Does the brain influence somatic responses to noxious stimuli during isoflurane anesthesia?


BACKGROUND:Recent evidence suggests that anesthetic action within the spinal cord is important in suppressing somatic responses to painful stimuli. Whether the brain influences this response is not clear. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the brain affects anesthetic requirements. METHODS:Six goats were anesthetized with isoflurane. After tracheal intubation and femoral arterial cannulation, bilateral neck dissections were performed to isolate the external carotid arteries and external jugular veins. The occipital arteries were ligated bilaterally. Control isoflurane requirements as defined by the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) were determined by using a dew-claw clamp as a painful stimulus. Cranial venous blood was drained into a bubble oxygenator in which an isoflurane vaporizer was placed in line with the gas flow, and arterial blood was infused into a carotid artery with a roller pump. This arrangement permitted selective control of the delivery of anesthetic to the head and to the systemic circulation. Isoflurane concentration in the arterial blood delivered to the head was estimated from the isoflurane concentration in the oxygenator exhaust. While isoflurane concentration in the head was maintained at approximately 0.2-0.3%, MAC for the body was determined. After return to the native circulation, MAC was determined again. RESULTS:During bypass with cranial isoflurane concentration at 0.2-0.3%, all animals showed varying, intermittent degrees of light anesthesia, including spontaneous head movement, chewing, swallowing, and eye opening. Isoflurane MAC was 1.4 +/- 0.2% (mean +/- SD) at baseline, decreased to 0.8 +/- 0.1% during bypass (P < 0.05), and increased to 1.2 +/- 0.2% after bypass (P not significant compared with baseline). CONCLUSIONS:These results verify the importance of volatile anesthetic action at an extracranial site vis à vis purposeful movement in response to a noxious stimulus. Furthermore, the results confirm that the brain affects anesthetic requirements.






Borges M,Antognini JF




Has Abstract


1994-12-01 00:00:00












  • A 1966 Anesthetic Administered by Robert D. Dripps, M.D., Demonstrated His Experimental Style of Clinical Care.

    abstract::Robert D. Dripps, M.D. (1911 to 1973), helped found academic anesthesiology. Newly reviewed teaching slides from the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) contain six anesthesia records from 1965 to 1967 that involved Dripps. They illustrate the clinical philosophy he taught-to consider administratio...


    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Johnstone RE,Fleisher LA

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    abstract:BACKGROUND:Preservation of gut integrity has become a therapeutic goal to obviate bacterial translocation in the critically ill. The authors examined whether olprinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, protected functional and structural integrity of gut mucosa against acute progressive hypoxia. METHODS:Thirty-two a...


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    authors: Satoh T,Morisaki H,Ai K,Kosugi S,Yamamoto M,Serita R,Kotake Y,Takeda J

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Alterations in the functional connectivity of frontal lobe networks preceding emergence delirium in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to characterize the electroencephalogram in children who emerged with emergence delirium (ED) compared with children without ED using methods that involved the assessment of cortical functional connectivity. METHODS:Children aged 5 to 15 yr had multichannel electroencephalographic recording...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin JC,Liley DT,Harvey AS,Kuhlmann L,Sleigh JW,Davidson AJ

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of intramuscular clonidine on hemodynamic and plasma beta-endorphin responses to gynecologic laparoscopy.

    abstract::Ninety women undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly given clonidine 3 or 4.5 micrograms/kg or saline intramuscularly 45-60 min prior to induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 3.5 mg/kg and maintained with 0.3% end-tidal isoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen. The laparoscopy did not ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Aho M,Lehtinen AM,Laatikainen T,Korttila K

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • The cerebral and systemic hemodynamic and metabolic effects of desflurane-induced hypotension in dogs.

    abstract::The cerebral and systemic hemodynamic and metabolic effects of hypotension induced with desflurane were examined in 11 dogs. During a steady-state baseline period under 1 MAC desflurane (7.2%), the following were measured or derived: arterial, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary artery occlusion pressures; arterial, mixed...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Milde LN,Milde JH

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Exogenous ethyl pyruvate versus pyruvate during metabolic recovery after oxidative stress in neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Exogenous pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate (EP), the key ingredient in a new Ringer's solution in clinical trials, are antioxidants as well as metabolic substrates. In vivo studies show both to be protective in oxidative stress, with EP being better. The authors used an acute rat brain slice preparation to compar...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeng J,Liu J,Yang GY,Kelly MJ,James TL,Litt L

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::To determine if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) is superior for achieving or maintaining effective lung volume in spontaneously breathing critically ill patients in acute respiratory failure, the authors measured functional residual capacity (FRC), airway and es...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schlobohm RM,Falltrick RT,Quan SF,Katz JA

    更新日期:1981-10-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the spinal actions of the mu-opioid remifentanil with alfentanil and morphine in the rat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:mu-Opioids administered spinally produce a potent, dose-dependent analgesic response in preclinical and clinical investigations. Side-effect profile of these compounds may be altered as a function of pharmacokinetics. The effects of intrathecal and intraperitoneal remifentanil, an esterase-metabolized mu opi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buerkle H,Yaksh TL

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Flammability of endotracheal tubes during Nd-YAG laser application in the airway.

    abstract::The effects of the neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser on several commonly used endotracheal tubes were examined. Six different types of tubes were tested for flammability. Three tubes were clear, transparent polyvinylchloride with black lettering on the surface. One was yellow-green silicone rubber with ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geffin B,Shapshay SM,Bellack GS,Hobin K,Setzer SE

    更新日期:1986-11-01 00:00:00

  • Development and psychometric evaluation of the pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Emergence delirium has been investigated in several clinical trials. However, no reliable and valid rating scale exists to measure this phenomenon in children. Therefore, the authors developed and evaluated the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale to measure emergence delirium in children. M...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sikich N,Lerman J

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effect of hypothermia in cerebral oxygen deficiency caused by arterial hypoxia.

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    authors: Carlsson C,Hägerdal M,Siesjö BK

    更新日期:1976-01-01 00:00:00

  • Midazolam: effects on amnesia and anxiety in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The minimum time interval between administration of oral midazolam and separation of children from their parents that ensures good anterograde amnesia has not been previously determined. This is of particular importance in a busy operating room setting where schedule delays secondary to midazolam administrat...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kain ZN,Hofstadter MB,Mayes LC,Krivutza DM,Alexander G,Wang SM,Reznick JS

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Individual probability of allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion in elective spine surgery: the predictive model of transfusion in spine surgery.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lenoir B,Merckx P,Paugam-Burtz C,Dauzac C,Agostini MM,Guigui P,Mantz J

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  • Comparison of 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia in patients undergoing lower-extremity surgery.

    abstract::Ropivacaine is an amide local anesthetic structurally related to, but appearing less cardiotoxic, than bupivacaine. The authors' investigation was designed in a randomized, double-blind fashion to compare the clinical effectiveness of ropivacaine and bupivacaine in patients undergoing lower-extremity surgery. Forty-fi...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Brown DL,Carpenter RL,Thompson GE

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  • Intergenerational Effects of Sevoflurane in Young Adult Rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sevoflurane administered to neonatal rats induces neurobehavioral abnormalities and epigenetic reprogramming of their germ cells; the latter can pass adverse effects of sevoflurane to future offspring. As germ cells are susceptible to reprogramming by environmental factors across the lifespan, the authors hy...


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    authors: Ju LS,Yang JJ,Xu N,Li J,Morey TE,Gravenstein N,Seubert CN,Setlow B,Martynyuk AE

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    authors: Laroche D,Gomis P,Gallimidi E,Malinovsky JM,Mertes PM

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    authors: Freise H,Lauer S,Anthonsen S,Hlouschek V,Minin E,Fischer LG,Lerch MM,Van Aken HK,Sielenkämper AW

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Tanaka S,Tsuchida H

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  • Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex: a dose-finding and safety study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block. METHODS:Twenty-seven male surgical patients aged 18-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dose-response and plasma concentration-response relationships of pancuronium in man.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shanks CA,Somogyi AA,Triggs EJ

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu J,Tokinaga Y,Kuriyama T,Uematsu N,Mizumoto K,Hatano Y

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to determine whether either regional anesthesia (RA) or general anesthesia (GA) provided the best analgesia with the fewest adverse effects up to 2 weeks after ambulatory hand surgery. METHODS:Patients undergoing ambulatory hand surgery were randomly assigned to RA (axillary br...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: McCartney CJ,Brull R,Chan VW,Katz J,Abbas S,Graham B,Nova H,Rawson R,Anastakis DJ,von Schroeder H

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The effect of neuromuscular blockade with vecuronium on the hemodynamic responses to a noxious stimulus was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were anesthetized with either halothane (group 1, n = 10), or isoflurane (group 2, n = 10). The maximum values for heart rate and mean arterial pressure during ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibbs NM,Larach DR,Schuler HG

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • The well-being model: a new drug interaction model for positive and negative effects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Drugs are routinely combined in anesthesia and pain management to obtain an enhancement of the desired effects. However, a parallel enhancement of the undesired effects might take place as well, resulting in a limited therapeutic usefulness. Therefore, when addressing the question of optimal drug combination...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zanderigo E,Sartori V,Sveticic G,Bouillon T,Schumacher P,Morari M,Curatolo M

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Régnier MA,Raux M,Le Manach Y,Asencio Y,Gaillard J,Devilliers C,Langeron O,Riou B

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruells CS,Maes K,Rossaint R,Thomas D,Cielen N,Bergs I,Bleilevens C,Weis J,Gayan-Ramirez G

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the immediate effects of surgical incision on dorsal horn neuronal receptive field size and responses during postnatal development.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ririe DG,Bremner LR,Fitzgerald M

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kemmotsu O,Ueda M,Otsuka H,Yamamura T,Winter DC,Eckerle JS

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Superior Trunk Block: A Phrenic-sparing Alternative to the Interscalene Block: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rocuronium in patients with cirrhosis.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khalil M,D'Honneur G,Duvaldestin P,Slavov V,De Hys C,Gomeni R

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00