De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of the Safflower Transcriptome to Discover Putative Genes Associated with Safflor Yellow in Carthamus tinctorius L.


:Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), an important traditional Chinese medicine, is cultured widely for its pharmacological effects, but little is known regarding the genes related to the metabolic regulation of the safflower's yellow pigment. To investigate genes related to safflor yellow biosynthesis, 454 pyrosequencing of flower RNA at different developmental stages was performed, generating large databases.In this study, we analyzed 454 sequencing data from different flowering stages in safflower. In total, 1,151,324 raw reads and 1,140,594 clean reads were produced, which were assembled into 51,591 unigenes with an average length of 679 bp and a maximum length of 5109 bp. Among the unigenes, 40,139 were in the early group, 39,768 were obtained from the full group and 28,316 were detected in both samples. With the threshold of "log2 ratio ≥ 1", there were 34,464 differentially expressed genes, of which 18,043 were up-regulated and 16,421 were down-regulated in the early flower library. Based on the annotations of the unigenes, 281 pathways were predicted. We selected 12 putative genes and analyzed their expression levels using quantitative real time-PCR. The results were consistent with the 454 sequencing results. In addition, the expression of chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase and anthocyanidin synthase, which are involved in safflor yellow biosynthesis and safflower yellow pigment (SYP) content, were analyzed in different flowering periods, indicating that their expression levels were related to SYP synthesis. Moreover, to further confirm the results of the 454 pyrosequencing, full-length cDNA of chalcone isomerase (CHI) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were cloned from safflower petal by RACE (Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends) method according to fragment of the transcriptome.


Int J Mol Sci


Liu X,Dong Y,Yao N,Zhang Y,Wang N,Cui X,Li X,Wang Y,Wang F,Yang J,Guan L,Du L,Li H,Li X




Has Abstract


2015-10-26 00:00:00












  • Salicylic Acid Signalling in Plants.

    abstract::Ten articles published in the "Special Issue: Salicylic Acid Signalling in Plants" are summarized, in order to get a global picture about the mode of action of salicylic acid in plants, and about its interaction with other stress-signalling routes. Its ecological aspects and possible practical use are also discussed. ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Janda T,Szalai G,Pál M

    更新日期:2020-04-10 00:00:00

  • Intra-Articular Formulation of GE11-PLGA Conjugate-Based NPs for Dexamethasone Selective Targeting-In Vitro Evaluation.

    abstract::Selectively targeted nanoscale drug delivery systems have recently emerged as promising intravenously therapeutic option for most chronic joint diseases. Here, a newly synthetized dodecapeptide (GE11)-polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)-based conjugate was used to prepare smart nanoparticles (NPs) intended for intra-artic...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chiesa E,Pisani S,Colzani B,Dorati R,Conti B,Modena T,Braekmans K,Genta I

    更新日期:2018-08-06 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of PKA-Dependent Potentiation of Kv7.5 Channel Activity in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    abstract::β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation promotes relaxation of both vascular and airway smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and ASMCs, respectively), though the signaling mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We previously found that the activity of Kv7.5 voltage-activated potassium channels in VSMCs is robustly enhanced b...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brueggemann LI,Cribbs LL,Schwartz J,Wang M,Kouta A,Byron KL

    更新日期:2018-07-30 00:00:00

  • MicroRNA-29a Mitigates Subacromial Bursa Fibrosis in Rotator Cuff Lesion with Shoulder Stiffness.

    abstract::Rotator cuff lesion with shoulder stiffness is a major cause of shoulder pain and motionlessness. Subacromial bursa fibrosis is a prominent pathological feature of the shoulder disorder. MicroRNA-29a (miR-29a) regulates fibrosis in various tissues; however, the miR-29a action to subacromial bursa fibrosis remains elus...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ko JY,Lian WS,Tsai TC,Chen YS,Hsieh CK,Kuo CW,Wang FS

    更新日期:2019-11-15 00:00:00

  • Multiple Layers of CDK5R1 Regulation in Alzheimer's Disease Implicate Long Non-Coding RNAs.

    abstract::Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (CDK5R1) gene encodes for p35, the main activator of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). The active p35/CDK5 complex is involved in numerous aspects of brain development and function, and its deregulation is closely associated to Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset and progressi...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spreafico M,Grillo B,Rusconi F,Battaglioli E,Venturin M

    更新日期:2018-07-11 00:00:00

  • P2 Receptors in Cardiac Myocyte Pathophysiology and Mechanotransduction.

    abstract::ATP is a major energy source in the mammalian cells, but it is an extracellular chemical messenger acting on P2 purinergic receptors. A line of evidence has shown that ATP is released from many different types of cells including neurons, endothelial cells, and muscle cells. In this review, we described the distributio...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Woo SH,Trinh TN

    更新日期:2020-12-29 00:00:00

  • Genome-Wide Identification of Metal Tolerance Protein Genes in Populus trichocarpa and Their Roles in Response to Various Heavy Metal Stresses.

    abstract::Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are plant divalent cation transporters that play important roles in plant metal tolerance and homeostasis. Poplar is an ideal candidate for the phytoremediation of heavy metals because of its numerous beneficial attributes. However, the definitive phylogeny and heavy metal transport mec...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao Y,Yang F,Liu J,Xie W,Zhang L,Chen Z,Peng Z,Ou Y,Yao Y

    更新日期:2020-02-29 00:00:00

  • Modeling the Effect of Composition on Formation of Aerosolized Nanoemulsion System Encapsulating Docetaxel and Curcumin Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.

    abstract::The synergistic anticancer effect of docetaxel (DTX) and curcumin (CCM) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic candidate for lung cancer treatment. However, the lack of optimal bioavailability because of high toxicity, low stability, and poor solubility has limited their clinical success. Given this, an aerosolized ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asmawi AA,Salim N,Abdulmalek E,Abdul Rahman MB

    更新日期:2020-06-19 00:00:00

  • Burn-Induced Cardiac Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Interruption of the PDE5A-cGMP-PKG Pathway.

    abstract::Burn-induced heart dysfunction is a key factor for patient mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. This study sought to understand whether burn-induced heart dysfunction is associated with cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and interruption of the PDE5A-cGMP-PKG pathway. Sixty percent...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wen JJ,Cummins CB,Radhakrishnan RS

    更新日期:2020-03-28 00:00:00

  • Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-Activated Protein Kinase: A New Target for Nutraceutical Compounds.

    abstract:: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor which is activated by increases in adenosine monophosphate (AMP)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio and/or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP ratio, and increases different metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, glucose trans...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marín-Aguilar F,Pavillard LE,Giampieri F,Bullón P,Cordero MD

    更新日期:2017-01-29 00:00:00

  • Common Amino Acid Subsequences in a Universal Proteome--Relevance for Food Science.

    abstract::A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. An individual bioactive fragment, in particula...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Minkiewicz P,Darewicz M,Iwaniak A,Sokołowska J,Starowicz P,Bucholska J,Hrynkiewicz M

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Retrograde Signaling: Understanding the Communication between Organelles.

    abstract::Understanding how cell organelles and compartments communicate with each other has always been an important field of knowledge widely explored by many researchers. However, despite years of investigations, one point-and perhaps the only point that many agree on-is that our knowledge about cellular-signaling pathways s...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mielecki J,Gawroński P,Karpiński S

    更新日期:2020-08-26 00:00:00

  • Titanium immobilized with an antimicrobial peptide derived from histatin accelerates the differentiation of osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium immobilized with a cationic antimicrobial peptide (JH8194) derived from histatin on the biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and differentiation of osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). The titanium specimens (Ti) were immobilized with JH8194, accord...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makihira S,Shuto T,Nikawa H,Okamoto K,Mine Y,Takamoto Y,Ohara M,Tsuji K

    更新日期:2010-04-02 00:00:00

  • L-Dopa-Decarboxylase (DDC) Is a Positive Prognosticator for Breast Cancer Patients and Epinephrine Regulates Breast Cancer Cell (MCF7 and T47D) Growth In Vitro According to Their Different Expression of Gi- Protein- Coupled Receptors.

    abstract::A coherence between thyroid dysfunction and breast cancer incidence exists. Thyroid hormone metabolites bind to TAAR1 (trace amine-associated receptor 1) and through that modulate the serotonergic and dopaminergic system. Catecholamines themselves are synthesized by the L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC). The aim of our study...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tremmel E,Kuhn C,Kaltofen T,Vilsmaier T,Mayr D,Mahner S,Ditsch N,Jeschke U,Vattai A

    更新日期:2020-12-15 00:00:00

  • Stable Expression of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Chloroplasts of Tobacco.

    abstract::Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional factor in acceleration of cell proliferation, differentiation and transference, and therefore widely used in clinical applications. In this study, expression vector pWX-Nt03 harboring a codon-optimized bFGF gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang YP,Wei ZY,Zhong XF,Lin CJ,Cai YH,Ma J,Zhang YY,Liu YZ,Xing SC

    更新日期:2015-12-23 00:00:00

  • Epigenome Wide Association and Stochastic Epigenetic Mutation Analysis on Cord Blood of Preterm Birth.

    abstract::Preterm birth (PTB) can be defined as the endpoint of a complex process that could be influenced by maternal and environmental factors. Epigenetics recently emerged as an interesting field of investigation since it represents an important mechanism of regulation. This study evaluates epigenetic impact of preterm birth...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spada E,Calzari L,Corsaro L,Fazia T,Mencarelli M,Di Blasio AM,Bernardinelli L,Zangheri G,Vignali M,Gentilini D

    更新日期:2020-07-17 00:00:00

  • The metalloporphyrin antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, inhibits Th2 cell immune responses in an asthma model.

    abstract::MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC) and OVA(323-339)-specific Th2 cells were cultured separatel...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jungsuwadee P,Weaver MR,Gally F,Oberley-Deegan RE

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Similarities in the General Chemical Composition of Colon Cancer Cells and Their Microvesicles Investigated by Spectroscopic Methods-Potential Clinical Relevance.

    abstract::Colon cancer constitutes 33% of all cancer cases in humans and the majority of patients with metastatic colon cancer still have poor prognosis. An important role in cancer development is the communication between cancer and normal cells. This may occur, among others, through extracellular vesicles (including microvesi...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Depciuch J,Klębowski B,Stec M,Szatanek R,Węglarczyk K,Baj-Krzyworzeka M,Parlińska-Wojtan M,Baran J

    更新日期:2020-03-06 00:00:00

  • P3HT:Bebq2-Based Photovoltaic Device Enhances Differentiation of hiPSC-Derived Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    abstract::Electric field stimulation is known to affect various cellular processes, including cell fate specification and differentiation, particularly towards neuronal lineages. This makes it a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate regeneration of neuronal tissues. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a type of neural cells ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hsu CC,Lin YY,Yang TC,Yarmishyn AA,Lin TW,Chang YL,Hwang DK,Wang CY,Liu YY,Lo WL,Peng CH,Chen SJ,Yang YP

    更新日期:2019-05-30 00:00:00

  • The Safety Evaluation of Salvianolic Acid B and Ginsenoside Rg1 Combination on Mice.

    abstract::Our previous study indicated that the combination of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the main components of Salvia miltiorrhizae and Panax notoginseng, improves myocardium structure and ventricular function in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to determine the safety o...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao Q,Yang M,Deng Y,Yu H,Wang L,Teng F,Cho K,Ma H,Wu P,Li X,Wu W,Liu X,Xu F,Jiang B,Guo DA

    更新日期:2015-12-09 00:00:00

  • Hydroxyapatite Formation Coexists with Amyloid-like Self-Assembly of Human Amelogenin.

    abstract::Tooth enamel is formed in an extracellular environment. Amelogenin, the major component in the protein matrix of tooth enamel during the developing stage, could assemble into high molecular weight structures, regulating enamel formation. However, the molecular structure of amelogenin protein assembly at the functional...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang J,Wang J,Ma C,Lu J

    更新日期:2020-04-22 00:00:00

  • The Function of Transthyretin Complexes with Metallothionein in Alzheimer's Disease.

    abstract::Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed types of dementia in the elderly. An important pathological feature in AD is the aggregation and deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) in extracellular plaques. Transthyretin (TTR) can cleave Aβ, resulting in the formation of short peptides with less activity...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zaręba N,Kepinska M

    更新日期:2020-11-26 00:00:00

  • Telmisartan Lowers Elevated Blood Pressure in Psoriatic Mice without Attenuating Vascular Dysfunction and Inflammation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Psoriasis is hallmarked by vascular dysfunction, arterial hypertension, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. We have shown recently that skin-driven interleukin (IL)-17A expression promotes psoriasis-like disease in mice, and this is associated with vascular inflammation, vascular dysfunction, ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wild J,Schüler R,Knopp T,Molitor M,Kossmann S,Münzel T,Daiber A,Waisman A,Wenzel P,Karbach SH

    更新日期:2019-08-30 00:00:00

  • Morquio B Disease. Disease Characteristics and Treatment Options of a Distinct GLB1-Related Dysostosis Multiplex.

    abstract::Morquio B disease (MBD) is an autosomal recessive GLB1-gene-related lysosomal storage disease, presenting with a peculiar type of dysostosis multiplex which is also observed in GALNS-related Morquio A disease. MBD may present as pure skeletal phenotype (pure MBD) or in combination with the neuronopathic manifestations...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yuskiv N,Higaki K,Stockler-Ipsiroglu S

    更新日期:2020-11-30 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Downregulates ELOVL1 Gene Expression and Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Fetal Fibroblasts.

    abstract::Elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 1 (ELOVL1) is a ubiquitously expressed gene that belongs to the ELOVL family and regulates the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and sphingolipids, from yeast to mammals. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell metabolism...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang W,He Q,Guo Z,Yang L,Bao L,Bao W,Zheng X,Wang Y,Wang Z

    更新日期:2015-07-20 00:00:00

  • In Vitro Feasibility Analysis of a New Sutureless Wound-Closure System Based on a Temperature-Regulated Laser and a Transparent Collagen Membrane for Laser Tissue Soldering (LTS).

    abstract::For the post-surgical treatment of oral wounds and mucosal defects beyond a certain size, the gold standard is still an autologous skin or mucosal graft in combination with complex suturing techniques. A variety of techniques and biomaterials has been developed for sutureless wound closure including different tissue g...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Birkelbach MA,Smeets R,Fiedler I,Kluwe L,Wehner M,Trebst T,Hartjen P

    更新日期:2020-09-26 00:00:00

  • Evolution of Disease Defense Genes and Their Regulators in Plants.

    abstract::Biotic stresses do damage to the growth and development of plants, and yield losses for some crops. Confronted with microbial infections, plants have evolved multiple defense mechanisms, which play important roles in the never-ending molecular arms race of plant⁻pathogen interactions. The complicated defense systems i...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhang R,Zheng F,Wei S,Zhang S,Li G,Cao P,Zhao S

    更新日期:2019-01-15 00:00:00

  • Roles of Dkk2 in the Linkage from Muscle to Bone during Mechanical Unloading in Mice.

    abstract::Mechanical unloading simultaneously induces muscle and bone loss, but its mechanisms are not fully understood. The interactions between skeletal muscle and bone have been recently noted. Although canonical wingless-related integration site (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling is crucial for bone metabolism, its roles in the musc...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawao N,Morita H,Iemura S,Ishida M,Kaji H

    更新日期:2020-04-06 00:00:00

  • Dp71 Expression in Human Glioblastoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dp71 is the most abundant dystrophin (DMD) gene product in the nervous system. Mutation in the Dp71 coding region is associated with cognitive disturbances in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but the function of dystrophin Dp71 in tumor progression remains to be established. This study investigate...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruggieri S,De Giorgis M,Annese T,Tamma R,Notarangelo A,Marzullo A,Senetta R,Cassoni P,Notarangelo M,Ribatti D,Nico B

    更新日期:2019-10-31 00:00:00

  • In Vitro Expansion of CAG, CAA, and Mixed CAG/CAA Repeats.

    abstract::Polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington's disease and a number of spinocerebellar ataxias, are caused by expanded CAG repeats that are located in translated sequences of individual, functionally-unrelated genes. Only mutant proteins containing polyglutamine expansions have long been thought to be pathogenic, but ...

    journal_title:International journal of molecular sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Figura G,Koscianska E,Krzyzosiak WJ

    更新日期:2015-08-11 00:00:00