Consequences of uterine blood loss caused by various intrauterine contraceptive devices in South American women. World Health Organization Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.


:Increased menstrual blood loss (MBL) associated with intrauterine device (IUD) use may precipitate or aggravate iron deficiency anaemia, adversely affecting the health of women particularly those from developing countries. Studies were conducted to define the association of MBL and iron status in South American women; to determine the level of MBL induced by IUD use which would result in iron depletion, the length of time for this depletion to occur and, comparing various IUDS, to determine if any currently tested IUDs are suited to long-term use in South American women. A total of 395 women received one of 5 types of IUDs in Santiago, Chile, and Juiz de Fora, Brazil: Lippes Loop, Multiload-250 and Multiload-375 were used in both centres; in Santiago some subjects received the Copper-7 or ProgestasertR devices and in Juiz de Fora, the TCu 200 and the T-Chloroquin IUDs were also tested. MBL and haemoglobin (HGB) were measured for 3 menstrual cycles before insertion, and following insertion, at one, two, four, six, nine, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four months in the majority of cases. Serum ferritin was measured before insertion and at intervals of six months. Mean values of MBL prior to IUD insertion in both centres varied from 21-30 ml. As with previous publications, the use of the Lippes Loop was associated with the greatest increase in MBL which was sustained throughout the 24 months of observation. Women who had one of the two types of Multiload devices inserted also had increased MBL and reduced ferritin for at least 12 months of use. TCu 200 and Copper-7 IUD users had an initial increase in MBL of 1 to 17 ml in the first six months of observation returning to normal levels beyond six months. Serum ferritin levels were lower for one year and then returned to admission values. ProgestasertR users confirmed previous reports of a reduction of 40-50% in MBL and an increase in serum ferritin. Few significant changes in haemoglobin (HGB) concentrations were found. Serum ferritin levels on admission ranged from 7.1 to 16.4 ng/ml in Santiago and from 15.8 to 23.2 ng/ml in Juiz de Fora. Many women were in a marginal state of iron balance as evidenced by lower serum ferritin values. Changes in serum ferritin were very closely related to those in MBL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)






Andrade AT,Pizarro E,Shaw ST Jr,Souza JP,Belsey EM,Rowe PJ




Has Abstract


1988-07-01 00:00:00














  • Oral administration of a water extract of Phytolacca dodecandra l'herit in mice--effects on reproduction.

    abstract::Experiments were conducted to determine whether oral administration of a water extract of P. dodecandra had significant effects on reproduction in mice. The work is based on earlier reports in this journal that butanol extracts of the berries of this plant had spermatocidal properties in vitro and blastocidal activity...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mamo E,Worku M

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative cervical priming by intracervical application of a new sulprostone gel.

    abstract::In a prospective, randomised dose-finding study involving 60 women scheduled for termination of 1st trimester pregnancy, 25 micrograms, 50 micrograms or 100 micrograms of a sulprostone gel with a constant injection volume of 2.5 ml were applied intracervically 6-8 hours before curettage. The gelatinising agent was Plu...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Rath W,Dennemark N,Gödicke HD

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • Observations of scanning electron microscopy detected abnormalities of non-lubricated latex condoms.

    abstract::To describe surface abnormalities found by scanning electron microscopy of non-lubricated latex condoms, thirty samples of 15 condoms were photographed at low (26-94x), medium (240-940x) and high (> 1000x) magnification. Each sample was initially scanned at low magnification to determine the presence and location of s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosenzweig BA,Even A,Budnick LE

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception by cycle day of intercourse: implications for mechanism of action.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to provide evidence about the mechanism of action of the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception by examining effectiveness by cycle day of intercourse relative to ovulation. METHODS:Through a literature search, we identified eight studies that present the number of women treate...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trussell J,Ellertson C,Dorflinger L

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension (Cyclofem) monthly contraceptive injection: steady-state pharmacokinetics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cyclofem is a combined injectable contraceptive, containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate. The objective was to characterize the steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) using tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and compare these data to a previous PK study of this formulatio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thurman A,Kimble T,Hall P,Schwartz JL,Archer DF

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Phase I/II pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of two levonorgestrel-only contraceptive patches in a multicenter randomized trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of two novel levonorgestrel (LNG)-only contraceptive patches. STUDY DESIGN:This multi-center Phase I/II trial randomized participants to use a 7-day transdermal patch designed to deliver a 40 mcg or 75 mcg daily LNG dose for 11 consecutive weeks; r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Westhoff CL,Chen BA,Jensen JT,Barnhart K,Thomas M,Teal S,Blithe D

    更新日期:2018-04-18 00:00:00

  • Progestogen-only contraceptive use among women with sickle cell anemia: a systematic review.

    abstract::The use of progestogen-only contraceptives among women with sickle cell anemia has generated concerns about possible hematological and other clinical complications. Based on the literature, we assessed whether use of progestogen-only contraceptives is associated with adverse health effects among women with sickle cell...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Legardy JK,Curtis KM

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of remote and in-clinic follow-up after methotrexate/misoprostol abortion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study compared adherence to follow-up and clinical outcomes between standard in-clinic and remote follow-up after methotrexate/misoprostol abortion. STUDY DESIGN:This nonrandomized trial recruited women requesting medical abortion at two sexual health clinics in Toronto, Canada. Women received methotrex...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Dunn S,Panjwani D,Gupta M,Meaney C,Morgan R,Feuerstein E

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Acceptability of the community-level provision of Sayana® Press by medical and nursing students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The objectives were to assess acceptors' attitudes toward Sayana® Press as a method and toward the mechanism of community-based distribution by medical and nursing (M/N) students, known locally as "DBCs," in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and to evaluate the experience of these DBCs. STUDY DESI...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bertrand JT,Makani PB,Hernandez J,Akilimali P,Mukengeshayi B,Babazadeh S,Binanga A

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Fertility considerations and attitudes about family planning among women with cystic fibrosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to explore knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about pregnancy and contraceptive decision-making among reproductive-aged women with cystic fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN:In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling of reproductive age women enrolled in the Adult Cystic Fibrosis program at Pen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Traxler SA,Chavez V,Hadjiliadis D,Shea JA,Mollen C,Schreiber CA

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Clinicians' perceptions and provision of hormonal contraceptives for HIV-positive and at-risk women in Southern Africa: an original research article.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess clinician provision of hormonal contraception for HIV-positive and at-risk women in Southern Africa. STUDY DESIGN:We conducted a nationally representative survey of clinicians (n=1444) in HIV-prevalent settings in South Africa and Zimbabwe to evaluate evidence-based contraceptive care and clinicia...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blanchard K,Chipato T,Ramjee G,Nhemachena T,Harper CC,Provider Study Writing Comittee.

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Use of a radioreceptor test for HCG in women practicing contraception.

    abstract::The importance of a simple, rapid and highly sensitive test for the diagnosis of early pregnancy cannot be overemphasized. In the present times when newer delivery systems of contraceptive agents and menstrual regulation procedures are increasingly used for fertility regulation, it is inevitable that confirmation of e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shahani SM,Kulkarni PP,Patel KL

    更新日期:1978-11-01 00:00:00

  • A Phase III, single-arm study of LNG-IUS 8, a low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (total content 13.5mg) in postmenarcheal adolescents.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety profile of the low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) total content 13.5mg (average approximate release rate 8μg/24h over the first year; LNG-IUS 8; Jaydess®) in adolescents. STUDY DESIGN:In a Phase III study in 36 European centers, 304 healthy nulliparous or parous postme...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Gemzell-Danielsson K,Buhling KJ,Dermout SM,Lukkari-Lax E,Montegriffo E,Apter D

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of oral contraceptives on androgen levels and their relevance to premenstrual mood and sexual interest: a comparison of two triphasic formulations containing norgestimate and either 35 or 25 microg of ethinyl estradiol.

    abstract:PURPOSE:This study compared two oral contraceptives (OCs) with the same triphasic regimen of progestin (norgestimate 0.18, 0.215 and 0.25 mg) but differing doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE) - 25 and 35 microg EE - in their effects on androgens, mood and sexual interest in women starting on OCs. METHODS:Total testosteron...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Greco T,Graham CA,Bancroft J,Tanner A,Doll HA

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET). STUDY DESIGN:Thirty-three women were rand...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hovanessian-Larsen L,Taylor D,Hawes D,Spicer DV,Press MF,Wu AH,Pike MC,Pearce CL

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • TSPY4 is a novel sperm-specific biomarker of semen exposure in human cervicovaginal fluids; potential use in HIV prevention and contraception studies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Developing an objective, reliable method to determine semen exposure in cervicovaginal fluids is important for accurately studying the efficacy of vaginal microbicides and contraceptives. Y-chromosome biomarkers offer better stability, sensitivity, and specificity than protein biomarkers. TSPY4 belongs to th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacot TA,Zalenskaya I,Mauck C,Archer DF,Doncel GF

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Grief after second-trimester termination for fetal anomaly: a qualitative study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We aimed to qualitatively evaluate factors that contribute to and alleviate grief associated with termination of a pregnancy for a fetal anomaly and how that grief changes over time. STUDY DESIGN:We conducted a longitudinal qualitative study of decision satisfaction, grief and coping among women undergoing ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maguire M,Light A,Kuppermann M,Dalton VK,Steinauer JE,Kerns JL

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of some beta -adrenergic blocking agents on ovulation in rabbits.

    abstract::The effect of propanolol hydrochloride (PH) and oxprenolol hydrochloride (OH) on ovulation was studied in mature rabbits. PH-treated animals did not accept mating and ovulation was suppressed after forced mating. 5 of 6 OH-treated animals refused mating. No implantation sites or corpora lutea were found in the anim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foda MS,Darwish NA,Shafeek AA,Sharaf EM,Zaki MA

    更新日期:1975-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of three types of combined O.C. pills on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet function.

    abstract::The results of a prospective longitudinal controlled study comparing the coagulation effects of a standard low-dose combined oral contraceptive (Microgynon 30), a desogestrel-containing pill (Marvelon) and a triphasic preparation (Triquilar) after one year's treatment in ethnic Chinese women is presented in this paper...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Prasad RN,Koh S,Ratnam SS

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian function, bleeding control and serum lipoproteins in women using contraceptive vaginal rings releasing five different progestins.

    abstract::Ovarian function, bleeding patterns and serum lipoproteins were studied in women using contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) of dimethyl-polysiloxane impregnated with steroids. The different CVRs were used for about 10 cycles each. The following groups were studied, with the daily steroid dosage given in parentheses. Wom...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahrén T,Victor A,Lithell H,Vessby B,Jackanicz TM,Johansson ED

    更新日期:1983-10-01 00:00:00

  • Developing future leaders in reproductive health through a scholarly concentration for medical students.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of a scholarly concentration for medical students, which aims to develop students' research, clinical and advocacy skills to promote women's reproductive health. STUDY DESIGN:Scholarly concentration programs provide opportunities to engage in scholarship beyond the traditional medical...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nothnagle M,Radlinski H,Magee SR,Allen RH

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of Hsp70-2 in rhesus monkey testis during germ cell apoptosis induced by testosterone undecanoate.

    abstract::Hsp70-2 functions as a molecular chaperone that assists other proteins in their folding, transport and assembly into complexes, and is postulated to be linked to the mechanisms that inhibit apoptosis. Here we have determined the association between Hsp70-2 gene and germ cell apoptosis induced by a high dose of testost...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou XC,Zhang ZH,Hu ZY,Zou RJ,Liu YX

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Choice of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, etonogestrel implant or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception after aspiration abortion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Women who have abortions are at high risk of contraception discontinuation and subsequent unintended pregnancy. The objective of this analysis was to identify factors associated with choice of highly effective, long-acting, progestin-only contraceptive methods after abortion. STUDY DESIGN:Women presenting fo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steinauer JE,Upadhyay UD,Sokoloff A,Harper CC,Diedrich JT,Drey EA

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Differential regulation of endogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine genes by medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in cell lines of the female genital tract.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone (NET) and its derivatives are widely used in female reproductive therapy, but little is known about their mechanisms of action via steroid receptors in the female genital tract. MPA used as a contraceptive has been implicated in effects on local immune fun...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Africander D,Louw R,Verhoog N,Noeth D,Hapgood JP

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Contraceptive use at last intercourse among reproductive-aged women with disabilities: an analysis of population-based data from seven states.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess patterns of contraceptive use at last intercourse among women with physical or cognitive disabilities compared to women without disabilities. STUDY DESIGN:We analyzed responses to 12 reproductive health questions added by seven states to their 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haynes RM,Boulet SL,Fox MH,Carroll DD,Courtney-Long E,Warner L

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Seminal fructose in normal and infertile men.

    abstract::Fructose levels and fructolysis index in human semen were analysed to assess a correlation, if any, between the levels of this glycolysable sugar and sperm concentration. Semen was collected from normospermic men and men with azoospermia or oligospermia. Seminal fructose levels were elevated in men with obstructive az...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rajalakshmi M,Sharma RS,David GF,Kapur MM

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cervical carcinoma in situ and use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives.

    abstract::The relationship of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (D-MPA) use to risk of cervical carcinoma in situ was investigated using data from a large multi-national, hospital-based case-control study. To avoid possible detection bias from Pap smear screening, final analyses were restricted to a subset of cases with symptom...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Thomas DB,Ye Z,Ray RM

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Norethisterone levels in maternal serum and milk after intramuscular injection of norethisterone oenanthate as a contraceptive.

    abstract::There is concern that the breast-fed infant whose mother is receiving intra-muscular progestogens for contraception will be exposed to significant quantities of the steroid. Norethisterone levels in maternal serum and milk were studied throughout an injection interval after intramuscular administration of 200mg noreth...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fotherby K,Towobola O,Muggeridge J,Elder MG

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cervical preparation for second-trimester surgical abortion prior to 20 weeks' gestation: SFP Guideline #2013-4.

    abstract::For a dilation and evacuation (D&E) procedure, the cervix must be dilated sufficiently to allow passage of operative instruments and products of conception without injuring the uterus or cervical canal. Preoperative preparation of the cervix reduces the risk of cervical laceration and uterine perforation. The cervix m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Fox MC,Krajewski CM

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacodynamic effects of once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives.

    abstract::The pharmacology and clinical assessment of existing first generation once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives, mainly Deladroxate and Chinese Injectable No. 1, are reviewed. Although these two types of monthly injectables have been used in some million women in China and Latin America, Deladroxate needs indept...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sang GW

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00