How couples who have undergone in vitro fertilization decide what to do with surplus frozen embryos.


:In a qualitative interview study of 77 families with stored frozen embryos, we found that while embryo disposition decision making was influenced by individual life circumstances, embryo quantity/quality, personal values, embryo conceptualization, and clinic information, it was a stepwise process that could be represented as three sequential questions: (1) Will the embryos be used for additional attempts at conception? If not, (2) Will the embryos remain in storage? And if not, (3) Will the embryos be donated to other people or to science, or will they be destroyed? While almost two-thirds (63%) of participants kept their embryos in storage after 5 years, either passively through disagreement or indecision or actively to maintain embryo potential, avert feelings of loss, or as psychological or genetic "insurance," IVF clinic support and detailed information about options motivated families to make disposition decisions.


Fertil Steril


Fertility and sterility


Nachtigall RD,Mac Dougall K,Harrington J,Duff J,Lee M,Becker G




Has Abstract


2009-12-01 00:00:00














  • Implications in the maintenance of pregnancy: I. Presence of immunoreactive glycodelin in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We previously reported an antipeptide antibody to human glycodelin that recognizes glycodelin in amniotic fluid and epithelial glands of the endometrium. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of glycodelin in human umbilical cord. DESIGN:Controlled clinical study. SETTING:Healthy women u...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim JG,Ramachandran S,Zhou HM,Rayner D,Parthasarathy S

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Report on the Third Annual Meeting of the Androgen Excess Society, San Diego, California, June 3, 2005.

    abstract::The third annual meeting of the Androgen Excess Society, held in San Diego, California, June 3, 2005, reported on new developments in the field, including intrafollicular steroidogenesis, intrathecal biochemistry, mechanisms of insulin signal and resistance of polycystic ovary syndrome, and novel aspects of androgen s...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility



    authors: Orio F,Azziz R,Androgen Excess Society Annual Meeting Committee.,Androgen Excess Society.

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Aspiration flow cytometry of the testes in the evaluation of spermatogenesis in the infertile male.

    abstract::Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) flow cytometry of testicular tissue has been demonstrated to be a quantitative means of assessing spermatogenesis. This study evaluates testes aspirates and DNA flow cytometry in the evaluation of the infertile male. Testicular tissue obtained from 12 men who underwent bilateral orchiectomy...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaufman DG,Nagler HM

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Occult hyperprolactinemia in infertile women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To define the hypersensitive status of PRL secretion in normoprolactinemic infertile women and determine the incidence of occult hyperprolactinemia among them. DESIGN:The potential for PRL secretion was examined in 463 women. SETTING:Outpatient clinic in a university hospital. PATIENTS:Three hundred sixty-...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asukai K,Uemura T,Minaguchi H

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian suppression induced with Buserelin or danazol in the management of endometriosis: a randomized, comparative study.

    abstract::The effectiveness of Buserelin (Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Somerville, NJ) (0.2 mg subcutaneously [SC] or 1.2 mg intranasally [IN] per day) and danazol (800 mg per day) in inducing ovarian suppression for the management of endometriosis was compared in a prospective randomized study. During 6 months of tre...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dmowski WP,Radwanska E,Binor Z,Tummon I,Pepping P

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with negatively variable impacts on domains of health-related quality of life: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the literature to identify the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on specific health-related quality of life domains. DESIGN:Meta-analysis. SETTING:N/A. PATIENT(S):The outcomes of 423 patients and 285 controls from 5 articles that used the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnair...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Li Y,Li Y,Yu Ng EH,Stener-Victorin E,Hou L,Wu T,Han F,Wu X

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia on human ovarian follicles during the late follicular phase.

    abstract::The effect of hyperprolactinemia during the midfollicular through the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle on follicular development and follicular fluid hormone concentrations was studied. Fourteen women underwent laparotomy in the late follicular phase for gynecologic reasons; 6 were treated with sulpiride d...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sowa M,Tsuji K,Nakano R

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Humid versus dry incubator: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of a dry versus humidified incubator on human embryo development ex vivo. DESIGN:Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING:Private fertility centers. PATIENT(S):A total of 297 women undergoing in vitro fertilization randomized into two groups. INTERVENTION(S...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Fawzy M,AbdelRahman MY,Zidan MH,Abdel Hafez FF,Abdelghafar H,Al-Inany H,Bedaiwy MA

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • The incidence of sperm-associated immunoglobulin and C3, the third component of complement, in infertile men.

    abstract::One hundred four consecutive men who underwent a semen analysis as part of their infertility evaluation were assayed for sperm-associated immunoglobulin (Ig) and the third component of complement (C3). Sixteen (15%) of the 104 men had increased IgG, and 10 (12%) of 86 men tested had increased IgA on their sperm; howev...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haas GG Jr,Schreiber AD,Blasco L

    更新日期:1983-04-01 00:00:00

  • Fertilization and embryo cleavage after intracytoplasmic spermatid injection in an obstructive azoospermic patient with defective spermiogenesis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To achieve fertilization and cleavage by spermatids without tails from testicular biopsy. DESIGN:Clinical trial. SETTING:Reproductive unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENT:A patient of obstructive azoospermia with defective spermiogenesis. INTERVENTION:Testicular biopsy after scrotal exploration...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Chen SU,Ho HN,Chen HF,Tsai TC,Lee TY,Yang YS

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in blood-flow impedance of the human corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase and during early pregnancy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine changes in blood flow in the corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase and during early pregnancy. DESIGN:Longitudinal and cross-sectional prospective studies. SETTING:University hospital and city general hospital. PATIENT(S):Sixty-one women with normal menstrual cycles and normal luteal functio...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Tamura H,Takasaki A,Taniguchi K,Matsuoka A,Shimamura K,Sugino N

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • A frame shift mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene associated with complete androgen insensitivity, persistent müllerian structures, and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the molecular, cytogenetic, immunohistochemical, and endocrinologic characteristics of a young 46,XY female with persistent müllerian structures and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads. DESIGN:Descriptive case study. SETTING:Mackay Memorial Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, T...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen CP,Chen SR,Wang TY,Wang W,Hwu YM

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • "Kissing ovaries": a sonographic sign of moderate to severe endometriosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether the presence of kissing ovaries at ultrasound is a marker for endometriosis and whether it correlates with the severity of the disease. DESIGN:Prospective observational study. SETTING:Gynecologic departments of two university hospitals. PATIENT(S):A total of 722 consecutive premenopausa...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghezzi F,Raio L,Cromi A,Duwe DG,Beretta P,Buttarelli M,Mueller MD

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ectopic twin pregnancy in cesarean scar after in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer: case report.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To present two cases of ectopic twin pregnancy in a Cesarean section scar following IVF-embryo transfer. DESIGN:Case report. SETTING:Tertiary referral case center. PATIENT(S):Two women who had ectopic twin pregnancy in a Cesarean section scar, in both cases following IVF and embryo transfer. INTERVENTION(...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chueh HY,Cheng PJ,Wang CW,Shaw SW,Lee CL,Soong YK

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Serum pattern of circulating free leptin, bound leptin, and soluble leptin receptor in the physiological menstrual cycle.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the serum pattern of free leptin, bound leptin, and soluble leptin receptor throughout the physiological menstrual cycle. DESIGN:Prospective observational study. SETTING:Tertiary care center for gynecological endocrinology and reproductive medicine and a university research laboratory. PATIE...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geisthövel F,Jochmann N,Widjaja A,Horn R,Brabant G

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin alone can complete follicle maturity: successful application to modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of utilizing low-dose hCG alone to complete follicle maturity in a natural cycle, without the need for antecedent exogenous FSH stimulation. DESIGN:Case series. SETTING:Academic fertility program. PATIENT(S):Normally ovulatory women with infertility thought to be predominantl...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paulson RJ,Chung K,Quaas AM,Mucowski SJ,Jabara SI,Bendikson KA

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Decreased human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in the lipid raft by peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the macrophage response in endometriosis by determining the expression and localization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC and HLA-DR by the peritoneal fluid (PF) macrophages and PF concentrations of interferon (IFN)-gamma that regulate HLA expression. DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING:Uni...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto Y,Maeda N,Izumiya C,Kusume T,Oguri H,Kawashima M,Hayashi K,Nomura A,Yamashita C,Fukaya T

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies after early transvaginal multifetal pregnancy reduction.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the pregnancy outcomes of twin pregnancies following early transvaginal multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR) with nonreduced twin gestations. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Two tertiary medical centers. PATIENT(S):A cohort of 77 multiple pregnancies after reduction to twins and 78 dich...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Haas J,Hourvitz A,Dor J,Elizur S,Yinon Y,Barzilay E,Shulman A

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Female exposure to phenols and phthalates and time to pregnancy: the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the potential effect of bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and phthalates on women's fecundity, as measured by time to pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN:Pregnancy-based retrospective TTP study. SETTING:Not applicable. PATIENT(S):A total of 2,001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy recruited betw...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vélez MP,Arbuckle TE,Fraser WD

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term urinary retention after laparoscopic surgery for deep endometriosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To report on chronic urinary retention after surgery for deep endometriosis and the possible risk factors for this complication. DESIGN:Descriptive study. SETTING:University hospital. PATIENT(S):Four patients with deep endometriosis who developed this complication. INTERVENTION(S):Laparoscopic surgery, in...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kovoor E,Nassif J,Miranda-Mendoza I,Lang-Avérous G,Wattiez A

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?

    abstract::Cosmetics contain a vast number of chemicals, most of which are not under the regulatory purview of the Food and Drug Administration. Only a few of these chemicals have been evaluated for potential deleterious health impact: parabens, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and siloxanes. A review of the ingredi...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chow ET,Mahalingaiah S

    更新日期:2016-09-15 00:00:00

  • Weak linkage in androgen receptor: identification of mutation-prone points.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Mutation within androgen receptor (AR) can be seen. Presently, prediction of protein nanostructure and function is a great challenge in the proteomics and structural genomics era. To identify the points vulnerable to mutation is a new trend to expand the knowledge on disorders in genomic and proteomic level o...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wiwanitkit V

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Endometrial receptivity: the age-related decline in pregnancy rates and the effect of ovarian function.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of age and ovarian function on endometrial receptivity. DESIGN:Retrospective comparison between standard IVF and ovum donation in younger and older patients (< 40 and > or = 40 years of age, respectively). PATIENTS:In standard IVF, there were 325 transfer cycles in older patients and 1,...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yaron Y,Botchan A,Amit A,Kogosowski A,Yovel I,Lessing JB

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cryopreservation of human prophase I oocytes collected from unstimulated follicles.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the cryopreservation of immature human oocytes obtained from unstimulated ovarian tissue. DESIGN:Immature prophase I oocytes were obtained from unstimulated follicles and were either cryopreserved or cultured as controls. Cryopreservation was performed in a programmable freezing machine using one...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toth TL,Lanzendorf SE,Sandow BA,Veeck LL,Hassen WA,Hansen K,Hodgen GD

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effectiveness of foot reflexology in inducing ovulation: a sham-controlled randomized trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether foot reflexology, a complementary therapy, has an effect greater than sham reflexology on induction of ovulation. DESIGN:Sham-controlled randomized trial with patients and statistician blinded. SETTING:Infertility clinic in Plymouth, United Kingdom. PATIENT(S):Forty-eight women attendi...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Holt J,Lord J,Acharya U,White A,O'Neill N,Shaw S,Barton A

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of hirsutism with ethinyl estradiol-desogestrel contraceptive pills has beneficial effects on the lipid profile and improves insulin sensitivity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects on the lipid pattern and insulin sensitivity of hirsute women of an oral contraceptive pill containing 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 microg of desogestrel. DESIGN:Prospective clinical study. SETTING:Tertiary care institutional hospital. PATIENT(S):16 hirsute women. INTERVE...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Escobar-Morreale HF,Lasunción MA,Sancho J

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • The discriminatory human chorionic gonadotropin zone for endovaginal sonography: a prospective, randomized study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the probability of detecting the gestational sac of a normal intrauterine pregnancy by vaginal ultrasound at different gestational ages and serum hCG concentrations. DESIGN:Prospective, randomized study. SETTING:Pregnant human volunteers in a university-based clinical research environment. PAT...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kadar N,Bohrer M,Kemmann E,Shelden R

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ten-year variation in semen parameters and sperm deoxyribonucleic acid integrity in a healthy fertile man.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To report parameters in semen samples and sperm DNA integrity in a healthy fertile volunteer over a 10-year period. DESIGN:Case report. SETTING:University-affiliated teaching hospital. INTERVENTION(S):None. PATIENT(S):Semen samples from a nonsmoking healthy male volunteer of proven fertility aged from 40 ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sergerie M,Mieusset R,Daudin M,Thonneau P,Bujan L

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Second-look laparoscopy in infertility surgery: therapeutic and prognostic value.

    abstract::Sixty infertile women underwent infertility surgery followed by "second-look laparoscopy" (SLL). All these women had undergone detailed fertility workups, including a diagnostic laparoscopy prior to surgery. The tuboovarian adhesive disease was staged according to the severity of the disease and compared with findings...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raj SG,Hulka JF

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pink or blue? The need for regulation is black and white.

    abstract::A new direct-to-consumer genetic test purports to detect fetal gender as early as five weeks of pregnancy. The availability of this test highlights the consequences of the current system of oversight for genetic tests and underscores the need for an enhanced regulatory framework to ensure the accuracy, reliability, an...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Javitt GH

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00