Arteriviruses, Pegiviruses, and Lentiviruses Are Common among Wild African Monkeys.

Abstract:

UNLABELLED:Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a historically important source of zoonotic viruses and are a gold-standard model for research on many human pathogens. However, with the exception of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (family Retroviridae), the blood-borne viruses harbored by these animals in the wild remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel simian pegiviruses (family Flaviviridae) and two novel simian arteriviruses (family Arteriviridae) in wild African green monkeys from Zambia (malbroucks [Chlorocebus cynosuros]) and South Africa (vervet monkeys [Chlorocebus pygerythrus]). We examine several aspects of infection, including viral load, genetic diversity, evolution, and geographic distribution, as well as host factors such as age, sex, and plasma cytokines. In combination with previous efforts to characterize blood-borne RNA viruses in wild primates across sub-Saharan Africa, these discoveries demonstrate that in addition to SIV, simian pegiviruses and simian arteriviruses are widespread and prevalent among many African cercopithecoid (i.e., Old World) monkeys. IMPORTANCE:Primates are an important source of viruses that infect humans and serve as an important laboratory model of human virus infection. Here, we discover two new viruses in African green monkeys from Zambia and South Africa. In combination with previous virus discovery efforts, this finding suggests that these virus types are widespread among African monkeys. Our analysis suggests that one of these virus types, the simian arteriviruses, may have the potential to jump between different primate species and cause disease. In contrast, the other virus type, the pegiviruses, are thought to reduce the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans. However, we did not observe a similar protective effect in SIV-infected African monkeys coinfected with pegiviruses, possibly because SIV causes little to no disease in these hosts.

journal_name

J Virol

journal_title

Journal of virology

authors

Bailey AL,Lauck M,Ghai RR,Nelson CW,Heimbruch K,Hughes AL,Goldberg TL,Kuhn JH,Jasinska AJ,Freimer NB,Apetrei C,O'Connor DH

doi

10.1128/JVI.00573-16

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2016-07-11 00:00:00

pages

6724-6737

issue

15

eissn

0022-538X

issn

1098-5514

pii

JVI.00573-16

journal_volume

90

pub_type

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