explain adolescents' patterns of nicotine replacement therapy use.

    abstract::Treatment studies provide minimal support for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with youth; however, survey studies suggest that adolescents use NRT, and may engage in inappropriate use. The current study sought to examine patterns of NRT use and risk factors for use to further aid smoking cessation efforts including...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalton WT 3rd,Klesges LM,Henderson L,Somes G,Robinson L,Johnson KC

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to sorority alcohol consumption.

    abstract::Greek-affiliated college students have been found to drink more heavily and frequently than other students. With female student drinking on the rise over the past decade, sorority women may be at particular risk for heavy consumption patterns. The current study is the first to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Huchting K,Lac A,LaBrie JW

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students.

    abstract::Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-rela...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rinker DV,Neighbors C

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A review about its efficacy in the treatment of alcohol, tobacco and cocaine addiction.

    abstract::Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is a chronic and relapsing disease characterized by craving, loss of control, tolerance and physical dependence. At present, the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial intervention is the most effective management strategy in preventing relapse to reduce dropout rates and promote ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Antonelli M,Fattore L,Sestito L,Di Giuda D,Diana M,Addolorato G

    更新日期:2021-03-01 00:00:00

  • Substance use and impulsive behaviors among adolescents with eating disorders.

    abstract::Results of past research suggest that the existence of bulimic behaviors (binge eating and/or purging) may be an indicator of increased likelihood of substance use. We investigated incidence of substance use among adolescent girls (mean age = 15.4 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 59) or bulimia nervosa (n = 58). The ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wiederman MW,Pryor T

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • The addict's perceptions of their own drug-taking: implications for the treatment of drug dependence.

    abstract::The attitudes, beliefs and expectations of the addict have received surprisingly little research attention. The present study looks at the relationship between the addict's perception of their own drug taking and their behaviour in treatment. The subjects who took part in the study were receiving treatment at a London...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gossop M,Eiser JR,Ward E

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cocaine use associated with increased suicidal behavior in depressed alcoholics.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to determine whether depressed alcoholics who used cocaine would display a higher prevalence of suicidal behavior and suicidal ideation than depressed alcoholics who did not use cocaine. Forty-one depressed alcoholics participated in this prospective study of consecutively admitted inpatients...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornelius JR,Thase ME,Salloum IM,Cornelius MD,Black A,Mann JJ

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • An event- and network-level analysis of college students' maximum drinking day.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Heavy episodic drinking is common among college students and remains a serious public health issue. Previous event-level research among college students has examined behaviors and individual-level characteristics that drive consumption and related consequences but often ignores the social network of people w...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meisel MK,DiBello AM,Balestrieri SG,Ott MQ,DiGuiseppi GT,Clark MA,Barnett NP

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Similarities and bi-directional influences regarding alcohol consumption in adolescent sibling pairs.

    abstract::Ample studies have established that parents as well as peers function as role models in the development of adolescents' alcohol use. The role of siblings, however, has been largely neglected despite the long-term nature of a sibling relationship. The present study examined the impact of siblings on drinking behavior o...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Der Vorst H,Engels RC,Meeus W,Deković M,Van Leeuwe J

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Can persons with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes benefit from technology delivered behavior therapy? A moderating role of treatment history at baseline.

    abstract::A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kim SJ,Marsch LA,Acosta MC,Guarino H,Aponte-Melendez Y

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Complaints that predict drop-out from a detoxification and counselling unit.

    abstract::Sixty-one consecutive clients in a multidrug addiction detoxification and counselling unit were interviewed by their medical counsellor about bodily pain, distress, and coherence in their life. Clients who did not complete the 3-week postdetoxification program reported a higher level of fatigue and difficulties with c...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berg JE,Brevik JI

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid resumption of cigarette smoking following myocardial infarction: inverse relation to MI severity.

    abstract::In order to identify factors associated with relapse to cigarette smoking, medical and interview data were collected from 66 chronic smokers hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (MI). Relapse to smoking during the in-hospital recovery period was prevalent (38% of patients). The major correlate of smoking relap...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baile WF Jr,Bigelow GE,Gottlieb SH,Stitzer ML,Sacktor JD

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • No evidence of compensatory drug use risk behavior among heroin users after receiving take-home naloxone.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Some fear that distribution of naloxone to persons at risk of experiencing an opioid overdose may reduce the perceived negative consequences of drug use, leading to riskier patterns of use. This study assessed whether participation in naloxone/overdose training altered drug use frequency, quantity or sever...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones JD,Campbell A,Metz VE,Comer SD

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • HIV infection and high-risk behaviors in opioid dependent patients: the Indian context.

    abstract::Various risk behaviors promote the spread of HIV in drug addicts. Reflecting the substantial regional and geographic differences in the impact of HIV, its prevalence rates vary from country to country. In view of increasing reports of injection drug-uses (IDUs) from different parts of India, the study was aimed to exa...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaswani M,Desai NG

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Statistical definition of relapse: case of family drug court.

    abstract::At any point in time, a patient's return to drug use can be seen either as a temporary event or as a return to persistent use. There is no formal standard for distinguishing persistent drug use from an occasional relapse. This lack of standardization persists although the consequences of either interpretation can be l...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alemi F,Haack M,Nemes S

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • A bi-directional theory of addiction: examining coping and the factors related to substance relapse.

    abstract::The results from this study supported a bi-directional theory of addiction for a sample of Black, inner-city, working-class, male substance abusers. Using structural equations modeling, at 6 months posttreatment we found that (a) the reciprocal effect emotional and psychological distress and substance relapse had on o...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castellani B,Wedgeworth R,Wootton E,Rugle L

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Household survey on drug abuse in Brazil: study involving the 107 major cities of the country--2001.

    abstract::The prevalence of the use in Brazil of illicit drugs, as well as of alcohol and tobacco, was determined. Further, illicit use of psychotropic medicines, and anabolic steroids were also surveyed. This study was carried out in 107 Brazilian cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants aged 12-65 years. The sampling design ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galduróz JC,Noto AR,Nappo SA,Carlini EA

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescents' self-defined tobacco use status, marijuana use, and tobacco dependence.

    abstract:AIMS:To examine differences in tobacco use and dependence between adolescents who are and are not marijuana users. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis of existing survey data. PARTICIPANTS:Data were obtained from 7440 adolescents who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II (BCYSOSH-II), a sch...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okoli CTC,Richardson CG,Ratner PA,Johnson JL

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol cue reactivity and ad lib drinking in young men at risk for alcoholism.

    abstract::Individuals at high risk for alcoholism have been hypothesized to acquire alcoholic characteristics more rapidly than those at low risk. Two studies examined reactivity to alcohol cues, a phenomenon linked to craving for alcohol in clinical alcoholics, and ad lib drinking behavior in young men at varying risk for alco...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walitzer KS,Sher KJ

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interpersonal and intrapersonal emotional processes in individuals treated for alcohol use disorder and non-addicted healthy individuals.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Prior work largely confirms the presence of various emotional processing deficits among individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, their specificity and relevance still warrant investigation. The aim of the current study was to compare selected aspects of emotional processing (i.e., mental st...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kopera M,Trucco EM,Jakubczyk A,Suszek H,Michalska A,Majewska A,Szejko N,Łoczewska A,Krasowska A,Klimkiewicz A,Brower KJ,Zucker RA,Wojnar M

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00