Statistics review 2: samples and populations.


:The previous review in this series introduced the notion of data description and outlined some of the more common summary measures used to describe a dataset. However, a dataset is typically only of interest for the information it provides regarding the population from which it was drawn. The present review focuses on estimation of population values from a sample.


Crit Care


Whitley E,Ball J





Has Abstract


2002-04-01 00:00:00












  • Influence of different electrode belt positions on electrical impedance tomography imaging of regional ventilation: a prospective observational study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive bedside tool which allows an individualized ventilator strategy by monitoring tidal ventilation and lung aeration. EIT can be performed at different cranio-caudal thoracic levels, but data are missing about the optimal belt position. The main goal of th...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karsten J,Stueber T,Voigt N,Teschner E,Heinze H

    更新日期:2016-01-08 00:00:00

  • Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bendel S,Koivisto T,Ruokonen E,Rinne J,Romppanen J,Vauhkonen I,Kiviniemi V,Uusaro A

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence-based review of the use of the pulmonary artery catheter: impact data and complications.

    abstract::The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) was introduced in 1971 for the assessment of heart function at the bedside. Since then it has generated much enthusiasm and controversy regarding the benefits and potential harms caused by this invasive form of hemodynamic monitoring. This review discusses all clinical studies condu...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hadian M,Pinsky MR

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pulse-pressure variation and hemodynamic response in patients with elevated pulmonary artery pressure: a clinical study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Pulse-pressure variation (PPV) due to increased right ventricular afterload and dysfunction may misleadingly suggest volume responsiveness. We aimed to assess prediction of volume responsiveness with PPV in patients with increased pulmonary artery pressure. METHODS:Fifteen cardiac surgery patients with a ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wyler von Ballmoos M,Takala J,Roeck M,Porta F,Tueller D,Ganter CC,Schröder R,Bracht H,Baenziger B,Jakob SM

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Biomarkers of sepsis: time for a reappraisal.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Sepsis biomarkers can have important diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic functions. In a previous review, we identified 3370 references reporting on 178 different biomarkers related to sepsis. In the present review, we evaluate the progress in the research of sepsis biomarkers. METHODS:Using the same ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pierrakos C,Velissaris D,Bisdorff M,Marshall JC,Vincent JL

    更新日期:2020-06-05 00:00:00

  • Preload-independent mechanisms contribute to increased stroke volume following large volume saline infusion in normal volunteers: a prospective interventional study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Resuscitation with saline is a standard initial response to hypotension or shock of almost any cause. Saline resuscitation is thought to generate an increase in cardiac output through a preload-dependent (increased end-diastolic volume) augmentation of stroke volume. We sought to confirm this to be the mec...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kumar A,Anel R,Bunnell E,Zanotti S,Habet K,Haery C,Marshall S,Cheang M,Neumann A,Ali A,Kavinsky C,Parrillo JE

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical review: immunomodulatory effects of dopamine in general inflammation.

    abstract::Large quantitaties of inflammatory mediators are released during the course of endotoxaemia. These mediators in turn can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to release catecholamines, which ultimately regulate inflammation-associated impairment in tissue perfusion, myocardial impairment and vasodilatation. ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beck GCh,Brinkkoetter P,Hanusch C,Schulte J,van Ackern K,van der Woude FJ,Yard BA

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • First evidence of a pro-inflammatory response to severe infection with influenza virus H1N1.

    abstract::The great majority of infections caused by the pandemic variant of the influenza virus (nvH1N1) are self-limited, but a small percentage of patients develop severe symptoms requiring hospitalization. Bermejo-Martin and colleagues have presented a pilot study describing the differences in the early immune response for ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 评论,信件


    authors: de Castro IF,Guzmán-Fulgencio M,García-Alvarez M,Resino S

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Translocation of bacterial NOD2 agonist and its link with inflammation.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The gut is often considered as the motor of critical illness through bacterial translocation, which amplifies the inflammatory response and alters the immune status. However, systemic bacterial translocation was rarely proven and endotoxin measurement only reflects translocation of Gram-negative-derived pr...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim OY,Monsel A,Bertrand M,Cavaillon JM,Coriat P,Adib-Conquy M

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Utility of thromboelastography and/or thromboelastometry in adults with sepsis: a systematic review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Coagulation abnormalities are frequent in sepsis. Conventional coagulation assays, however, have several limitations. A surge of interest exists in the use of point-of-care tests to diagnose hypo- and hypercoagulability in sepsis. METHODS:MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1 Janu...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Müller MC,Meijers JC,Vroom MB,Juffermans NP

    更新日期:2014-02-10 00:00:00

  • Recognition of hypovolemic shock: using base deficit to think outside of the ATLS box.

    abstract::Base deficit has frequently been utilized as an informal adjunct in the initial evaluation of trauma patients to assess the extent of their physiologic derangements. However, the current Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) classification system for hypovolemic shock does not include base-deficit measurements and relie...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Privette AR,Dicker RA

    更新日期:2013-03-13 00:00:00

  • A positive fluid balance is an independent prognostic factor in patients with sepsis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Intravenous fluid administration is an essential component of sepsis management, but a positive fluid balance has been associated with worse prognosis. We analyzed whether a positive fluid balance and its persistence over time was an independent prognostic factor in septic patients. METHODS:We prospective...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Acheampong A,Vincent JL

    更新日期:2015-06-15 00:00:00

  • Clinical review: Ethics and end-of-life care for critically ill patients in China.

    abstract::Critical care medicine in China has made great advances in recent decades. This has led to an unavoidable issue: end-of-life ethics. With advances in medical technology and therapeutics allowing the seemingly limitless maintenance of life, the exact time of death of an individual patient is often determined by the dec...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li LB

    更新日期:2013-12-04 00:00:00

  • Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition but not beta-adrenergic stimulation suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in septic shock.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2-ARs) inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release in monocytes. In septic shock, endogenous catecholamines induce beta2-AR downregulation, leading to an increased TNF-alpha release. The aims of this study were to analyze the molecular mechanisms ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Link A,Selejan S,Maack C,Lenz M,Böhm M

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Positive end-expiratory pressure optimization with forced oscillation technique reduces ventilator induced lung injury: a controlled experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Protocols using high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in combination with low tidal volumes have been shown to reduce mortality in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal method for setting PEEP is yet to be defined. It has been shown that resp...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kostic P,Zannin E,Andersson Olerud M,Pompilio PP,Hedenstierna G,Pedotti A,Larsson A,Frykholm P,Dellaca RL

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of fluid challenge effect: filling pressure when left ventricular function is abnormal, diastolic volume when left ventricular function is normal.

    abstract::Fluid resuscitation is a cornerstone of intensive care unit patient care, but prediction of the cardiovascular response remains difficult, despite many efforts in clinical research. The concept of responders and nonresponders illustrates such a difficulty. Many techniques have been tested, from strictly non-invasive t...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Payen D

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of goal-directed fluid therapy based on dynamic parameters on post-surgical outcome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness, namely systolic pressure variation, pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation and pleth variability index have been shown to be useful to identify in advance patients who will respond to a fluid load by a significant increase in stroke volume and cardiac ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Benes J,Giglio M,Brienza N,Michard F

    更新日期:2014-10-28 00:00:00

  • Clinical review: Prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in acute brain injury and coma.

    abstract::Progress in management of critically ill neurological patients has led to improved survival rates. However, severe residual neurological impairment, such as persistent coma, occurs in some survivors. This raises concerns about whether it is ethically appropriate to apply aggressive care routinely, which is also associ...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weiss N,Galanaud D,Carpentier A,Naccache L,Puybasset L

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Increased serum soluble Fas after major trauma is associated with delayed neutrophil apoptosis and development of sepsis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Deregulated apoptosis and overshooting neutrophil functions contribute to immune and organ dysfunction in sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). In the present study, we determined the role of soluble Fas (sFas) in the regulation of posttraumatic neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and the development of seps...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paunel-Görgülü A,Flohé S,Scholz M,Windolf J,Lögters T

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nondrug costs of therapy in acute care--are they important?

    abstract::Drug acquisition costs are only a proportion of the total costs associated with drug therapy. The relevance of these costs are often not appreciated. However, they impact on the Intensive Care Unit via resources and quality of care. Increased indirect care by medical and nursing staff has the potential to adversely af...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Edbrooke DL,Bourne RS

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as an early prognostic factor in cancer patients developing septic shock.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The overall prognosis of critically ill patients with cancer has improved during the past decade. The aim of this study was to identify early prognostic factors of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in patients with cancer. METHODS:We designed a prospective, consecutive, observational study over a one-ye...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mokart D,Sannini A,Brun JP,Faucher M,Blaise D,Blache JL,Faucher C

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Functional hemodynamic monitoring.

    abstract::Hemodynamic monitoring is a central component of intensive care. Patterns of hemodynamic variables often suggest cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, or distributive (septic) etiologies to cardiovascular insufficiency, thus defining the specific treatments required. Monitoring increases in invasiveness, as required,...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pinsky MR,Payen D

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Early identification of intensive care unit-acquired infections with daily monitoring of C-reactive protein: a prospective observational study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Manifestations of sepsis are sensitive but are poorly specific of infection. Our aim was to assess the value of daily measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), temperature and white cell count (WCC) in the early identification of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections. METHODS:We undertook a prospe...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Póvoa P,Coelho L,Almeida E,Fernandes A,Mealha R,Moreira P,Sabino H

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial exposure and the risk of delirium in critically ill patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prior retrospective cross-sectional work has associated antimicrobials with a non-specific phrase: encephalopathy without seizures. The purpose of this study is to determine whether different classes of antimicrobials have differential associations with the daily risk of delirium after critical illness is ad...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grahl JJ,Stollings JL,Rakhit S,Person AK,Wang L,Thompson JL,Pandharipande PP,Ely EW,Patel MB

    更新日期:2018-12-12 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for multidrug resistant bacteria and optimization of empirical antibiotic therapy in postoperative peritonitis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The main objective was to determine risk factors for presence of multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) in postoperative peritonitis (PP) and optimal empirical antibiotic therapy (EA) among options proposed by Infectious Disease Society of America and the Surgical Infection Society guidelines. METHODS:One hun...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Augustin P,Kermarrec N,Muller-Serieys C,Lasocki S,Chosidow D,Marmuse JP,Valin N,Desmonts JM,Montravers P

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Year in review 2013: Critical Care--respirology.

    abstract::This review documents important progress made in 2013 in the field of critical care respirology, in particular with regard to acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Twenty-five original articles published in the respirology and critical care sections of Critical Care are discussed in the fo...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Curley GF,Slutsky AS

    更新日期:2014-10-15 00:00:00

  • Muscle regeneration after sepsis.

    abstract::Severe critical illness is often complicated by intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), which is associated with increased ICU and post-ICU mortality, delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and long-term functional disability. Several mechanisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ICU-AW, but m...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouglé A,Rocheteau P,Sharshar T,Chrétien F

    更新日期:2016-05-19 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (Cys-C), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) are novel diagnostic biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). We aimed to determine the diagnostic properties of these biomarkers for detecting AKI in critically ill...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai X,Zeng Z,Fu C,Zhang S,Cai Y,Chen Z

    更新日期:2015-05-06 00:00:00

  • Association between hospital volume and network membership and an analgesia, sedation and delirium order set quality score: a cohort study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Protocols for the delivery of analgesia, sedation and delirium care of the critically ill, mechanically ventilated patient have been shown to improve outcomes but are not uniformly used. The extent to which elements of analgesia, sedation and delirium guidelines are incorporated into order sets at hospital...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Dale CR,Hayden SJ,Treggiari MM,Curtis JR,Seymour CW,Yanez ND 3rd,Fan VS

    更新日期:2012-06-18 00:00:00

  • Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity after intracranial catastrophies: what is enough?

    abstract::This commentary on a paper by Bendel and colleagues in the previous issue of Critical Care describes the difficulty in assessing the sufficiency of adrenal responses to endogenous, stress-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release by the pituitary or to exogenous ACTH administration in the critically ill patie...

    journal_title:Critical care (London, England)

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Groeneveld AB,Beishuizen A,Molenaar N

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00