[Visual epileptic seizures. Signs and symptoms, and clinical implications].

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION:Visual phenomena can be symptoms of epileptic seizures, although with an uncertain clinical meaning and relationship with the epileptogenic focus. AIMS:To describe the clinical implications of visual epileptic seizures according to their signs and symptoms in adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Data were collected consecutively over a period of one year from patients who reported visual signs and symptoms as the main manifestation of their seizures, and the visual symptoms are classified according to the characteristics of the description. RESULTS:The sample consisted of 78 patients, with a mean age of 43.5 years. Focal epilepsy accounted for 97% of the cases. Of the 63% that were symptomatic epilepsies, 57% were vascular. The visual seizures were, in 81.9% of cases, the aura prior to the seizure, and 17.9% were isolated visual seizures. The coexistence of visual seizures and other types of seizure was associated to pharmacoresistance (p = 0.021). The visual symptoms reported were as follows: simple hallucinations (55.1%), illusions (23.1%), complex hallucinations (15.4%) and loss of vision (6.4%). The lobar localisation of the lesions was occipital (24.4%), temporoparietooccipital (21.8%), temporal (9%), parietal (3.8%) and frontal (1.3%). Occipital lesions were associated with simple visual hallucinations (p < 0.001), and visual illusions and complex visual hallucinations, with lesions affecting the temporoparietooccipital junction (p < 0.05). Of the 55.1% of patients with a unilateral lesion in the magnetic resonance scan, 33% reported symptoms in the contralateral visual hemifield. CONCLUSIONS:Visual seizures mainly present as epileptic auras. Simple hallucinations are related with an occipital origin, whereas complex hallucinations are associated with more anterior regions of the brain. The appearance of lateralised visual phenomena suggests an origin located in the contralateral hemisphere. TITLE:Crisis epilepticas visuales. Semiologia e implicaciones clinicas. :Introduccion. Los fenomenos visuales pueden ser sintomas de crisis epilepticas, aunque con un significado clinico y una relacion con el foco epileptogeno incierto. Objetivo. Describir las implicaciones clinicas de las crisis epilepticas visuales segun su semiologia en adultos. Pacientes y metodos. Durante un año se recoge consecutivamente a pacientes que describian semiologia visual como manifestacion principal de sus crisis y se clasifican los sintomas visuales segun las caracteristicas de la descripcion. Resultados. Se incluye a 78 pacientes con una edad media de 43,5 años. El 97% de los casos eran epilepsias focales. Entre el 63% de las epilepsias sintomaticas, el 57% eran vasculares. Las crisis visuales eran, en un 81,9%, el aura previa a la crisis, y en un 17,9%, crisis visuales aisladas. La coexistencia de crisis visuales y otro tipo de crisis se asocio a farmacorresistencia (p = 0,021). Los sintomas visuales fueron: alucinaciones simples (55,1%), ilusiones (23,1%), alucinaciones complejas (15,4%) y perdida de vision (6,4%). La localizacion lobar de las lesiones era occipital (24,4%), temporoparietooccipital (21,8%), temporal (9%), parietal (3,8%) y frontal (1,3%). Las lesiones occipitales se asociaron con alucinaciones visuales simples (p < 0,001), y las ilusiones visuales y alucinaciones visuales complejas, con lesiones de la encrucijada temporoparietooccipital (p < 0,05). Del 55,1% de los pacientes con lesion unilateral en la resonancia magnetica, el 33% referia los sintomas en el hemicampo visual contralateral. Conclusiones. Las crisis visuales se presentan, principalmente, como auras epilepticas. Las alucinaciones simples se relacionan con el origen occipital, mientras que las alucinaciones complejas se asocian con regiones cerebrales mas anteriores. La aparicion de fenomenos visuales lateralizados nos orienta a un origen en el hemisferio contralateral.

journal_name

Rev Neurol

journal_title

Revista de neurologia

authors

González-Cuevas M,Toledo M,Santamarina E,Sueiras-Gil M,Cambrodí-Masip R,Sarria S,Quintana M,Salas-Puig J

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2015-03-16 00:00:00

pages

257-62

issue

6

eissn

0210-0010

issn

1576-6578

pii

rn2014404

journal_volume

60

pub_type

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