Retinal damage from intense visible light.


:Studies of laboratory animal retinal exposure to green monochromatic laser radiation show an increasing stability of tissue with increasing pulse duration up to 10(-1) s. This mechanism of biological response of the eye to light damage is fundamental to living systems. It does not manifest itself in animals under deep anesthesia. A mathematical model has been developed which permits one to predict the dependence of threshold injury of visible monochromatic radiation. The model is based on the assumption that the entropy of the reaction of thermal tissue denaturation decreases with increasing pulse duration. This may be used to refine safety standards for personnel working with lasers and to optimize the parameters of lasers used in ophthalmic surgery.


Health Phys


Health physics


Zheltov G,Glazkov V,Podol'tzef A,Linnik L,Privalov A




Has Abstract


1989-05-01 00:00:00












  • Radon in outdoor air in Nevada.

    abstract::Measurements of radon at 50 sites with varying geology indicate that outdoor air in Nevada is comparable to that measured nationwide by Hopper et al. (1991). The statewide median of 15 Bq m-3 (0.4 pCi L-1) is essentially the same as the nationwide median. The range is considerable: from 2.6-52 Bq m-3 (0.07-1.40 pCi L-...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Price JG,Rigby JG,Christensen L,Hess R,LaPointe DD,Ramelli AR,Desilets M,Hopper RD,Kluesner T,Marshall S

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Bioassay and laboratory survey scheduling based on radioisotope inventory.

    abstract::Bioassay and laboratory survey schedules can be generated using a radioisotope inventory program. This paper discusses the use of laboratory activity, past performance and operational factors for laboratory survey frequency determination, and use of laboratory activity for bioassay scheduling. Mayo Clinic has recently...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Classic KL,Gross GP

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Diurnal and seasonal variations of radon levels, effects of climatic conditions, and radon exposure assessment in a former uranium metal production facility.

    abstract::Storage of radon-producing material in two silos and two waste pits is one of the major environmental and occupational issues at a former uranium production facility, now a Superfund site. In addition, up to 100 metric tons of thorium is stored on the northeast side of the site. Concentrations of radium up to 17,600 B...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merrill EA,Akbar-Khanzadeh F

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation dosimetry of a graphite moderated radium-beryllium source.

    abstract::The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile is a radium-beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurem...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holden NE,Reciniello RN,Hu JP

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Development of an improved dosimetry system for the workers at the Mayak Production Association.

    abstract::Databases are being created that contain verified and updated dosimetry and worker history information for workers at the Mayak Production Association. Many workers had significant external and internal exposures, particularly during the early years (1948-1952) of operation. These dosimetric and worker history data ar...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khokhryakov V,Suslova K,Aladova E,Vasilenko E,Miller SC,Slaughter DM,Krahenbuhl MP

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Security of radioactive material at academic institutions.

    abstract::In recent years, regulatory emphasis on the prevention of loss, theft and intentional misuse of radioactive materials at academic institutions has forced radiation safety personnel to devote increasing amounts of time and effort to address security issues. NRC regulations require that radioactive materials used or sto...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farley DV,Normandin RD,Martz MD,Langhorst SM

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of the radiological impact of using fly ash in cement.

    abstract::The radiological consequences of using fly ash as a component of cement are discussed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of the fly ash and cement are reported together with measurements of emanation coefficients and exhalation rates. The radon-exhalation rate was found to be significantly lower in concrete ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stranden E

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00

  • Extrapolating radiation-induced cancer risks from low doses to very low doses.

    abstract::There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses (e.g., >or=1 Gy), and persuasive, if controversial, epidemiological evidence that cancer risks are increased at low doses ( approximately 10 mGy). Discussed here are the issues related to extrapolating radiation risks from low radiat...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brenner DJ

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the expert witness: an update.

    abstract::As in the past, the principle role of the scientist in the courtroom is to assist attorneys, judges, and jurors in understanding the complex scientific and technical issues before them. In the last decade, however, changes in the law and the increasing technical complexity of many disputes have introduced new factors ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Auxier JA,Prichard HM

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic thyroid procedures and corresponding radiation doses in Manitoba: 1981-1985.

    abstract::Data on nuclear medicine thyroid examinations performed in Manitoba (population 1 million) from 1981-1985 were collected, with more detailed demographic data obtained on 1,100 consecutive patients between June 1987 and January 1988. An average of 2,081 patients were examined per year, 81% female and 19% male, represen...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huda W,Gordon K,Greenberg ID

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of U.S. NRC'S Rascal Emergency Response Code with Noaa's Hyrad Dispersion Model and Tracer Experimental Data.

    abstract::The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Field Research Division uses the HYRad-HYSPLIT dispersion model to assess hypothetical accidental releases of airborne radioactive materials at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The State of Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Idaho Na...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abbott ML

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Time Course of Radiation-induced Lung Injury in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation With Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing: Clinical and Radiographic Evidence and the Effect of Neupogen Administration.

    abstract::The primary objectives of two companion manuscripts were to assess the natural history of delayed radiation-induced lung injury in a nonhuman primate model of acute high-dose, partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing, to include the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological evidence and the effect of N...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacVittie TJ,Farese AM,Parker GA,Jackson W 3rd

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ninth Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address: effects of childhood radiation exposure: an issue from computed tomography scans to Fukushima.

    abstract::The acute and chronic effects of radiation on children have been and will continue to be of great social, public health, scientific, and clinical importance. The focus of interest on ionizing radiation and children has been clear for over half a century and ranges from the effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testi...

    journal_title:Health physics



    authors: Mettler FA Jr,Constine LS,Nosske D,Shore RE

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lifetime bone cancer dose-response relationships in beagles and people from skeletal burdens of 226Ra and 90Sr.

    abstract::The life-time tumor dose-response relationships observed in beagles injected with 226Ra or fed 90Sr at the University of California, Davis, provide a basis for understanding the induction of bone cancer for these bone-seeking radionuclides and for scaling to people. In these studies 385 dogs were exposed to graded dos...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raabe OG,Book SA,Parks NJ

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Non-invasive measurement of water content in lung phantom by neutrons: latest improvements to the technique.

    abstract::The novel technique for measuring the water content in lungs based on the slowing down of fast neutrons has been improved making possible its clinical use on patients. This goal has been reached by performing computer simulations that closely mimic the experimental setup and by acquiring a new set of measurements obta...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campi F,Dionigi F

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Image quantification for radiation dose calculations--limitations and uncertainties.

    abstract::Radiation dose calculations in nuclear medicine depend on quantification of activity via planar and/or tomographic imaging methods. However, both methods have inherent limitations, and the accuracy of activity estimates varies with object size, background levels, and other variables. The goal of this study was to eval...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pereira JM,Stabin MG,Lima FR,Guimarães MI,Forrester JW

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of the world's first nuclear explosion, the Trinity test, as a source of public radiation exposure.

    abstract::The world's first atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico on 16 July 1945. From 1999 through 2008, scientists working for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gathered information relevant to past releases from Los Alamos activities, including the Trinity test. Detonation on a 30.5 m tower enhanced radioactive ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Widner TE,Flack SM

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sensitivity of portable personnel portal monitors: potential problems when dealing with contaminated persons.

    abstract::Health physicists are usually concerned with small amounts of radioactivity and strive to develop techniques to measure them; however, following a terrorist attack involving radioactive materials the converse might be the case, and exposed persons may be heavily contaminated. The Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) has ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kramer GH,Capello K,Hauck BM,Brown JT

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine in the United States: 1960-2010.

    abstract::To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, the authors assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Drozdovitch V,Brill AB,Callahan RJ,Clanton JA,DePietro A,Goldsmith SJ,Greenspan BS,Gross MD,Hays MT,Moore SC,Ponto JA,Shreeve WW,Melo DR,Linet MS,Simon SL

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Automatic filter placement device for region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy.

    abstract::In Region of Interest (ROI) Fluoroscopy, an ROI filter is inserted into the x-ray beam in order to decrease the patient exposure in the peripheral part of the field of view. A filter placement device has been designed and constructed for the practical implementation of ROI fluoroscopy. When unmodified spot films are r...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kezerashvili M,Rudin S,Bednarek D

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    abstract::On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Lewis RK

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    abstract::Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Mars...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simon SL,Bouville A,Melo D,Beck HL,Weinstock RM

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Further studies of plutonium and americium at Thule, Greenland.

    abstract::Eleven years after the accidental loss of nuclear weapons in 1968, the fourth scientific expedition to Thule occurred. The estimated inventory of 1 TBq 239,240Pu in the marine sediments was unchanged when compared with the estimate based on the 1974 data. Plutonium from the accident had moved further away from the imp...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aarkrog A,Dahlgaard H,Nilsson K,Holm E

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Possible Influences of Spark Discharges on Cardiac Pacemakers.

    abstract::Exposure to spark discharges may occur beneath high voltage transmission lines when contact is initiated with a conductive object (such as a motor vehicle) with the spark discharge mediated by the ambient electric field from the line. The objective of this study was to assess whether such exposures could interfere wit...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korpinen L,Kuisti H,Tarao H,Virtanen V,Pääkkönen R,Dovan T,Kavet R

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Apparent high tritium intake by a radiation worker at the University of Rochester.

    abstract::On 20 September 1999, a urine sample submitted by a University of Rochester radiation worker was noted to have a count rate of about 759,500 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per milliliter as analyzed on the Radiation Safety Unit (RSU) Packard liquid sintillation counter. The sample was recounted that day with variabl...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karam PA

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • A Monte Carlo approach to assessing 147Pm in the liver of the adult phantom.

    abstract::A low-background phoswich detector is used to detect small amounts of 147Pm--a pure beta-emitting nuclide--present in the liver of an occupational worker. The assessment was based on the measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation produced by the beta particles in the tissue. Computer programs based on Monte Carlo techniq...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhati S

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dose rate distribution from a standard waste drum arrangement.

    abstract::The evaluation of the dose rate distributions from radioactive sources, together with the specific detector locations with respect to those sources, in many cases presents a significant analytical challenge. With the exception of a few, simple source-detector geometries, it is not possible to find an analytical expres...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zoeger N,Brandl A

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Development of 241Am lung monitoring system using an imaging plate.

    abstract::A new 241Am lung monitoring system without shielding was devised by using an imaging plate system. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's realistic torso phantom containing a 241Am lung was covered by imaging plates sealed in lightproof bags. The imaging plate system displayed 241Am lung images characteristic of...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hirota M,Kurihara O,Takada C,Takasaki K,Momose T,Deji S,Ito S,Saze T,Nishizawa K

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Secondary Neutron Doses to Pediatric Patients During Intracranial Proton Therapy: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Neutron Energy Spectrum and its Organ Doses.

    abstract::Proton therapy has the physical advantage of a Bragg peak that can provide a better dose distribution than conventional x-ray therapy. However, radiation exposure of normal tissues cannot be ignored because it is likely to increase the risk of secondary cancer. Evaluating secondary neutrons generated by the interactio...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsumoto S,Koba Y,Kohno R,Lee C,Bolch WE,Kai M

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dose rates for several organs in a human from contaminated soil and hot particles using the QAD computer code.

    abstract::Dose rates from contaminated soil and hot particles have been calculated for several organs of a reference human. The calculation was performed using the computer code QAD-CGGP, a point kernel code employing combinatorial geometry for the representation of the human phantom. QAD uses buildup factors based on the geome...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsoulfanidis N,Phillips K

    更新日期:1991-11-01 00:00:00