Quantifying external focus of attention in sailing by means of action sport cameras.


:The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) to validate the use of action sport cameras for quantifying focus of visual attention in sailing and (2) to apply this method to examine whether an external focus of attention is associated with better performance in upwind sailing. To test the validity of this novel quantification method, we first calculated the agreement between gaze location measures and head orientation measures in 13 sailors sailing upwind during training regattas using a head mounted eye tracker. The results confirmed that for measuring visual focus of attention in upwind sailing, the agreement for the two measures was high (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.97) and the 95% limits of agreement were acceptable (between -8.0% and 14.6%). In a next step, we quantified the focus of visual attention in sailing upwind as fast as possible by means of an action sport camera. We captured sailing performance, operationalised as boat speed in the direction of the wind, and environmental conditions using a GPS, compass and wind meter. Four trials, each lasting 1 min, were analysed for 15 sailors each, resulting in a total of 30 upwind speed trials on port tack and 30 upwind speed trials on starboard tack. The results revealed that in sailing - within constantly changing environments - the focus of attention is not a significant predictor for better upwind sailing performances. This implicates that neither external nor internal foci of attention was per se correlated with better performances. Rather, relatively large interindividual differences seem to indicate that different visual attention strategies can lead to similar performance outcomes.


J Sports Sci


Pluijms JP,Cañal-Bruland R,Hoozemans MJ,Van Beek MW,Böcker K,Savelsbergh GJ




Has Abstract


2016-08-01 00:00:00












  • Self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise influences affective responses to and intentions to engage with high-intensity interval exercise.

    abstract::This study investigated the effect of self-reported tolerance of the intensity of exercise on affective responses to, self-efficacy for and intention to repeat low-volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Thirty-six healthy participants (mean age 21 ± 2 years) were split into high tolerance (HT; n = 19), low to...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bradley C,Niven A,Phillips SM

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling the relationship between isokinetic muscle strength and sprint running performance.

    abstract::Muscle strength is thought to be a major factor in athletic success. However, the relationship between muscle strength and sprint performance has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship in elite performers of isokinetic muscle strength across three lower limb joints and sprinti...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dowson MN,Nevill ME,Lakomy HK,Nevill AM,Hazeldine RJ

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Psychological characteristics of male gymnasts: differences between competitive levels.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine whether any differences exist in the cognitive and behavioural strategies of gymnasts competing at different elite levels. Thirty-eight male gymnasts competing at different competitive levels in an Australian gymnastic championship completed a standardized questionnaire prior t...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spink KS

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing.

    abstract::Previous planar models of the downswing in golf have suggested that upper limb segments (left shoulder girdle and left arm) move in a consistent fixed plane and that the clubhead also moves only in this plane. This study sought to examine these assumptions. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of seven right-handed go...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Coleman SG,Rankin AJ

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task.

    abstract::State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and high-anxiety condition. In both conditions, running was combined with dart ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nibbeling N,Daanen HA,Gerritsma RM,Hofland RM,Oudejans RR

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of cultural background on fundamental movement skill and its correlates.

    abstract::Children's fundamental movement skill levels (FMS) predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Asian children have been reported as less active than English-Europeans, possibly due to poorer skills. This study compared the FMS of children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) backgrounds and exa...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnett LM,Telford RM,Strugnell C,Rudd J,Olive LS,Telford RD

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited.

    abstract::In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the blade. The aim of the...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hofmijster M,De Koning J,Van Soest AJ

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Stress and performance: an application of Gray's three-factor arousal theory to basketball free-throw shooting.

    abstract::The suitability of Gray's (1975) three-factor arousal theory as a model of human performance under stress was investigated in a study of basketball free-throw shooting. Free-throw attempts, made by members of an NCAA Division I men's varsity team, were videotaped during one full season. On the basis of Gray's theory, ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitehead R,Butz JW,Kozar B,Vaughn RE

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of bilateral and non-dominant practices on the lateral preference in judo matches.

    abstract::This study analysed the effects of bilateral and non-dominant practice on novice practitioners' lateral preference for judo skills in a combat context (i.e., randori). Thirty sports sciences students (22 men and 8 women; mean age 19 ± 1 years) with right hand, foot, and counterclockwise rotation preferences were divid...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Iglesias-Soler E,Mayo X,Dopico X,Fernández-Del-Olmo M,Carballeira E,Fariñas J,Fernández-Uribe S

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Moral disengagement and associated processes in performance-enhancing drug use: a national qualitative investigation.

    abstract::This study investigated psychosocial processes associated with avoidance of health- and morality-based deterrents to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 64 English male bodybuilders with experience of doping. Resultant data were content analysed deductively usi...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boardley ID,Grix J,Dewar AJ

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differences between the sexes in the three-dimensional angular rotations of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during treadmill running.

    abstract::The aims of this experiment were to determine whether there are differences between the sexes in the three-dimensional angular rotations of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during running and, if such differences exist, to establish whether factors other than sex can explain the observed differences. A cohort of 44 non-in...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Schache AG,Blanch P,Rath D,Wrigley T,Bennell K

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Examination of birthplace and birthdate in World Junior ice hockey players.

    abstract::The present study investigated birthdate (known as the Relative Age Effect; RAE) and birthplace as determinants of expertise in an international sample of elite ice hockey players. The sample included 566 World Junior (WJR) ice hockey players from four countries (Canada, n = 153; USA, n = 136; Sweden, n = 140; Finland...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruner MW,Macdonald DJ,Pickett W,Côté J

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies of Parkour practitioners for executing soft precision landings.

    abstract::Parkour landing techniques differ from performances of other sports as they are practiced in urban spaces with uncontrolled surfaces and drop heights. Due to the relatively young age of the sport, few studies have tried to understand how practitioners - called traceurs - succeed at performing these dynamic performance...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maldonado G,Soueres P,Watier B

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • A biomechanical comparison of the vertical jump, power clean, and jump squat.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetics, kinematics, and muscle activation patterns of the countermovement jump, the power clean, and the jump squat with the expectation of gaining a better understanding of the mechanism of transfer from the power clean to the vertical jump. Ground reaction forces, elect...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacKenzie SJ,Lavers RJ,Wallace BB

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hip joint kinetics in the table tennis topspin forehand: relationship to racket velocity.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine hip joint kinetics during a table tennis topspin forehand, and to investigate the relationship between the relevant kinematic and kinetic variables and the racket horizontal and vertical velocities at ball impact. Eighteen male advanced table tennis players hit cross-court to...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iino Y

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Application of the principal component waveform analysis to identify improvements in vertical jump performance.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training on the force-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves using principal component analysis (PCA) to examine the pre to post intervention changes. Thirty-four trained women basketball players were randomly divided into training and control groups. The tr...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Floría P,Sánchez-Sixto A,Harrison AJ

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise training increases the S-Klotho plasma levels in sedentary middle-aged adults: A randomised controlled trial. The FIT-AGEING study.

    abstract::This study aimed to investigate the effects of different training modalities on the soluble Klotho (S-Klotho) plasma levels in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 74 middle-aged adults (53.4 ± 5.0 years old; 52.7% women) were enrolled in the FIT-AGEING study. We conducted a 12-week randomised controlled trial. Th...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Amaro-Gahete FJ,De-la-O A,Jurado-Fasoli L,Espuch-Oliver A,de Haro T,Gutierrez A,Ruiz JR,Castillo MJ

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • The respiratory time and flow profile at volitional exercise termination.

    abstract::In this study, we examine the effect of exercise on the time and flow characteristics of the respiratory cycle profile at the point of volitional exercise termination. Eight males (mean age 29 years, s = 10; body mass 74 kg, s = 7; height 1.75 m, s = 0.04) undertook a cycle test to volitional exhaustion on a cycle erg...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kift J,Williams EM

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

    abstract::Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, t...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arnold R,Fletcher D,Daniels K

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of golf shaft stiffness on grip and clubhead kinematics.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of shaft stiffness on grip and clubhead kinematics. Two driver shafts with disparate levels of stiffness, but very similar inertial properties, were tested by 33 golfers representing a range of abilities. Shaft deflection data as well as grip and clubhead kine...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacKenzie SJ,Boucher DE

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Helsen, Gilis, and Weston (2006) do not err in questioning the optical error hypothesis as the only major account for explaining offside decision-making errors.

    abstract::Oudejans, Bakker, and Beek (2007) recognize several relevant aspects of offside judgements in association football in the paper by Helsen, Gilis, and Weston (2006). We agree that the existing knowledge base on offside assessment needs to be expanded for two reasons. First, from a theoretical point of view it is import...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Helsen W,Gilis B,Weston M

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Equivalence of accelerometer data for walking and running: treadmill versus on land.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to compare equivalence and agreement of physical activity output data collected by a Research Tri-axial accelerometer (R3T) during walking and running on a treadmill versus on land. Fifty healthy volunteers, 35 males (age 21.9 +/- 1.8 years) and 15 females (age 21.6 +/- 0.7 years), underwent ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vanhelst J,Zunquin G,Theunynck D,Mikulovic J,Bui-Xuan G,Beghin L

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • A meta-regression of the effects of resistance training frequency on muscular strength and hypertrophy in adults over 60 years of age.

    abstract::Resistance training is a commonly used strategy for improving both athletic performance and general health. While the contribution of resistance training intensity and volume to muscle strength and hypertrophy have been extensively investigated, training frequency only recently received sufficient attention, especiall...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kneffel Z,Murlasits Z,Reed J,Krieger J

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamins, minerals and supplementation in soccer.

    abstract::Despite low mineral intakes in several groups of female 'ball-game' players, investigations of blood profiles and physical performance do not indicate any evident physiological benefits of micronutrient supplementation. Nevertheless, measurements of iron status are warranted, particularly in female athletes. Iron ther...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fogelholm M

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performances within an entire football league during a full season.

    abstract::The study examined Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YYIR2) and submaximal YYIR1 test performances in 172 male semi-professional football players (age; 25.8 ± 4.1 years) representing all teams in a top league at pre-season, start-season, mid-season and end-season. YYIR2 performance was 847 ± 227 m (±SD) at pre-seas...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohr M,Krustrup P

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

    abstract::At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Farrally MR,Cochran AJ,Crews DJ,Hurdzan MJ,Price RJ,Snow JT,Thomas PR

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of carbohydrate ingestion during cycling exercise on affective valence and activation in recreational exercisers.

    abstract::Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances "feel-good" responses during acute exercise but no study has examined the effect of regular ingestion of CHO on affective valence. We investigated the effect of CHO ingestion on perceptual responses and perceived work intensity of individual exercise sessions throughout a 10-week ...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lee V,Rutherfurd-Markwick K,Ali A

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was us...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gates PE,Campbell IG,George KP

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Eating behaviours related to psychological stress are associated with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea in exercising women.

    abstract::Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (FHA) can occur due to the independent or combined effects of psychogenic and energetic stressors. In exercising women, research has primarily focused on energy deficiency as the cause of FHA while psychological stressors have been ignored. To assess both psychological and metabolic...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strock NCA,De Souza MJ,Williams NI

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • 30 min of treadmill walking at self-selected speed does not increase gait variability in independent elderly.

    abstract::Walking is one of the preferred exercises among elderly, but could a prolonged walking increase gait variability, a risk factor for a fall in the elderly? Here we determine whether 30 min of treadmill walking increases coefficient of variation of gait in elderly. Because gait responses to exercise depend on fitness le...

    journal_title:Journal of sports sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Da Rocha ES,Kunzler MR,Bobbert MF,Duysens J,Carpes FP

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00