Interaction effects may actually be nonlinear effects in disguise: A review of the problem and potential solutions.


:It is common in addictions research for statistical analyses to include interaction effects to test moderation hypotheses. Far less commonly do researchers consider the possibility that a given predictor may exert a nonlinear effect on the outcome. This lack of attention to the possible nonlinear effects of individual predictors is problematic because it may result in identification of entirely spurious interactions with other, correlated predictors. Given the commonplace practice of testing interactions, and the rarity of testing nonlinear effects, we speculate that some of the significant interactions reported in the literature may actually be spurious, reflecting only the misspecification of nonlinear effects. We outline the mathematical reasons for this problem using the relatively simple case of a quadratic regression model. Within this context, prior research by Busemeyer and Jones (1983) clearly demonstrated that quadratic effects of individual predictors can masquerade as interaction effects between correlated predictors. Furthermore, the explosive growth of mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation analyses in behavioral research makes this issue especially relevant for researchers of addiction. In this article, we (1) call further attention to the potential problems of omitting nonlinear effects in linear regression, (2) extend these findings to the more complex moderated mediation model, and (3) provide practical recommendations for applied researchers for differentiating nonlinear from interactive effects.


Addict Behav


Addictive behaviors


Belzak WCM,Bauer DJ




Has Abstract


2019-07-01 00:00:00












  • Mapping Internet gaming disorder using effective connectivity: A spectral dynamic causal modeling study.

    abstract:OBJECTS:Understanding the neural basis underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this type of behavioural addiction. Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the default mode network (DMN) has been reported in individuals with IGD. Since rsFC is not a dire...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang M,Zheng H,Du X,Dong G

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of executive function in bridging the intention-behaviour gap for binge-drinking in university students.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Alcohol consumption contributes to a significant proportion of disease and the high prevalence amongst young adults is a worldwide health concern. PURPOSE:To determine which aspects of executive function (EF) distinguish binge-drinkers from non binge-drinkers and to establish the role of EF in predicting be...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mullan B,Wong C,Allom V,Pack SL

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fluctuations in progesterone moderate the relationship between daily mood and alcohol use in young adult women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Research has demonstrated associations between hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle and women's alcohol use. This association has been explained by mood changes that, for some women, accompany decreasing levels of progesterone during the menstrual cycle, particularly during the late luteal/premen...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holzhauer CG,Wemm SE,Wulfert E,Cao ZT

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    abstract::The cross-sectional study assessed the associations among smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and psychiatric symptoms in 88 chronic schizophrenic outpatients with a stable psychic condition. Among the 49 smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with the severity of cognitive sy...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taiminen TJ,Salokangas RK,Saarijärvi S,Niemi H,Lehto H,Ahola V,Syvälahti E

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Psychosocial correlates in treatment seeking gamblers: Differences in early age onset gamblers vs later age onset gamblers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Age of onset is an important factor in the development and trajectory of psychiatric disorders; however, little is known regarding the age of onset in relation to disordered gambling in treatment seeking samples in the UK. Utilising a large residential treatment seeking gambler cohort, the current study exam...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharman S,Murphy R,Turner J,Roberts A

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with weight change among clients of a residential weight control program indicating binge and nonbinge traits.

    abstract::The long-term effects of a 12- and 26-day residential weight control program on weight change were determined in 187 men and women, 1 to 5 years after treatment. Subjects completed a paper/pencil questionnaire assessing current diet, weight control techniques, exercise behaviors, behavior modification techniques, bing...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DiGioacchino R,Sargent R,Rankin HJ,Sharpe P,Miller P,Hussey JR,Tafakoli AS

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • The role of cognitive structure in college student problem drinking.

    abstract::Although motivational models of alcohol use often invoke constructs relevant to affective distress (e.g., depressive symptoms), to date, no study has assessed the potential role of cognitive structures (enduring cognitive belief systems) in promoting problematic drinking behavior. Thus, the current study evaluated the...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heinz AJ,Veilleux JC,Kassel JD

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing the relationship between youth religiosity and their alcohol use: A meta-analysis from 2008 to 2018.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Underage alcohol use, and associated deleterious consequences, persists as a serious public health issue. In particular, early initiation of alcohol use increases risk for the development of alcohol use disorders later on in life. Religiosity - a multidimensional construct, encompassing personal beliefs, comm...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Russell AM,Yu B,Thompson CG,Sussman SY,Barry AE

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Burnout and alcohol problems among urban transit operators in San Francisco.

    abstract::Although occupational burnout has been linked with numerous psychosomatic symptoms and mental health problems, few studies have examined the association between burnout and substance use. This study assessed the contribution of burnout (Emotional Exhaustion--Maslach Burnout Inventory) to the risk of alcohol dependence...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cunradi CB,Greiner BA,Ragland DR,Fisher JM

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • An ecological momentary intervention for smoking cessation: The associations of just-in-time, tailored messages with lapse risk factors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Smartphone apps can provide real-time, tailored interventions for smoking cessation. The current study examines the effectiveness of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application that assessed risk for imminent smoking lapse multiple times per day and provided messages tailored to current smoking lapse ri...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hébert ET,Stevens EM,Frank SG,Kendzor DE,Wetter DW,Zvolensky MJ,Buckner JD,Businelle MS

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Volition and alcohol-risk reduction: the role of action orientation in the reduction of alcohol-related harm among college student drinkers.

    abstract::The present study examined the role of action orientation in health behavior change. Eighty-six binge drinking college students completed measures of alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences (e.g., driving drunk), motivation to change drinking, and action orientation. Alcohol use and consequences were reassessed 1 mo...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palfai TP,McNally AM,Roy M

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Menthol cigarette smoking is associated with greater subjective reward, satisfaction, and "throat hit", but not greater behavioral economic demand.

    abstract:AIMS:The cooling and minty flavor of menthol in cigarettes has been hypothesized to mask the harshness of inhaled cigarette smoke, contributing to menthol's appeal and subjective reinforcement and linking menthol use to smoking initiation, progression, nicotine dependence, and difficulty quitting. This study examined d...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohn AM,Ganz O,Dennhardt AA,Murphy JG,Ehlke S,Cha S,Graham AL

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cigarette and alcohol use in the UK Armed Forces, and their association with combat exposures: a prospective study.

    abstract::Retrospective studies of military personnel and survivors of community disasters suggest a link between traumatic exposure and substance use. This is the first study to investigate this association prospectively in a military population. A representative cohort of members of the UK Armed Forces was recruited into a lo...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hooper R,Rona RJ,Jones M,Fear NT,Hull L,Wessely S

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Religiosity, social support, and smoking cessation among urban African American smokers.

    abstract::This study examined the relationship between religiosity, social support, and gender on smoking cessation among a sample of 498 urban African American smokers using the nicotine patch. Smoking status and social support were assessed at baseline, week 4, and month 6, while religiosity was assessed only at baseline. Log...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nollen NL,Catley D,Davies G,Hall M,Ahluwalia JS

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a junior high school primary prevention program.

    abstract::A two-year primary prevention program for junior high school students was evaluated. The program consisted of drug education, "alternatives," and affective in- service training for the students' teachers. Students in one junior high school received the intervention and students in another school served as a no-treatme...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Moskowitz JM,Malvin J,Schaeffer GA,Schaps E

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Treatment studies provide minimal support for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with youth; however, survey studies suggest that adolescents use NRT, and may engage in inappropriate use. The current study sought to examine patterns of NRT use and risk factors for use to further aid smoking cessation efforts including...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalton WT 3rd,Klesges LM,Henderson L,Somes G,Robinson L,Johnson KC

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Several procedures have been developed to measure body image distortion. A recently developed device is the Body Image Detection Device (BIDD), which includes a measure of perceptual size distortion (BPI) and subjective ratings of relative weight (SRI). Initial studies have supported the validity and reliability of th...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Mizes JS

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study.

    abstract:AIMS:To explore reciprocal relationships between real-time gambling cravings and self-efficacy with gambling behaviour, and the moderating role of gambling, mental health, and addiction-related variables. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of a 4-week Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study conducted in Tasmania, Australia...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hawker CO,Merkouris SS,Youssef GJ,Dowling NA

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Response perseveration and adaptation in heavy marijuana-smoking adolescents.

    abstract::The present study examined two behavioral processes - response perseveration and response adaptation - in adolescents who were heavy marijuana smokers and control adolescents. Testing took place in a controlled laboratory setting, using customized software and either a computer keyboard or a custom built response pane...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lane SD,Cherek DR,Tcheremissine OV,Steinberg JL,Sharon JL

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Intervention defensiveness as a moderator of drinking outcome among heavy-drinking mandated college students.

    abstract::The efficacy of the Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP; Miller, et al., 2000) was evaluated in 204 heavy-drinking college students randomly assigned to either ASTP (n=119) or an assessment-only control (n=85) condition. The volunteer ASTP sample (n=119) was also compared to a sample of students mandated to ASTP fol...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palmer RS,Kilmer JR,Ball SA,Larimer ME

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent cannabis use disorder with N-Acetylcysteine.

    abstract::Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disru...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomko RL,Gilmore AK,Gray KM

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic influences on craving for alcohol.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Craving is being considered for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) DSM-5. However, little is known of its genetic underpinnings - specifically, whether genetic influences on craving are distinct from those influencing DSM-IV alcohol dependence. METHOD:Analyses were conducted in a sam...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agrawal A,Wetherill L,Bucholz KK,Kramer J,Kuperman S,Lynskey MT,Nurnberger JI Jr,Schuckit M,Tischfield JA,Edenberg HJ,Foroud T,Bierut LJ

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep and behavioral control in earlier life predicted resilience in young adulthood: A prospective study of children of alcoholics and controls.

    abstract:AIMS:Children of alcoholics (COAs) are at higher risk for developing an alcohol use disorder and substance-related problems than non-COAs. This study examined (i) the relationships between sleep rhythmicity in childhood (aged 3-5) and behavioral control in adolescence (aged 9-14) and (ii) whether sleep rhythmicity and ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong MM,Puttler LI,Nigg JT,Zucker RA

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students.

    abstract::This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. Based on a study of levels of alcohol consumption (Spada & Moneta, 2004), it was hypothesized that the association between negative emotions and ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brar A,Moneta GB

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A review about its efficacy in the treatment of alcohol, tobacco and cocaine addiction.

    abstract::Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is a chronic and relapsing disease characterized by craving, loss of control, tolerance and physical dependence. At present, the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial intervention is the most effective management strategy in preventing relapse to reduce dropout rates and promote ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Antonelli M,Fattore L,Sestito L,Di Giuda D,Diana M,Addolorato G

    更新日期:2021-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ward atmosphere changes during restructuring of an alcoholism treatment center. A quasi-experimental study.

    abstract::At an Alcoholism Treatment Center which was under restructuring, the Ward Atmosphere Scale (WAS) was used to study the effect of changes on the climate of two wards. Before implementation, after the first phase of changes one year later, and after the second phase changes a year later, patients (n1 = 19, n2 = 16, n3 =...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eriksen L

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. METHODS:Adult e-cigar...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morean ME,Wedel AV

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Depression among regular heroin users: the influence of gender.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of recent (last 12 months) depression in regular young heroin users and to ascertain factors associated with depression in this population, broken down by gender. A sample of 561 participants completed a cross-sectional survey. Eligibility criteria were: age 30 yea...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sordo L,Chahua M,Bravo MJ,Barrio G,Brugal MT,Domingo-Salvany A,Molist G,De la Fuente L,ITINERE Project Group.

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Associations between the stages of change and the pros and cons of smoking in a longitudinal study of Swiss smokers.

    abstract::To develop effective smoking prevention interventions, we need to identify modifiable variables, such as the "pros and cons" of smoking, that predict self-initiated smoking cessation. Our objective was to assess associations between the pros and cons of smoking and the stages of change, both cross-sectionally and long...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Etter JF,Perneger TV

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of craving and emotional states between pathological gamblers and alcoholics.

    abstract::Fifty pathological gamblers and 42 alcohol dependent subjects were compared regarding craving, emotional states and social functioning. Subjects self-rated their cravings using the Weiss Craving Scale (WCS) and the Pennsylvania Craving Scale (PCS). Subjects answered a semi-structured interview, the Positive and Negati...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Castro V,Fong T,Rosenthal RJ,Tavares H

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00