Factors affecting speed in human-powered vehicles.


:It is shown how to derive the appropriate cubic equation relating power and the effects of friction, gradient and wind resistance on the speed of a human-powered vehicle (HPV). The effects of gradient and wind resistance are explored for parameters representing a typical racing cyclist. The principal conclusion may be summarized as follows: for optimum performance in a time trial, there should be no wind and the course should be level. Any deviation from these conditions will produce a decrement in performance.


J Sports Sci


White AP




Has Abstract


1994-10-01 00:00:00












  • Psychological stress in sports coaches: a review of concepts, research, and practice.

    abstract::Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definit...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fletcher D,Scott M

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Acute sleep hygiene strategy improves objective sleep latency following a late-evening soccer-specific training session: A randomized controlled trial.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleep hygiene (SH) education on sleep quality in soccer players after a late-evening small-sided-game (SSG) training session. Twenty-nine non-professional players were recruited and allocated to either an experimental group (EG, n = 17) that received SH education, o...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vitale JA,La Torre A,Banfi G,Bonato M

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between motivational climate, perceived ability and sources of distress among elite athletes.

    abstract::Situational factors as well as individual differences are assumed to play an important role in perceptions of stress. One factor that may affect an elite athlete's perception of stress may be his or her perceived motivational climate. To examine the relative importance of dispositional and situational factors on the p...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pensgaard AM,Roberts GC

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training change-of-direction speed and small-sided games on performance in the Planned-AFL agility test and reactive agility. Twenty-five elite-standard U-18 Australian Rules football players were randomly allocated either to a change-of-direction group or a sm...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Young W,Rogers N

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of cultural background on fundamental movement skill and its correlates.

    abstract::Children's fundamental movement skill levels (FMS) predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Asian children have been reported as less active than English-Europeans, possibly due to poorer skills. This study compared the FMS of children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) backgrounds and exa...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnett LM,Telford RM,Strugnell C,Rudd J,Olive LS,Telford RD

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of habitual physical activity on response to endurance training.

    abstract::We hypothesised that habitual physical activity (PA) together with progressive endurance training contributes to the differences in training response (Δ[V(·)]O(2max)) in healthy and physically active male participants. Twenty volunteers (age 30±3 years and [V(·)]O(2max) 54±7 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) participated in an eight-wee...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hautala A,Martinmaki K,Kiviniemi A,Kinnunen H,Virtanen P,Jaatinen J,Tulppo M

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of different types of exercise on the expression of haem oxygenase-1 in leukocytes.

    abstract::Haem-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an antioxidant stress protein that is mainly induced by reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and hyperthermia. We assessed the influence of different types of exercise on HO-1 expression in leukocytes of the peripheral blood in three groups of male participants: a short exhaustive...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Fehrenbach E,Niess AM,Passek F,Sorichter S,Schwirtz A,Berg A,Dickhuth HH,Northoff H

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of postural changes on 3D joint angular velocity during starting block phase.

    abstract::Few studies have focused on the effect of posture during sprint start. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the modification of horizontal distance between the blocks during sprint start on three dimensional (3D) joint angular velocity. Nine trained sprinters started using three different starting positi...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slawinski J,Dumas R,Cheze L,Ontanon G,Miller C,Mazure-Bonnefoy A

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • An objective method for depicting team performance in elite professional rugby union.

    abstract::Using a two-study approach, we examined a methodology for objectively depicting team performance and form in a professional rugby union side. Study 1 developed standardized indicators to examine a team's performance in a single match relative to their previous matches over a domestic season via a performance report an...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones NM,James N,Mellalieu SD

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Imagery effects on the performance of skilled and novice soccer players.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an imagery training programme on the performance of a soccer task by skilled and novice players. An initial assessment of performance on the soccer task was undertaken, and then 22 skilled and 22 novice players were equally and randomly assigned to either a co...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Blair A,Hall C,Leyshon G

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • What is modelled during observational learning?

    abstract::In this article, we examine the question of what information is processed during observational learning by evaluating a variety of methods, theories, and empirical data. Initially, we review work involving neuroimaging techniques and infant imitation. We then evaluate data from behavioural experiments involving adults...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hodges NJ,Williams AM,Hayes SJ,Breslin G

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • How much, how often, how well? Adherence to a neuromuscular training warm-up injury prevention program in youth basketball.

    abstract::Adherence is a key implementation outcome that determines the effectiveness of an intervention. This study, an observational design involving coaches and players from 33 high school basketball teams, evaluated the dimensions of adherence to a basketball-specific neuromuscular training (NMT) warm-up program in youth ba...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Owoeye OBA,Emery CA,Befus K,Palacios-Derflingher L,Pasanen K

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acute cardiovascular responses to interval exercise: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Interval exercise training is increasingly recommended to improve health and fitness; however, it is not known if cardiovascular risk is different from continuous exercise protocols. This systematic review with meta-analyses assessed the effect of a single bout of interval exercise on cardiovascular responses that ind...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Price KJ,Gordon BA,Bird SR,Benson AC

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Moving Well-Being Well: Investigating the maturation of fundamental movement skill proficiency across sex in Irish children aged five to twelve.

    abstract::Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are the basic building blocks of more advanced, complex movements required to participate in physical activity. This study examined FMS proficiency across the full range of Irish primary school children (n = 2098, 47% girls, age range 5-12 years). Participants were assessed using the ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Behan S,Belton S,Peers C,O'Connor NE,Issartel J

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • A physiological, time-motion, and technical comparison of youth water polo and Acquagoal.

    abstract::The aims of this study were to provide a profile of young water polo players and to compare technical and tactical aspects, movement patterns, and cardiac loads of youth water polo and Acquagoal codes. Ten young (age 12.3 years, s = 0.6) male water polo players underwent anthropometric (stature, body mass, body mass i...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lupo C,Tessitore A,Cortis C,Ammendolia A,Figura F,Capranica L

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Revealing the decision-making of dribbling in the sport of futsal.

    abstract::This study aimed to investigate why futsal players decide to dribble. For this purpose, we analysed 396 trials comprising the dribbles (n = 132), passes (n = 131) or shots (n = 133), performed by 70 male futsal players. Passing and shooting angles, and interpersonal distance, including their rates of change (velocity ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Corrêa UC,de Pinho ST,da Silva SL,Clavijo FA,Souza TO,Tani G

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    abstract::The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk facto...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van De Pol D,Alaeikhanehshir S,Maas M,Kuijer PP

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Do previous sports experiences influence the effect of an enrichment programme in basketball skills?

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14)...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Santos S,Mateus N,Sampaio J,Leite N

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Acute changes in kinematic and muscle activity patterns in habitually shod rearfoot strikers while running barefoot.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to observe changes in the kinematics and muscle activities when barefoot running was initially adopted by six habitually shod, recreational rearfoot striking runners. Participants ran on a treadmill shod for 5 min, completed 3 × 10-min intervals of barefoot running and then completed a final ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strauts J,Vanicek N,Halaki M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physical performance and subjective ratings after a soccer-specific exercise simulation: comparison of natural grass versus artificial turf.

    abstract::This study aimed to compare the recovery kinetics of physical performance and subjective ratings in response to a soccer-specific exercise simulation on natural grass and artificial turf. Physical performance tests and subjective ratings were assessed on 13 professional soccer players before, immediately after, 24 h a...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Nédélec M,McCall A,Carling C,Le Gall F,Berthoin S,Dupont G

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of cold water immersion on repeat cycling performance and thermoregulation in the heat.

    abstract::To assess the effect of cold water immersion and active recovery on thermoregulation and repeat cycling performance in the heat, ten well-trained male cyclists completed five trials, each separated by one week. Each trial consisted of a 30-min exercise task, one of five 15-min recoveries (intermittent cold water immer...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Vaile J,Halson S,Gill N,Dawson B

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Technical and physical match performance of teams in the 2018 FIFA World Cup: Effects of two different playing styles.

    abstract::In order to investigate the effect of playing styles on the match performance of football teams, data were analysed on 18 technical performance-related variables and 8 physical performance-related variables from 59 matches in the 2018 FIFA World Cup. A k-means cluster analysis was conducted to classify all match obser...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yi Q,Gómez MA,Wang L,Huang G,Zhang H,Liu H

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of performance on process- and product-oriented assessments of fundamental motor skills across childhood.

    abstract::Process-oriented motor competence (MC) assessments evaluate how a movement is performed. Product-oriented assessments evaluate the outcome of a movement. Determining the concurrent validity of process and product assessments is important to address the predictive utility of motor competence for health. The current stu...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Logan SW,Barnett LM,Goodway JD,Stodden DF

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Goal orientations and moral identity as predictors of prosocial and antisocial functioning in male association football players.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of task and ego goal orientation and moral identity on prosocial and antisocial judgement and behaviour in football. The interaction between task and ego orientation in predicting these variables was also examined. Participants were 210 adult male footballers (age 2...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sage L,Kavussanu M,Duda J

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Putts that get missed on the right: investigating lateralized attentional biases and the nature of putting errors in golf.

    abstract::Although the effects of lateral biases in visual attention ("pseudoneglect") have been examined in real-world settings, this phenomenon has yet to be considered within the realm of sporting performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pseudoneglect on putting errors in golf. Novice golfers (n = 30...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Roberts R,Turnbull OH

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Tracking of wheelchair rugby players in the 2008 Demolition Derby trial.

    abstract::The kinematics of male wheelchair rugby players (n = 8) during the final match of the 2008 Demolition Derby were assessed using two cameras (10 Hz) and a tracking method based on image-processing techniques. The players' on-court trajectory, total and accumulated distances covered, distances covered during working and...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarro KJ,Misuta MS,Burkett B,Malone LA,Barros RM

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of various small-sided soccer games in youth players.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine acute physiological responses and time-motion characteristics associated with three different small-sided soccer game formats in youth players. Sixteen male soccer players aged 16.3+/-0.6 years (mean+/-s) completed three variations of a small-sided game (i.e. 2 vs. 2, 4 vs. 4, and ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hill-Haas SV,Dawson BT,Coutts AJ,Rowsell GJ

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Returning to competition after a serious injury: the role of self-determination.

    abstract::We tested hypotheses grounded in self-determination theory regarding athletes' cognitive appraisals and emotional reactions when returning to competition following a serious injury. Professional male athletes (N = 225) competing in the Australian Football League were presented with return-to-competition scenarios that...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Podlog L,Eklund RC

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Shared mental models and intra-team psychophysiological patterns: a test of the juggling paradigm.

    abstract::We explored implicit coordination mechanisms underlying the conceptual notion of "shared mental models" (SMM) through physiological (i.e., breathing and heart rates) and affective-cognitive (i.e., arousal, pleasantness, attention, self-efficacy, other's efficacy) monitoring of two professional jugglers performing a re...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Filho E,Pierini D,Robazza C,Tenenbaum G,Bertollo M

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • The use of artificial intelligence in the analysis of sports performance: a review of applications in human gait analysis and future directions for sports biomechanics.

    abstract::Computers have played an important supporting role in the development of experimental and theoretical sports biomechanics. The role of the computer now extends from data capture and data processing through to mathematical and statistical modelling and simulation and optimization. This paper seeks to demonstrate that e...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lapham AC,Bartlett RM

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00