Contribution of the amygdala to learning and performance of conditional fear.


:The amygdaloid complex appears to be an essential component in the neural systems mediating some forms of aversive Pavlovian conditioning. The relative contribution of this structure to acquisition and performance during fear conditioning was assessed by making temporary lesions in the amygdala prior to training or retention testing in a single-trial Pavlovian conditioning preparation. Microinjection of lidocaine HCl (5.0%, 1.0 microliters) into the amygdala prior to the presentation of a CS signalling footshock resulted in a significant attenuation of the performance of conditional fear, as indexed by the amount of time rats spent engaged in defensive freezing behavior during the retention session. However, similar treatment with lidocaine prior to the training session, during which the CS and UCS were paired, resulted in only a weak reduction in subsequent responding. Thus, while both acquisition- and performance-related processes take place within the amygdala, it appears that the latter are more sensitive to disruption using the present procedures. These results are discussed in terms of the general role played by this structure in aversive learning and motivational processes.


Physiol Behav


Physiology & behavior


Helmstetter FJ




Has Abstract


1992-06-01 00:00:00














  • Testosterone and its metabolites in male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): behavior and biochemistry.

    abstract::To extend our previous study on the behavioral effects of testosterone propionate (TP) and dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) to a dose-range producing supra-physiological plasma androgen levels, 4 castrated cynomolgus monkeys were tested with the same 4 females during successive 4-week treatment periods while rece...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Michael RP,Bonsall RW,Zumpe D

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Salt consumption increases blood pressure and abolishes the light/dark rhythm in angiotensin AT1a receptor deficient mice.

    abstract::Experiments were performed to study the role of angiotensin (Ang) AT1a receptors in dietary sodium-induced changes in blood pressure (BP). We measured light/dark rhythms in BP, heart rate (HR) and drinking behavior in Ang AT1a deficient (AT1a -/-) and wild type (AT1a +/+) mice with arterial telemetric catheters. Mice ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen Y,Oroszi TL,Morris M

    更新日期:2006-06-15 00:00:00

  • Dietary influences in the preferences of pre-weanling Long-Evans rats for the anal excreta of adult males.

    abstract::Male rats which ingest feces of lactating females produce anal excreta which is attractive to pups. This excreta is as attractive as that of lactating females and more attractive than the excreta of males eating a diet of lab chow only. Anal excreta of males which consume feces of lactating females is more attractive ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown RE

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of macular xanthophyll supplementation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cognitive performance.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Oxidative and inflammatory processes play a major role in stress-induced neural atrophy. There is a wide body of literature linking oxidative and inflammatory stress with reductions in neurotrophic factors, stress resilience, and cognitive function. Based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, we ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Stringham NT,Holmes PV,Stringham JM

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic social defeat, but not restraint stress, alters bladder function in mice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Voiding disorders in humans, particularly in children are associated with increased incidence of behavioral issues as well as past history of childhood abuse. We hypothesized that creating stress in mice, utilizing either a chronic social defeat model (SD) or restraint stress in shallow water model (RSSW) wo...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mann EA,Alam Z,Hufgard JR,Mogle M,Williams MT,Vorhees CV,Reddy P

    更新日期:2015-10-15 00:00:00

  • Effects of light stimulation on the activity of the autonomic nerves in anesthetized rats.

    abstract::The existence of the retino-hypothalamic pathway suggests that light stimulation may influence the activity of the autonomic outflows. Efferent activities of the pancreatic, hepatic, and gastric branches of the vagus nerve and those of pancreatic, hepatic, splenic, adrenal, and renal branch of the splanchnic nerve wer...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Niijima A,Nagai K,Nagai N,Akagawa H

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Enkephalinergic involvement in periaqueductal gray control of hypothalamically elicited predatory attack in the cat.

    abstract::The effects of central infusion of naloxone into the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) upon predatory attack behavior in the cat were studied in 12 cats. Initially, quiet biting attack was elicited by electrical stimulation of sites within the lateral hypothalamus using monopolar electrodes. Then cannula-electrodes w...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weiner S,Shaikh MB,Shaikh AB,Siegel A

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioural response of sexually naïve and experienced male rats to the smell of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and female rat faeces.

    abstract::Sexually experienced male rats display penile erections when exposed to faeces from mammalian females in oestrus (Rampin et al., Behav Brain Res, 172:169, 2006), suggesting that specific odours indicate female receptiveness across species. However, it is unknown to what extent the sexual response observed results from...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nielsen BL,Jerôme N,Saint-Albin A,Rampin O,Maurin Y

    更新日期:2013-08-15 00:00:00

  • Dominance status predicts response to nonsocial forced movement stress in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

    abstract::We used changes in body color and eyespot formation, two somatic indices of stress controlled mainly by catecholamine activity, to compare the reactions of dominant and subordinate male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) to a nonsocial stressor, forced movement. Individual males were pretested by subjecting the...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plavicki J,Yang EJ,Wilczynski W

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ontogeny of behavioral inhibition induced by unfamiliar adult male conspecifics in preweanling rats.

    abstract::Previous studies showed that when socially isolated at 22 degrees C, postnatal day 14 rats, but not younger day 7 rats, reduce their emission of ultrasonic vocalizations when exposed to an unfamiliar adult male rat, a naturalistic threat. Because ultrasound production is associated with factors such as age and body te...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takahashi LK

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental enrichment enhances delayed-type hypersensitivity in both short- and long-day Siberian hamsters.

    abstract::Darwinian fitness reflects trade-offs between reproduction and survival. Mechanisms have evolved in small nontropical mammals and birds to maximize reproductive output during the summer when thermoregulatory demands are relatively low and food is abundant and to shunt energy to processes that presumably increase the o...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Workman JL,DeWitt SJ,Fonken LK,Nelson RJ

    更新日期:2010-04-19 00:00:00

  • Effects of repeated stress on plasma arginine levels in young and old rats.

    abstract::The effect of age and recurring stress responses on endogenous plasma arginine (ARG) concentrations were determined. Blood from catheterized young (3 months) and old (24 months) were used to ascertain the plasma concentrations of ARG under baseline conditions, during a 30-min immobilization experience and during a 3.5...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Milakofsky L,Harris N,Vogel WH

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Palatability and dietary restraint: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in women.

    abstract::The palatability of food has been shown to influence the cephalic phase reflexes. To determine if food palatability affects the magnitude of cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans, normal-weight women were asked to list foods that they found palatable and unpalatable. Subjects then stayed overnight in the hos...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Teff KL,Engelman K

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Feeding cycles in smokers, exsmokers and nonsmokers.

    abstract::Smokers, exsmokers and nonsmokers showed 50 to 150 minute cycles of consummatory behavior (eating and drinking) that appear to reflect a biological rhythm of oral drive. Smokers and exsmokers had significantly shorter cycles, i.e., more frequent consummatory peaks, than nonsmokers. If a greater frequency of consummato...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green J,Tapp WN

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Elevated plus-maze behavior in adult offspring of selectively bred rats.

    abstract::Animals sampled from the third generation (S3) of selective breeding of N:NIH strain rats based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV) rates in infancy (High, Low, and Random lines) were tested as adults on the elevated plus maze, a well-validated test of anxiety. Results showed that the Low line spent a greater percent of ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dichter GS,Brunelli SA,Hofer MA

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Hormonal and emotional responses to competition using a dyadic approach: Basal testosterone predicts emotional state after a defeat.

    abstract::The present study analyzes the testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and emotional response in competitive interactions between dyads, as well as the relationship between basal T and the emotional response. Seventy-two men and women (36 dyads) participated in same-sex dyads in a face-to-face laboratory competition, and thirt...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abad-Tortosa D,Costa R,Alacreu-Crespo A,Hidalgo V,Salvador A,Serrano MÁ

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of CB1 and CRF1 receptor antagonists on binge-like eating in rats with limited access to a sweet fat diet: lack of withdrawal-like responses.

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    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parylak SL,Cottone P,Sabino V,Rice KC,Zorrilla EP

    更新日期:2012-09-10 00:00:00

  • The cephalic phase insulin response to nutritive and low-calorie sweeteners in solid and beverage form.

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    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dhillon J,Lee JY,Mattes RD

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Opioid antagonist-induced regulation of organ development.

    abstract::Naltrexone, a potent opioid antagonist, was given to preweaning rats in order to explore the influence of endogenous opioid systems on organogenesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected (SC) daily with either 1 or 50 mg/kg naltrexone to invoke a temporary or complete blockade, respectively, of opioid receptors; animals ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zagon IS,McLaughlin PJ

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Food restriction neither improves nor exacerbates reproduction in obese female Zucker rats.

    abstract::Obese female Zucker rats have several reproductive abnormalities, including delayed puberty, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and behavioral hyporesponsiveness to ovarian steroid hormones. To ascertain whether excessive body weight per se causes these reproductive abnormalities, obese Zucker female rats were fed ad lib or ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marín-Bivens CL,Olster DH

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic analysis of water maze discrimination learning for Mus musculus: polygenes and albinism.

    abstract::Recombinant inbred strains, their progenitor strains and reciprocal F1 hybrids were given thirty spatial discrimination learning trials in the water maze. The pattern of RI strains in relation to the reciprocal F1 hybrids and the progenitor strains, and differences among strains, suggested that different sets of gene...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elias MF,Eleftheriou BE

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    abstract::Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perry JL,Anderson MM,Nelson SE,Carroll ME

    更新日期:2007-05-16 00:00:00

  • Consequences of VGluT3 deficiency on learning and memory in mice.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) deficiency is associated with cognitive impairments. Male VGluT3 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were exposed to a behavioral test battery covering paradigms based on spontaneous exploratory behavior and reinf...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fazekas CL,Balázsfi D,Horváth HR,Balogh Z,Aliczki M,Puhova A,Balagova L,Chmelova M,Jezova D,Haller J,Zelena D

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on circadian corticosterone rhythmicity in rats with continuous or restricted food access.

    abstract::Plasma corticosteroid circadian periodicity was determined in three groups of individual adult male rats. Categories were: post-subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, sham-operated, and controls. Blood was sampled every 4 hours over a 48-hour period with ad lib feeding and after a 13-day period on daytime (0930--1330) restriction...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreira AC,Krieger DT

    更新日期:1982-05-01 00:00:00

  • Diphenyl diselenide ameliorates monosodium glutamate induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by modulating hippocampal BDNF-Akt pathway and uptake of GABA and serotonin neurotransmitters.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer used in food, administered to neonatal rats causes neuronal lesions and leads to anxiety when adulthood. AIMS:We investigated the anxiolytic-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and its mechanisms on anxiety induced by MSG. MAIN METHODS:Neonatal male and ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosa SG,Quines CB,Stangherlin EC,Nogueira CW

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Strain differences in consumption of saline solutions by mice.

    abstract::Intake of saline (NaCl) solutions and water by males of two inbred strains of mice [C57BL/6J (C57) and 129/J] were examined using 48-h, two-bottle preference tests. There was a large strain difference in saline intake: at moderate concentrations (0.075-0.150 M) C57 mice tended to reject saline relative to water, where...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beauchamp GK,Fisher AS

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Microdrive and method for single unit recording in the active rat.

    abstract::A technique for recording single unit activity in the active rat with microelectrodes is described. The microdrive used is small and light enough to be carried in a well that is chronically implanted on the head of the rat. The device permits standard microelectrodes to be lowered without rotation, a feature which red...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sinnamon HM,Woodward DJ

    更新日期:1977-09-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic and vascular pattern in medial pterygoid muscle is altered by chronic stress in an animal model of hypodontia.

    abstract::Psychological stress is an important perpetuating, worsening and risk factor for temporomandibular disorders of muscular or articular origin. Occlusion instability, by the way, is considered a risk factor of this pathology and can be reproduced in some experimental animal models. The exact physiologic mechanism underl...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernández RAR,Pereira YCL,Iyomasa DM,Calzzani RA,Leite-Panissi CRA,Iyomasa MM,Nascimento GC

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Otitis media and associations with overweight status in toddlers.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Otitis media (OM) is a significant disease that affects nearly all children early in life. Recently, childhood overweight has become an epidemic. Past research has demonstrated that a history of OM is related to food preferences and overweight through proposed physiological mechanisms. The purpose of this ...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelson HM,Daly KA,Davey CS,Himes JH,Synder DJ,Bartoshuk LM

    更新日期:2011-03-28 00:00:00

  • Oral processing assessed by M-mode ultrasound imaging varies with food attribute.

    abstract::Ultrasonic imaging was used to quantify oral movements made during the oral processing of foods while subjects assessed the intensity of the sensory attributes, thick, creamy, sweet and bitter. A series of four stimuli were prepared with high and low viscosities and high and low sweetness. Over five sessions, subjects...

    journal_title:Physiology & behavior

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: de Wijk RA,Wulfert F,Prinz JF

    更新日期:2006-08-30 00:00:00