Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and β2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem.


:It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared α7 and β2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n=46) and non-SIDS infants (n=14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased α7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased β2 in the cNTS and increased β2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased α7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased β2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for α7 in the gracile and cuneate, and β2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on α7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased β2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of α7 and β2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure (β2), gender (α7 and β2) and sleep position (β2) evident.


Toxicol Appl Pharmacol


Machaalani R,Say M,Waters KA




Has Abstract


2011-12-15 00:00:00














  • Liver morphology in guinea pigs administered either pyrolysis products of a polychlorinated biphenyl transformer fluid or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    abstract::A transformer cooled and insulated with a mixture of 65% Aroclor 1254 and 35% chlorinated benzenes located in the Binghamton State Office Building in Binghamton, New York, was involved in a fire, which produced soot containing polychlorinated biphenyls, biphenylenes, dioxins, and dibenzofurans. A single dose of either...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turner JN,Collins DN

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  • Evidence against deacetylation and for cytochrome P450-mediated activation in acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity in the CD-1 mouse.

    abstract::Acetaminophen (APAP) administration (600 mg/kg, po) results in proximal tubular necrosis in 18-hr fasted, 3-month-old male CD-1 mice. This study was undertaken to determine if deacetylation of APAP to p-aminophenol (PAP) is a prerequisite to nephrotoxicity in the mouse, as it is in the Fischer rat. Administration of e...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Emeigh Hart SG,Beierschmitt WP,Bartolone JB,Wyand DS,Khairallah EA,Cohen SD

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  • Mechanisms of cyclosporine A-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocyte primary cultures.

    abstract::In rat hepatocytes and isolated liver mitochondrial fractions, Cyclosporine A (CsA) is often used as a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) release and as a specific blocker of mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability transition (MPT), which are all processes involved in the inhibition of apoptosis. How...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grub S,Persohn E,Trommer WE,Wolf A

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  • Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate suppresses aromatase transcript levels and estradiol production in cultured rat granulosa cells.

    abstract::The female reproductive toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its active metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is attributed to suppression of ovarian granulosa cell estradiol production. In these studies, several structurally related phthalates (0-200 microM) and Wy-14,643 (0-100 microM) were compared...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Lovekamp TN,Davis BJ

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  • Biochemical and neuropathological assessment of triphenyl phosphite in rats.

    abstract::The putative neurotoxicity of the organophosphorus compound triphenyl phosphite (TPP) was examined in Long Evans, adult male rats. Animals were exposed to two 1.0 ml/kg (1184 mg/kg) injections (sc) of TPP spaced 1 week apart and sampled for biochemical and neuropathological examination. At the time of sampling, rats d...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veronesi B,Padilla S,Newland D

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  • Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment.

    abstract::Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe(2)O(3)-30nm and Fe(2)O(3)-bulk in female Wistar rats....

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singh SP,Rahman MF,Murty US,Mahboob M,Grover P

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of T-helper cell populations: potential mechanisms of respiratory hypersensitivity and immune suppression.

    abstract::Information presented at this symposium indicates that modulation of Th cell responses is one means by which xenobiotics may cause immunotoxicity. A shift from Th1 to Th2 responses can enhance both infectious and allergic disease. Hence, in some cases, a common mechanism may be responsible for effects that are general...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Selgrade MK,Lawrence DA,Ullrich SE,Gilmour MI,Schuyler MR,Kimber I

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Barros FW,Bezerra DP,Ferreira PM,Cavalcanti BC,Silva TG,Pitta MG,de Lima Mdo C,Galdino SL,Pitta Ida R,Costa-Lotufo LV,Moraes MO,Burbano RR,Guecheva TN,Henriques JA,Pessoa C

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Geng J,Liu J,Yuan X,Liu W,Guo W

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  • Dose-dependent transitions in Nrf2-mediated adaptive response and related stress responses to hypochlorous acid in mouse macrophages.

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Woods CG,Fu J,Xue P,Hou Y,Pluta LJ,Yang L,Zhang Q,Thomas RS,Andersen ME,Pi J

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  • Oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cell activation are key events in arsenic induced liver fibrosis in mice.

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Ghatak S,Biswas A,Dhali GK,Chowdhury A,Boyer JL,Santra A

    更新日期:2011-02-15 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

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    authors: Wang YH,Yeh SD,Shen KH,Shen CH,Juang GD,Hsu LI,Chiou HY,Chen CJ

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    authors: Gaeta GB,Utili R,Adinolfi LE,Abernathy CO,Giusti G

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  • Detection of viral infection in the respiratory tract of virus antibody free mice: advantages of high-resolution imaging for respiratory toxicology.

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    authors: Escudero-Lourdes C,Medeiros MK,Cárdenas-González MC,Wnek SM,Gandolfi JA

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    authors: Benton BJ,Rivera VR,Hewetson JF,Chang FC

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Updyke LW,Yoon HL,Kiorpes AL,Robinson JP,Pfeifer RW,Marcus CB

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKim JM,Heath EM

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morgan KT,Kimbell JS,Monticello TM,Patra AL,Fleishman A

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    authors: Jones HA,Hamacher K,Clark JC,Schofield JB,Krausz T,Haslett C,Boobis AR

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamath AB,Nagarkatti PS,Nagarkatti M

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gad SC,Dunn BJ,Dobbs DW,Reilly C,Walsh RD

    更新日期:1986-06-15 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chakraborty P,Saraswat G,Kabir SN

    更新日期:2014-05-15 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merrick BA,Phadke DP,Bostrom MA,Shah RR,Wright GM,Wang X,Gordon O,Pelch KE,Auerbach SS,Paules RS,DeVito MJ,Waalkes MP,Tokar EJ

    更新日期:2020-04-25 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jan CR,Cheng JS,Chou KJ,Wang SP,Lee KC,Tang KY,Tseng LL,Chiang HT

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fletcher JE,Kistler P,Rosenberg H,Michaux K

    更新日期:1987-09-30 00:00:00