Dioxins in human milk and smoking of mothers.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:The relation between the levels of dioxins in human breast milk and the smoking habits of the mothers is controversial. To clarify this relationship, we analyzed data from the human milk survey in Japan. METHODS:The human milk survey has been conducted in Japan since 1997. Healthy pregnant women aged 20-39 years were recruited and 50 ml of breast milk was collected from them at 30 days after delivery. PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured by using GC/MS. The smoking habits of the mothers were established by interviewing them soon after delivery and were classified into four categories: current smokers, ever smokers who quit smoking at the pregnancy, ever smokers who quit smoking before the pregnancy, and never smokers. The levels of dioxins in breast milk were compared in the four categories of smoking among 853 primiparas. In addition, we analyzed the association between dioxin levels and passive smoking among never smokers. The geometric means of the dioxin concentrations were calculated in order to compare the differences between dioxins. RESULTS:The geometric means of dioxin-like PCBs in milk of never smokers was the highest (9.2 pg TEQ/g fat); followed by ever smokers who quit smoking before the pregnancy, ever smokers who quit smoking at the pregnancy, and current smokers (7.5, 7.2, and 6.6 pg TEQ/g fat, respectively). The differences between these levels were statistically significant (ANOVA, p<0.001). No significant difference was observed between the level of dioxins in milk from never smokers subjected to passive smoking status and those who had not experienced passive smoking. CONCLUSION:The levels of dioxin-like PCBs in human milk were negatively related to the smoking habits of mothers.

journal_name

Chemosphere

journal_title

Chemosphere

authors

Uehara R,Nakamura Y,Matsuura N,Kondo N,Tada H

doi

10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.01.050

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2007-06-01 00:00:00

pages

915-20

issue

5

eissn

0045-6535

issn

1879-1298

pii

S0045-6535(07)00154-3

journal_volume

68

pub_type

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