Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances spatial learning and synaptic plasticity via the VEGF and BDNF-NMDAR pathways in a rat model of vascular dementia.


:This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on learning and memory in a rat model of vascular dementia (VaD) and to analyze the associated mechanisms. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) was used to establish a rat model of VaD. High-frequency (5Hz) rTMS was performed on rats for four weeks. Spatial learning and memory abilities were evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM), and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus was assessed via long-term potentiation (LTP). Hippocampal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and three subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), NR1, NR2A and NR2B, was analyzed by Western blotting. Compared with the VaD group, escape latency was decreased (P<0.05) and the time spent in the target quadrant and the percentage of swimming distance within that quadrant were increased (P<0.05) in the rTMS group. LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses was enhanced by rTMS (P<0.05). VEGF expression was up-regulated following 2-VO and was further increased by rTMS (P<0.05). BDNF, NR1 and NR2B expression was decreased in the VaD group and increased by rTMS (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in NR2A expression among the three groups. These results suggest that rTMS improved learning and memory in the VaD model rats via the up-regulation of VEGF, BDNF and NMDARs. In addition, NR2B may be more important than NR2A for LTP induction in the hippocampus during rTMS treatment of VaD.






Zhang N,Xing M,Wang Y,Tao H,Cheng Y




Has Abstract


2015-12-17 00:00:00












  • Estrogen modulates spontaneous alternation and the cholinergic phenotype in the basal forebrain.

    abstract::We report that a small population of neurons expresses both choline acetyltransferase and classical estrogen receptor immunoreactivity and they are found primarily in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. In short-term ovariectomized ageing mice (24 months, n = 5) there were 41.0 +/- 4.1% fewer of these double-labe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller MM,Hyder SM,Assayag R,Panarella SR,Tousignant P,Franklin KB

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Response to Hypoxic Preconditioning of Glial Cells from the Roof of the Fourth Ventricle.

    abstract::The cerebellum harbors a specialized area on the roof of the fourth ventricle that is composed of glial cells and neurons that interface with the cerebrospinal fluid. This region includes the so-called ventromedial cord (VMC), which is composed of cells that are glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive and nest...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Becerra-González M,Varman Durairaj R,Ostos Valverde A,Gualda EJ,Loza-Alvarez P,Portillo Martínez W,Gómez-González GB,Buffo A,Martínez-Torres A

    更新日期:2020-07-15 00:00:00

  • Chronic tooth pulp inflammation induces persistent expression of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated p38 (pp38) in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase are transiently phosphorylated (activated) in the spinal cord and trigeminal nucleus by acute noxious stimuli. Acute stimulation of dental pulp induces short-lived ERK activation in trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), and p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Worsley MA,Allen CE,Billinton A,King AE,Boissonade FM

    更新日期:2014-06-06 00:00:00

  • Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder are deficient in a visuo-manual tracking task requiring predictive control.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine how feedback, or its absence, affects children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during a visuo-manual tracking task. This cross-sectional study included 40 children with DCD and 40 typically developing (TD) children between 6 and 10 years old. Participants were requir...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferguson GD,Duysens J,Smits-Engelsman BC

    更新日期:2015-02-12 00:00:00

  • Distribution of seven major neurotransmitter receptors in the striate cortex of the New World monkey Callithrix jacchus.

    abstract::The distribution of seven different binding sites for the transmitters L-glutamate (L-glutamate binding sites and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor), GABA (GABAA receptor), noradrenaline (alpha 1 receptor), acetylcholine (muscarinic M1 and M2 receptors) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine1 receptor) are analysed in the pri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gebhard R,Zilles K,Schleicher A,Everitt BJ,Robbins TW,Divac I

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inflammation and dephosphorylation of the tight junction protein occludin in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the CNS in which inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration contribute to its initiation and progression. A frequently employed model of MS is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, to gain new insights into the disease process, an analysis of proteins in ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morgan L,Shah B,Rivers LE,Barden L,Groom AJ,Chung R,Higazi D,Desmond H,Smith T,Staddon JM

    更新日期:2007-07-13 00:00:00

  • Hindbrain structures involved in pain processing as revealed by the expression of c-Fos and other immediate early gene proteins.

    abstract::We have used the evoked expression of the immediate early gene-encoded proteins (c-Fos, Fos B, Jun B, Jun D, c-Jun and Krox-24) to monitor sensory processing in the hindbrain structures of rats undergoing somatic inflammation. Experiments were performed on freely moving animals that did not experience constraints othe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • A subnanomolar concentration of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) pre-synaptically modulates glutamatergic transmission in the rat hippocampus acting through acetylcholine.

    abstract::The neuropeptide PACAP modulates synaptic transmission in the hippocampus exerting multiple effects through different receptor subtypes: the underlying mechanisms have not yet been completely elucidated. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exerts a well-documented modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmiss...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pecoraro V,Sardone LM,Chisari M,Licata F,Li Volsi G,Perciavalle V,Ciranna L,Costa L

    更新日期:2017-01-06 00:00:00

  • An ultrastructural study of the glycine transporter GLYT2 and its association with glycine in the superficial laminae of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spike RC,Watt C,Zafra F,Todd AJ

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Complementary roles for the amygdala and hippocampus in aversive conditioning to explicit and contextual cues.

    abstract::Experiment 1 investigated the effects of catecholaminergic deafferentation or cell body lesions of the amygdala on fear conditioning to explicit and contextual cues. Bilateral infusions of quinolinic acid mainly damaged neurons within the basolateral region of the amygdala. 6-Hydroxydopamine infusions at the same coor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Selden NR,Everitt BJ,Jarrard LE,Robbins TW

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vascular-metabolic and GABAergic Inhibitory Correlates of Neural Variability Modulation. A Combined fMRI and PET Study.

    abstract::Neural activity varies continually from moment to moment. Such temporal variability (TV) has been highlighted as a functionally specific brain property playing a fundamental role in cognition. We sought to investigate the mechanisms involved in TV changes between two basic behavioral states, namely having the eyes ope...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin P,Duncan NW,Chen DY,Chen CJ,Huang LK,Huang Z,Lin CE,Wiebking C,Yang CM,Northoff G,Lane TJ

    更新日期:2018-05-21 00:00:00

  • Bilateral lesions of the central but not anterior or posterior parts of the piriform cortex retard amygdala kindling in rats.

    abstract::The piriform cortex is thought to be involved in temporal lobe seizure propagation, such as that occurring during kindling of the amygdala or hippocampus. A number of observations suggested that the circuits of the piriform cortex might act as a critical pathway for limbic seizure discharges to assess motor systems, b...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwabe K,Ebert U,Löscher W

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gender differences in long-term beneficial effects of erythropoietin given after neonatal stroke in postnatal day-7 rats.

    abstract::Recently, we reported that erythropoietin attenuates neonatal brain injury caused by focal cerebral ischemia. The long-term effects of erythropoietin on focal cerebral ischemia-induced injury to the developing brain and the potential gender differences in these long-term effects have not been studied in detail. The cu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wen TC,Rogido M,Peng H,Genetta T,Moore J,Sola A

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment with a hybrid between the synapsin ABC domains and the B subunit of E. coli heat-labile toxin reduces frequency of proinflammatory cells and cytokines in the central nervous system of rats with EAE.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are crucially dependent on the invasion of activated autoreactive lymphocytes and blood macrophages into the central nervous system (CNS). Proinflammatory mononuclear cells and activated local microglia mediate inflammation, demy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bibolini MJ,Scerbo MJ,Roth GA,Monferran CG

    更新日期:2014-09-26 00:00:00

  • Sensitization of central trigeminovascular neurons: blockade by intravenous naproxen infusion.

    abstract::We have previously observed that migraine attacks impervious to triptan therapy were readily terminated by subsequent i.v. administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac. Since such attacks were associated with periorbital allodynia--a symptom of central sensitization--we examined whether...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jakubowski M,Levy D,Kainz V,Zhang XC,Kosaras B,Burstein R

    更新日期:2007-08-24 00:00:00

  • Blockade of micro-opioid receptors in the medial thalamus inhibits acquisition, but not expression, of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    abstract::The medial thalamus contains abundant mu-opioid receptors and is activated by acute morphine administration. However, the role of the medial thalamus in the rewarding effects of morphine is unclear. The present study examined whether mu-opioid receptors of the medial thalamus influenced the acquisition and expression ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo N,Garcia MM,Taylor BK,Zadina JE,Harlan RE

    更新日期:2008-02-19 00:00:00

  • Ontogeny of calmodulin gene expression in rat brain.

    abstract::Calmodulin (CaM), a multifunctional intracellular calcium receptor, is a key element in signaling mechanisms. It is encoded in vertebrates by multiple apparently redundant genes (CaM I, II, III). To investigate whether differential expression takes place in the developing rat brain, a quantitative in situ hybridizatio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kortvely E,Palfi A,Bakota L,Gulya K

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Role of blood-brain barrier in temporal lobe epilepsy and pharmacoresistance.

    abstract::Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsies in adults. It is often initiated by an insult or brain injury which triggers a series of alterations which ultimately lead to seizures (epilepsy). In 50-70% of people with TLE the condition cannot be adequately treated by the present antiepilepti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Vliet EA,Aronica E,Gorter JA

    更新日期:2014-09-26 00:00:00

  • Loss of dopamine D1 receptors and diminished D1/5 receptor-mediated ERK phosphorylation in the periaqueductal gray after spinal cord lesion.

    abstract::Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). Evidence suggests that sensory signaling via the PAG is robustly modulated by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, but the effect...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Voulalas PJ,Ji Y,Jiang L,Asgar J,Ro JY,Masri R

    更新日期:2017-02-20 00:00:00

  • Neurochemical changes induced by acute and chronic administration of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and salsolinol in dopaminergic structures of rat brain.

    abstract::The finding that endogenous tetrahydroisoquinolines may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease suggests that their administration may cause changes resembling those observed in parkinsonian brain. We tested, using a high-performance liquid chromatography method, how single and chronic administration of 1,2...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antkiewicz-Michaluk L,Romañska I,Papla I,Michaluk J,Bakalarz M,Vetulani J,Krygowska-Wajs A,Szczudlik A

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Associations Between Delay Discounting and Connectivity of the Valuation-control System in Healthy Young Adults.

    abstract::The process of valuation assists in determining if an object or course of action is rewarding. Delay discounting is the observed decay of a rewards' subjective value over time. Encoding the subjective value of rewards across a spectrum has been attributed to brain regions belonging to the valuation and executive contr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loganathan K,Lv J,Cropley V,Ho ETW,Zalesky A

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Visual and Action-control Expressway Associated with Efficient Information Transmission in Elite Athletes.

    abstract::Effective information transmission for open skill performance requires fine-scale coordination of distributed networks of brain regions linked by white matter tracts. However, how patterns of connectivity in these anatomical pathways may improve global efficiency remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu H,Pi YL,Qiu FH,Wang FJ,Liu K,Ni Z,Wu Y,Zhang J

    更新日期:2019-04-15 00:00:00

  • Cigarette smoke-induced airway oedema due to activation of capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents and substance P release.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lundberg JM,Martling CR,Saria A,Folkers K,Rosell S

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Age and sex affect spatial and emotional behaviors in rats: the role of repeated elevated plus maze test.

    abstract::The main objective of the study was to investigate the effects of age and sex differences on locomotor activity, learning and memory in rats. Another objective was to investigate whether repeated elevated plus maze tests induce anxiety in rats. Eighty Wistar rats were divided into eight groups according to their sex, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belviranli M,Atalik KE,Okudan N,Gökbel H

    更新日期:2012-12-27 00:00:00

  • On the role of NK-2 tachykinin receptors in the mediation of spinal reflex excitability in the rat.

    abstract::The effects of intrathecal administration of neurokinin A, substance P and [Tyr5, D-Trp6,8,9 Arg10]neurokinin A-(4-10) (Men 10207), a specific NK-2 receptor antagonist, on the spinal nociceptive flexor reflex were studied in decerebrate, spinalized, unanesthetized rats. Intrathecal neurokinin A and substance P facilit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu XJ,Maggi CA,Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructural evidence of fibrillar beta-amyloid associated with neuronal membranes in behaviorally characterized aged dog brains.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torp R,Head E,Milgram NW,Hahn F,Ottersen OP,Cotman CW

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct development of the glycinergic terminals in the ventral and dorsal horns of the mouse cervical spinal cord.

    abstract::In the spinal cord, glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are inhibitory neurotransmitters. However, the ontogeny of the glycinergic network remains unclear. To address this point, we examined the developmental formation of glycinergic terminals by immunohistochemistry for glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2), a marker of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sunagawa M,Shimizu-Okabe C,Kim J,Kobayashi S,Kosaka Y,Yanagawa Y,Matsushita M,Okabe A,Takayama C

    更新日期:2017-02-20 00:00:00

  • Anatomical characterization of a novel reticulospinal vasodepressor area in the rat medulla oblongata.

    abstract::Microinjection of L-glutamate into a subregion of the gigantocellular nucleus of the rat medulla oblongata significantly lowers arterial pressure. This vasodepressor area, the gigantocellular depressor area, is topographically distinct from other vasoactive areas of the medulla. We sought to determine the efferent pro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aicher SA,Reis DJ,Ruggiero DA,Milner TA

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for Gaze Stabilization Critically Depend on Locomotor Speed.

    abstract::Locomotion involves complex combinations of translational and rotational head movements. For gaze stability, this necessitates the interplay of angular and linear vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) as well as the integration of visual feedback about the desired viewing distance. Furthermore, gaze stabilizing systems must...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dietrich H,Wuehr M

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of chronic immobilization stress on anxiety-like behavior and basolateral amygdala morphology in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    abstract::Several lines of clinical evidence support the idea that fragile X syndrome (FXS) may involve a dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function [Wisbeck et al. (2000) J Dev Behav Pediatr 21:278-282; Hessl et al. (2002) Psychoneuroendocrinology 27:855-872]. We had tested this idea in a mouse model of FXS ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin M,Xia Z,Huang T,Smith CB

    更新日期:2011-10-27 00:00:00