Possible mechanism for the effect of ketogenic diet in cases of uncontrolled seizures. The reconsideration of acetone theory.


:High fat and low carbohydrate diet, designated ketogenic diet, has been successfully used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy in a portion of patients, particularly in children. Several hypotheses have been worked out for the explanation of its beneficial effects, among others acetone has been raised as a causative factor. However, despite the endeavours the mode of action of the diet is still an enigma. And it is also not known why the diet is effective in some patients, while in others it is without any effect. Here a possible way for the effect of ketogenic diet is proposed in which the central point of seizure preventing effect of the diet is the metabolism of acetone. The proposal nominates S-D-lactoylglutathione, an intermediate of acetone metabolism, as a factor being responsible for seizure controlling effect of ketogenic diet and on the other hand, a sequence of evidence is given for the support of suggestion. S-D-lactoylglutathione would exert its effect by the influence of K(+) channels. The proposal also gives an explanation of why only a portion of patients benefit while on the diet. A proposition is also made for the future directions of research involving the measurement of intermediates of S-D-glutathione breakdown in the cerebrospinal fluid and clinical trials with selected groups of patients. The establishment of this specific mechanism for the ketogenic diet may lead to novel strategies for the investigation and the treatment of intractable epilepsies.


Med Hypotheses


Medical hypotheses


Kalapos MP




Has Abstract


2007-01-01 00:00:00














  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm and cerebral aneurysm present different pathological evolutions and responses to pharmacological therapy.

    abstract::Over-degradation of extracellular components by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated as an important characteristic during the pathological evolution of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and cerebral aneurysm (CA), which contribute to progressive dilation of vascular wall. However, mRNA and protein e...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou X,Ji WJ,Tu Y,Yao M,Li YM

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Serum albumin-mediated strategy for the effective targeting of SARS-CoV-2.

    abstract::Novel coronavirus (NCoV-19), also known as SARS CoV-2, is a pathogen causing an emerging infection that rapidly increases in incidence and geographic range, is associated with the ever-increasing morbidity and mortality rates, and shows sever economic impact worldwide. The WHO declares the NCoV-19 infection disease (C...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mani Mishra P,Uversky VN,Nandi CK

    更新日期:2020-04-24 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant targeted therapy with trastuzumab may decrease metastatic capacity in specific group of oropharyngeal cancer patients: downregulation of E-cadherin-catenin complex by cooperative effect of erbB-2 and human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7 protooncoge

    abstract::Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is causally associated with a subset of oral cancers, predominantly those cancers arising in the oropharynx (OP). Increased HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogene expressions are responsible for the malignant transmission in these cancers. ErbB-2 is the family member most closely implicated in hum...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Altundag O,Altundag K,Morandi P,Gunduz M

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of progesterone/estradiol ratio in exploring the mechanism of late follicular progesterone elevation in low ovarian reserve women.

    abstract::Late follicular progesterone (P) elevation continues to complicate a significant part of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) cycles, despite the ardent employment of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues. In women with good ovarian reserve, late follicular P elevation is believed to be the result of the...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Younis JS

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): disordered brown fat metabolism and thermogenesis.

    abstract::Foster found areas with the highest incidence of SIDS in USA in 1983-1984 coincided with the highest areas recorded with the highest incidence of goitre in First World War troops (1). Reid compared the two populations described as having the highest incidence of SIDS worldwide. Both were selenium deficient areas (King...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reid G,Tervit H

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Implicit Association Test: a possible tool for screening patients for orthognathic surgery.

    abstract::In orthognathic surgery, many serious medical disputes and postsurgical dissatisfactions are not caused by the doctors' reasons, but due to the patients' psychological problems. These adverse events obsess not only surgeons, but also patients to a great extent. An effective method is expected to screen patients for or...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu D,Fang B,Wang F,Wang X,Zhang W,Dai J,Shen SG

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Individual variations in energy utilized for biomechanical processes and molecular mobility account for diverse susceptibility to obesity.

    abstract::To explain why subjects vary in body fat content despite similar nutrient intake and physical activity, a hypothesis is proposed invoking individual variability in the potentially vast quantities of energy utilizable for such biomechanical functions as cellular motility processes, and for protein mobility. The collect...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roncari DA

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Could diet be used to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease?

    abstract::Researchers have recently reported a possible inverse relationship between taking steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or both, and the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this article it is hypothesized that the reduction in the human body of the amount of available arachidonic acid, the precursor of...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newman PE

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Severe blood loss during spinal reconstructive procedures: the potential usefulness of topical hemostatic agents.

    abstract::Complex spinal reconstructive procedures are invariably associated with excessive intraoperative blood loss that significantly increases the risk of severe perioperative complications. In some cases, excessive hemorrhage is equivalent to estimated total blood volume. Unfortunately, widely exposed bony surfaces are not...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Block JE

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • BSE did not cause variant CJD: an alternative cause related to post-industrial environmental contamination.

    abstract::The new prion diseases that have emerged in the last 15 years are bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (variant CJD). Although initially confined to the UK, these diseases have recently emerged in other European countries. The accepted cause of the human disease is that BSE spre...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown DR

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Testosterone therapy, thrombophilia, and hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis-pulmonary embolus, an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study.

    abstract::Our hypothesis was that testosterone therapy (TT) interacts with previously undiagnosed thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis, leading to hospitalization for deep venous thrombosis (DVT)-pulmonary emboli (PE). We determined the prevalence of DVT-PE associated with TT 147 men hospitalized in the last 12 months for DVT-PE. Of ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Glueck CJ,Friedman J,Hafeez A,Hassan A,Wang P

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Auto-immune therapy against human allergic disease: a physiological self defence factor.

    abstract::Guinea-pigs sensitised to ovalbumen excrete the antigen in their urine in a therapeutic concentration which prevents anaphylactic death after injection of a challenge dose of the ovalbumen. Sublingual administration of the correct dose of urine from allergic patients also provides therapeutic control of their allergic...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson CW,Lewis A

    更新日期:1983-10-01 00:00:00

  • Views on the sustenance of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the environment.

    abstract::Microbial resistance to conventional as well as newly introduced drugs is a hallmark feature of several infectious diseases, notably tuberculosis. It is hypothesized that the greater the selective pressure exerted by increasingly potent drugs, the more rapidly is an organism able to adapt to a drug-containing environm...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Basu A,Mistry NF,Antia NH

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Combination drug therapy for multimodal treatment of cancer by targeting mitochondrial transcriptional pathway: An in-silico approach.

    abstract::Cancer pathologies are deeply associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. TFAM, transcription factor A of mitochondria plays eminent role in transcription and replication of mtDNA to synthesize different mitochondrial proteins, has been reported to have elevated levels during malignancy and can be a compelling target o...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pandey AK,Verma S

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Do aflatoxin and polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens delete genes in the regions of chromosomes acted on by steroid hormones?

    abstract::The hypothesis is proposed that: 1. Aflatoxin B1 and polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens bind to the regions of DNA to which steroid hormones bind and cause the deletion of genes in these regions. 2. The deletion of these genes may be responsible for a reduced number of ribosomes bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. 3. ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Money-Kyrle AF

    更新日期:1977-07-01 00:00:00

  • Edaravone: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of acute stroke.

    abstract::Acute stroke, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and acute hemorrhagic stroke, (AHS) is a common medical problem with particular relevance to the demographic changes in industrialized societies. In recent years, treatments for AIS have emerged, including thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Althou...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kikuchi K,Kawahara K,Miyagi N,Uchikado H,Kuramoto T,Morimoto Y,Tancharoen S,Miura N,Takenouchi K,Oyama Y,Shrestha B,Matsuda F,Yoshida Y,Arimura S,Mera K,Tada K,Yoshinaga N,Maenosono R,Ohno Y,Hashiguchi T,Maruyama

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Amplification of extracellular nucleotide-induced leukocyte(s) degranulation by contingent autocrine and paracrine mode of leukotriene-mediated chemokine receptor activation.

    abstract::Extracellular nucleotide-induced stimulation and activation of peripheral blood leukocytes and subsequent degranulation play a critical role in immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction and other inflammatory diseases. The extracellular nucleotides stimulate a P2Y receptor(s) on human PMN with the pharmacological profi...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kannan S

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Euchromatinization of mammalian nuclei.

    abstract::This paper discusses a mechanism for converting heterochromatin into the more relaxed state of euchromatin. Actuation of such state conversion stems from disassembly of internal vesicles that are incapable of surviving when trapped within the inner chamber of mammalian nuclei. ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matioli GT

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pathophysiology of intracranial epidural haematoma following birth.

    abstract::Epidural haematoma in newborn infants is rare, and few specific obstetrical data related to its formation are available in the literature. The aim of this study is to discuss the pathophysiology of this condition. EDH is always a post traumatic lesion and it is only possible if the insult has produced a cleavage of th...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamlat A,Heckly A,Adn M,Poulain P

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preventing osteoporosis with exercise: a review with emphasis on methodology.

    abstract::Exercise is thought to have considerable potential as a preventive for osteoporosis. We critically examined 27 studies that address the prophylactic role of exercise in osteoporosis. The results from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showed that differences in bone mass were more pronounced in the axial sk...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Block JE,Smith R,Friedlander A,Genant HK

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Could cells from menstrual blood be a new source for cell-based therapies?

    abstract::Human endometrium is a highly regenerative tissue and contains a low number of cells which have high replicative ability and differentiation efficiency. This has been identified by many scientists. When the fresh growth of tissue and blood vessels is shed during each menstrual cycle, some cells with regenerative capab...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang MJ,Liu B,Xia W,Sun ZY,Lu KH

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • A model of dynamic sacro-iliac joint instability from malrecruitment of gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles resulting in low back pain.

    abstract::The objective of this work is to propose a biomechanical model of sacro-iliac joint dysfunction as a cause of low back pain. Sacro-iliac joint is known to be a source of low back pain. We also know that it is a very stable joint with little mobility. Surrounding lower limb and back muscles contribute a major part of t...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hossain M,Nokes LD

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transcriptional homeostasis: a mechanism of protein quality control.

    abstract::Sickle cell anaemia confirms that minor mutations in protein sequence can have catastrophic effects. However, RNA transcription depends on polymerases that have low fidelity and introduce errors at a rate of 10(-5) substitutions/base synthesised. For many large proteins translation of these errors could result in sign...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sallie R

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • IGF - Autism prevention/amelioration.

    abstract::Autism continues to be a significant cause of psychosocial pathology in affected children and adults. Until recently, the predominant research thrust to uncover the cause of this condition has been the search for a major nuclear mutation. Although a small percentage of cases do demonstrate such a DNA fault, recent eff...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steinman G

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Malignancy may contribute to rapid evolution.

    abstract::Characteristics of malignant tumors, including anaerobic metabolism and metastases to lung, liver, bone and brain, may permit the enhanced survival of edited parts of the genome during periods of rapid environmental change. Carcinogenesis may be partially analogous to fossilization. ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fischer K

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Foetal origins of adult diseases: just a matter of stem cell number?

    abstract::Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with insulin resistance, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Postnatal tissues contain stem cells that though quiescent, retain their capacity to self-renew and regenerate tissues to fulfil organ demands. I propo...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cianfarani S

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Biophysical body-brain-mind unity: theory and practice.

    abstract::A novel substance-attributed biophysical theory of brain-mind unity is presented. We separate spiritualism and matters of the soul from the medical sphere. Biophysical principles are responsible for the body's operational regimen (BOR) in the homeostatic state which allows for materialization and emergence of the mind...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naisberg Y

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Toward a holistic-organismic conceptualization of attachment style.

    abstract::A holistic-organismic approach is suggested as foundation for intensified, systematic inquiry into relationships among adult attachment styles and various dimensions of physical and mental health. Exploratory findings of differences in stamina associated with adult attachment style are noted. The extent to which attac...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pellegrini RJ,Hicks RA,Camagna-Foley TF,Donato M

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Migraine associated with gastrointestinal disorders: A pathophysiological explanation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Migraine is a highly prevalent, disabling, and costly disorder worldwide. From a long time ago, headaches have been known to be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Headaches originating from gastric complaints were appreciated by Persian Medicine (PM) scholars. Today, functional GI disorders are...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Talafi Noghani M,Namdar H

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with neural stem cells expressing choline acetyltransferase.

    abstract::Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, with increasing incidence and prevalence in the last one-half century. IBD patients suffer from autonomic vagal neuropathy and nerve dysfunction, with deficiency of acetylcholine in inflamed mucosa. Recent studies showed that death of enteric neuron ...

    journal_title:Medical hypotheses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo Y,Lu N,Bai A

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00