The influence of dilution on the offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:Measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is used to determine the presence and severity of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and other wheezing illnesses. The gold standard of online measurement during a single prolonged exhalation is not suitable for use in young children. The international guidelines for offline measurements recommend collection of exhaled gas in an appropriate reservoir for later analysis in young children. The apparatus required for gas collection, however, creates dead space within the system, which may result in sample dilution and hence inaccuracy. Our objective was to investigate the effect such dilution might have on the accuracy of offline FeNO by comparing the results to online results. APPROACH:Thirty-five adult subjects without respiratory disease underwent online measurement of FeNO and, thereafter, undertook offline FeNO measurements via exhalation into a collection reservoir using one, five or ten inhalation-exhalation cycles. Fifteen of the subjects also exhaled using the five-breath technique via apparatus with additional dead space. An equation incorporating dead space volume and the number of breaths was used to predict the degree of dilution; the predicted results were compared to the measured results. MAIN RESULTS:The median (IQR) FeNO from a one-breath technique (22 (15-28) ppb was not significantly different to online values (19 (12-27) ppb, p  =  1.00), but the results from the five-breath technique (11 (4-19) ppb, p  <  0.0001), the ten-breath technique (6 (4-15) ppb, p  <  0.0001) and the additional dead space experiment (6 (3-8) ppb, p  =  0.0006) were significantly lower than online FeNO. Measured values were consistently significantly different to those predicted by the dilution equation, even when incorporating the exact exhaled volume of gas. SIGNIFICANCE:Offline FeNO results may be inaccurate when subjects are unable to fill the collection reservoir with a single exhalation, thus the technique may not be suitable for preschool children.

journal_name

Physiol Meas

authors

MacBean V,Pooranampillai D,Howard C,Lunt A,Greenough A

doi

10.1088/1361-6579/aaa455

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-02-26 00:00:00

pages

025004

issue

2

eissn

0967-3334

issn

1361-6579

journal_volume

39

pub_type

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