Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances spatial learning and synaptic plasticity via the VEGF and BDNF-NMDAR pathways in a rat model of vascular dementia.


:This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on learning and memory in a rat model of vascular dementia (VaD) and to analyze the associated mechanisms. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) was used to establish a rat model of VaD. High-frequency (5Hz) rTMS was performed on rats for four weeks. Spatial learning and memory abilities were evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM), and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus was assessed via long-term potentiation (LTP). Hippocampal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and three subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), NR1, NR2A and NR2B, was analyzed by Western blotting. Compared with the VaD group, escape latency was decreased (P<0.05) and the time spent in the target quadrant and the percentage of swimming distance within that quadrant were increased (P<0.05) in the rTMS group. LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses was enhanced by rTMS (P<0.05). VEGF expression was up-regulated following 2-VO and was further increased by rTMS (P<0.05). BDNF, NR1 and NR2B expression was decreased in the VaD group and increased by rTMS (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in NR2A expression among the three groups. These results suggest that rTMS improved learning and memory in the VaD model rats via the up-regulation of VEGF, BDNF and NMDARs. In addition, NR2B may be more important than NR2A for LTP induction in the hippocampus during rTMS treatment of VaD.






Zhang N,Xing M,Wang Y,Tao H,Cheng Y




Has Abstract


2015-12-17 00:00:00












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    abstract::Cholinergic and glutamatergic cells in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus are a principal source of excitatory input to midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum. Disruption of these brainstem inputs has been shown to respectively enhance and reduce psychostimulant and opiate self-administration in rats...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller AD,Forster GL,Metcalf KM,Blaha CD

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of sensory properties among axotomized cutaneous C-fibres in adult rats.

    abstract::A few hours after peripheral axons of cutaneous afferent neurons have been transected, some of their novel endings become excitable by physical or chemical stimuli. It has been assumed that these axon endings preferentially respond to those stimuli which have excited their previous receptive endings. We studied the pr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Michaelis M,Blenk KH,Vogel C,Jänig W

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Oxytocin and same-sex social behavior in female meadow voles.

    abstract::The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a range of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors including parent-offspring bonding and partner preference formation between socially monogamous mates. Its role in mediating non-reproductive social relationships in rodents, however, remains largely unexplored...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beery AK,Zucker I

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  • Time-dependent bidirectional effects of chronic caffeine on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex after hemilabyrinthectomy in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    abstract::Caffeine works through a variety of complex mechanisms to exert an often bidirectional set of functional and structural neurological changes in vertebrates. We investigated the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex (DLR) in hemilabyrinthectomized common goldfish, Carass...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goodson NB,Brockhoff BL,Huston JP,Spieler RE

    更新日期:2015-04-30 00:00:00

  • Morphological artifacts induced in intracellularly stained neurons by dehydration: circumvention using rapid dimethyl sulfoxide clearing.

    abstract::In order to observe the fine details of intracellularly stained neurons in brain slices the slices must be cleared of opaque matter. This clearing process involves dehydration of the slice, which typically results in significant shrinkage of the cleared tissue. However, how this shrinkage affects neuronal morphology h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Analysis of parvalbumin and calbindin D28k-immunoreactive neurons in dorsal root ganglia of rat in relation to their cytochrome oxidase and carbonic anhydrase content.

    abstract::Histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine relationships between the parvalbumin or calbindin D28k content and the cytochrome oxidase or carbonic anhydrase activity of neurons in lumbar dorsal root ganglia in rat. Subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion neurons that displayed parvalbumin- o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sex-dependent differences in the activity and modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Glutamate-dependent translational regulation in cultured Bergmann glia cells: involvement of p70S6K.

    abstract::Glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid transmitter in the vertebrate brain is involved in the dynamic changes in protein repertoire that underlie synaptic plasticity. Activity-dependent differential expression patterns occur not only in neurons but also in glial cells. In fact, a membrane to nuclei signaling has be...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González-Mejia ME,Morales M,Hernández-Kelly LC,Zepeda RC,Bernabé A,Ortega A

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  • Dynamic expression of secreted Frizzled-related protein 3 (sFRP3) in the developing mouse spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • A novel SDS-stable dimer of a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein at presynaptic terminals of squid neurons.

    abstract::The presence of mRNAs in synaptic terminals and their regulated translation are important factors in neuronal communication and plasticity. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes are involved in the translocation, stability, and subcellular localization of mRNA and the regulation of its translation....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lico DT,Lopes GS,Brusco J,Rosa JC,Gould RM,De Giorgis JA,Larson RE

    更新日期:2015-08-06 00:00:00

  • Effects of ethanol and Ro 15-4513 in an electrophysiological model of anxiolytic action.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • X-irradiation causes a prolonged reduction in cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lactate Administration Reduces Brain Injury and Ameliorates Behavioral Outcomes Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2020-11-10 00:00:00

  • Protein kinase C activation by phorbol esters induces chromaffin cell cortical filamentous actin disassembly and increases the initial rate of exocytosis in response to nicotinic receptor stimulation.

    abstract::Nicotinic stimulation and high K+ depolarization of bovine chromaffin cells cause disassembly of cortical filamentous actin networks. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that disassembly of actin filaments is Ca(2+)-dependent, precedes exocytosis and occurs in cortical areas of low cytoplasmic viscosity...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Selective expression of protein F1/(GAP-43) mRNA in pyramidal but not granule cells of the hippocampus.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • A functional alpha-bungarotoxin receptor is present in chick cerebellum: purification and characterization.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Modulation of connexin 43 in rotenone-induced model of Parkinson's disease.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin, a delta opioid agonist reduces endogenous aluminum content in the rat central nervous system.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • On the significance of subterritories in the "accumbens" part of the rat ventral striatum.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zahm DS,Brog JS

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 synapses on cholinergic neurons in the sublenticular gray of the rat basal forebrain: a double-label electron microscopic study.

    abstract::The basal forebrain (BF) comprises morphologically and functionally heterogeneous cell populations, including cholinergic and non-cholinergic corticopetal neurons that are implicated in sleep-wake modulation, learning, memory and attention. Several studies suggest that glutamate may be among inputs affecting cholinerg...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2009-12-29 00:00:00

  • Neuronal depolarization modifies motor protein mobility.

    abstract::Active neuronal transport along microtubules participates in the targeting of mRNAs, proteins and organelles to their sites of action. Cytoplasmic dynein represents a minus-end-directed microtubule-dependent motor protein. Due to the polarity of microtubules in axonal and distal dendritic compartments, with microtubul...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2009-04-21 00:00:00

  • Regional distribution of putative rhythm-generating and pattern-forming components of the mammalian locomotor CPG.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Griener A,Dyck J,Gosgnach S

    更新日期:2013-10-10 00:00:00

  • Functional Dissociations of the Left Anterior and Posterior Occipitotemporal Cortex for Semantic and Non-semantic Phonological Access.

    abstract::Previous studies have identified the ventral and dorsal brain regions that respectively support semantic and non-semantic phonological access. Nevertheless, the specific role of the left occipitotemporal cortex (lOTC) in the two pathways of phonological access is ambiguous. To address that question, the present study ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dong J,Lu C,Chen C,Li H,Liu X,Mei L

    更新日期:2020-03-15 00:00:00

  • Motor execution and motor imagery: a comparison of functional connectivity patterns based on graph theory.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu L,Zhang H,Hui M,Long Z,Jin Z,Liu Y,Yao L

    更新日期:2014-03-07 00:00:00

  • Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the survival of embryonic ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons--I. Effects in vitro.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • A possible role of tryptase in angiogenesis in the brain of mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    abstract::Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by muscle degeneration and affects the CNS. Dystrophin is absent in muscle and CNS of both DMD patients and mdx mouse, a model of DMD. While the involvement of vascular compartment in DMD was poorly investigated, some studies suggested a role for mast cells (MC). Tryp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nico B,Marzullo A,Corsi P,Vacca A,Roncali L,Ribatti D

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship of efferent projections from the area postrema to vagal motor and brain stem catecholamine-containing cell groups: an axonal transport and immunohistochemical study in the rat.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cunningham ET Jr,Miselis RR,Sawchenko PE

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park KA,Fehrenbacher JC,Thompson EL,Duarte DB,Hingtgen CM,Vasko MR

    更新日期:2010-12-15 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hutter P,Johansson M,Saria A,Humpel C

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Non-Invasive Assays of Cochlear Synaptopathy - Candidates and Considerations.

    abstract::Studies in multiple species, including in post-mortem human tissue, have shown that normal aging and/or acoustic overexposure can lead to a significant loss of afferent synapses innervating the cochlea. Hypothetically, this cochlear synaptopathy can lead to perceptual deficits in challenging environments and can contr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bharadwaj HM,Mai AR,Simpson JM,Choi I,Heinz MG,Shinn-Cunningham BG

    更新日期:2019-05-21 00:00:00