The source of Yersinia spp. in pasteurized milk: an investigation at a dairy.


:Pasteurized bottled milk supplied by a single dairy was frequently found to be contaminated with Yersinia spp. Investigations were carried out at the dairy in an effort to pinpoint the source of these organisms. Viable counts obtained from milk bottle rinses indicated that bottle washing was often unsatisfactory, and on one occasion Y. frederiksenii was isolated from the pooled rinse water of six bottles. Samples of milk were taken on arrival at the dairy and at various stages following pasteurization. Heat resistance tests carried out on strains of yersinia isolated from pasteurized milk indicated that they would not survive the pasteurization process. However two strains of yersinia were isolated from a sample of milk taken immediately after pasteurization but before bottling. The thermograph indicated that the time/temperature conditions applied during pasteurization were adequate. The presence of yersinia strains in the milk at this stage therefore suggests that undetectable levels of raw milk were being allowed to contaminate the pasteurized milk. The absence of yersinia in cartoned samples produced on the same day as contaminated bottled samples indicated that environmental contamination of the bottle filler valve also may have occurred at times. Results of this investigation indicate that increased vigilance is required to ensure proper operation of pasteurizers and bottle washers.


Epidemiol Infect


Greenwood MH,Hooper WL,Rodhouse JC




Has Abstract


1990-06-01 00:00:00












  • Cases of Eastern equine encephalitis in humans associated with Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes with the virus in New York State from 1971 to 2012 by analysis of aggregated published data.

    abstract::From 1971 to 2012, in New York State, years with human Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) were more strongly associated with the presence of Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes infected with the EEE virus (Fisher's exact test, one-sided P = 0.005, 0.03, 0.03) than with Culiseta ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sherwood JA,Stehman SV,Howard JJ,Oliver J

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Surveillance for outbreaks of influenza-like illness in the institutionalized elderly.

    abstract::Respiratory outbreaks are common in aged-care facilities (ACFs), are both underreported and frequently identified late, and are often associated with considerable burden of illness and death. There is emerging evidence that active surveillance coupled with early and systematic intervention can reduce this burden. Acti...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosewell A,Chiu C,Lindley R,Dwyer DE,Moffatt CR,Shineberg C,Clarke E,Booy R,MacIntyre CR

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Streptococcal pharyngitis in general practice. 2. A note on dual infection and transient urinary abnormalities.

    abstract::In an incomplete study in 1965 microscopic haematuria in the second or third week after acute pharyngitis was found four times more often in patients with either microbiological or clinical evidence of dual infection with both group A streptococci and a virus than in patients with evidence only of infection with group...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Higgins PM

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • A pulmonary tuberculosis outbreak in a long-term care facility.

    abstract::In long-term care facilities (LTCFs), the elderly are apt to be infected because those with latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs) are at an increased risk for reactivation and post-primary TB disease. We report an outbreak of TB in staff and residents in a LTCF. An outbreak investigation was conducted after two TB ca...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai CC,Hsieh YC,Yeh YP,Jou RW,Wang JT,Pan SL,Chen HH

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Survey of fox trappers in northern Alaska for rabies antibody.

    abstract::The purpose of this research was to determine whether trappers in northern Alaska acquired immunity to rabies virus from non-bite exposures while trapping and skinning arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). In coastal Alaska recurring epizootics presumably provide trappers ample opportunity for contact with rabid animals. Ser...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Follmann EH,Ritter DG,Beller M

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in the wild boars in Hiroshima prefecture, Japan.

    abstract::Serum specimens were collected from 25 wild boars in Hiroshima prefecture located in the western region of Japan from November 2004 to February 2005. The sera were tested for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and plaque reduction neutrali...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamano M,Lim CK,Takagi H,Sawabe K,Kuwayama M,Kishi N,Kurane I,Takasaki T

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Emergence of MRSA clone ST22 in healthy young adults in the community in the absence of risk factors.

    abstract::One thousand adults aged between 18 and 35 years were investigated for nasal colonization with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Each volunteer completed a questionnaire to assess the presence or absence of risk factors for hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) carriage. All MRSA iso...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mollaghan AM,Lucey B,Coffey A,Cotter L

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Characterisation of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from rabbits in Fujian, China.

    abstract::Bordetella bronchiseptica is a potential zoonotic pathogen, which mainly causes respiratory diseases in humans and a variety of animal species. B. bronchiseptica is one of the important pathogens isolated from rabbits in Fujian Province. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology and characteristics of the B. bronchis...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang J,Sun S,Chen Y,Chen D,Sang L,Xie X

    更新日期:2020-08-24 00:00:00

  • The epidemiology of, and risk factors for, mortality from severe sepsis and septic shock in a tertiary-care university hospital setting.

    abstract::This study investigated the clinical characteristics of, and outcomes and risk factors for hospital mortality of 390 patients admitted with severe sepsis or septic shock in an intensive care unit (ICU). Prospectively collected data from patients collected between 1 July 2004 and 30 June 2006 were analysed. Overall hos...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khwannimit B,Bhurayanontachai R

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Estimating the impact of vaccination using age-time-dependent incidence rates of hepatitis B.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to model the age-time-dependent incidence of hepatitis B while estimating the impact of vaccination. While stochastic models/time-series have been used before to model hepatitis B cases in the absence of knowledge on the number of susceptibles, this paper proposed using a method that fi...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hens N,Aerts M,Shkedy Z,Kung'u Kimani P,Kojouhorova M,van Damme P,Beutels P

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mumps outbreak in Israel's highly vaccinated society: are two doses enough?

    abstract::Mumps outbreaks in recent years have given rise to questions about the effectiveness of the mumps vaccine. This study examined the epidemiological data from a recent mumps outbreak in Israel and from outbreaks in other countries with high vaccination coverage, and considered whether long-established vaccination polici...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anis E,Grotto I,Moerman L,Warshavsky B,Slater PE,Lev B

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • New therapeutic patents used for the treatment of leprosy: a review.

    abstract::Leprosy is a granulomatous disease, infectious and transmissible, which affects the skin and peripheral nerves, having Mycobacterium leprae as causative agent. The manifestation of this disease causes cutaneous lesions, peripheral neuropathies and, in more extreme cases, may generate deformities and disabilities in af...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gomes Lima Santos N,Perez Pereira Ramos K,Shanmugam S,Oliveira de Carvalho F,Garcez Barreto Teixeira L,Ramos Silva É,de Vasconcelos Cerqueira-Braz J,Santos Nunes P,Antunes de Souza Araújo A

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Signs and symptoms in common colds.

    abstract::The patterns of disease caused by five common viruses which infect the respiratory tract are described. The viruses were strains of rhinovirus types 2, 9, and 14, a strain of coronavirus type 229E and of respiratory syncytial virus. Volunteers were given nasal drops containing a low infectious dose of one of the virus...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tyrrell DA,Cohen S,Schlarb JE

    更新日期:1993-08-01 00:00:00

  • Community studies on hepatitis B in Rajahmundry town of Andhra Pradesh, India, 1997-8: unnecessary therapeutic injections are a major risk factor.

    abstract::In Rajahmundry town in India, 234 community cases of jaundice were interviewed for risk factors of viral hepatitis B and tested for markers of hepatitis A-E. About 41% and 1.7% of them were positive for anti-HBc and anti-HCV respectively. Of 83 cases who were tested within 3 months of onset of jaundice, 5 (6%), 11 (13...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singh J,Bhatia R,Patnaik SK,Khare S,Bora D,Jain DC,Sokhey J

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cyclospora cayetanensis: a description of clinical aspects of an outbreak in Quebec, Canada.

    abstract::Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging infectious agent. The aim of this study was to describe an outbreak that occurred in 250 adults exposed to contaminated food, focusing on the duration and relapses of symptoms, complications and evidence of local transmission. This outbreak affected workers who ate in a restauran...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Milord F,Lampron-Goulet E,St-Amour M,Levac E,Ramsay D

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Bancroftian filariasis in Pondicherry, south India: 2. Epidemiological evaluation of the effect of vector control.

    abstract::This article examines the evaluation of a bancroftian filariasis control programme undertaken in Pondicherry from 1981-5. Integrated vector management was applied in one half of the town, and routine operations under the national programme (larviciding and chemotherapy) continued in the comparison area. The programme ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subramanian S,Pani SP,Das PK,Rajagopalan PK

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of distance on observed mortality, childhood pneumonia and vaccine efficacy in rural Gambia.

    abstract::We investigated whether straight-line distance from residential compounds to healthcare facilities influenced mortality, the incidence of pneumonia and vaccine efficacy against pneumonia in rural Gambia. Clinical surveillance for pneumonia was conducted on 6938 children living in the catchment areas of the two largest...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaman SM,Cox J,Enwere GC,Bottomley C,Greenwood BM,Cutts FT

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark.

    abstract::SUMMARY This study assesses the contribution of different sources of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark using two different source-attribution approaches. In total, 794 non-human isolates and 406 isolates from human cases (domestic, travel related, and cases with unknown travel history) were collected. Isolates were ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boysen L,Rosenquist H,Larsson JT,Nielsen EM,Sørensen G,Nordentoft S,Hald T

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Host-microflora interaction in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): colonization resistance of the indigenous bacteria of the intestinal tract.

    abstract::Experimental data suggest a role for the microflora in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Anti-ds-DNA antibodies may be pathogenic in SLE by forming immune complexes with DNA. Foreign bacteria in the intestines could constitute the stimulus for anti-ds-DNA antibody production in SLE. Colonization Resistance (CR) is t...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Apperloo-Renkema HZ,Bootsma H,Mulder BI,Kallenberg CG,van der Waaij D

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular immune response to pulmonary infections in HIV-infected individuals hospitalized with diverse grades of immunosuppression.

    abstract::The lymphocyte profile of 521 HIV-infected subjects hospitalized at Jackson Memorial (2001-2002) was compared across main respiratory diseases. Study data included medical history and all laboratory evaluations performed during hospitalization. Community-acquired pneumonias (CAP, 52%), Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miguez-Burbano MJ,Ashkin D,Rodriguez A,Duncan R,Flores M,Acosta B,Quintero N,Pitchenik A

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Gloucester.

    abstract::Fourteen people living in or near the city of Gloucester fell ill with Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 between 27 August and 27 October 1986. Another patient had fallen ill on 30 May. Nine of the 15 were diagnosed retrospectively during a case finding exercise. There were three ...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hunt DA,Cartwright KA,Smith MC,Middleton J,Bartlett CL,Lee JV,Dennis PJ,Harper D

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • 2013 multistate outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections associated with fresh produce: focus on the Texas investigations.

    abstract::The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, wi...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abanyie F,Harvey RR,Harris JR,Wiegand RE,Gaul L,Desvignes-Kendrick M,Irvin K,Williams I,Hall RL,Herwaldt B,Gray EB,Qvarnstrom Y,Wise ME,Cantu V,Cantey PT,Bosch S,DA Silva AJ,Fields A,Bishop H,Wellman A,Beal J,Wi

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Taiwan during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, 2000-2008.

    abstract::The introduction and the widespread use of the varicella vaccine in Taiwan has led to a 75-80% decrease in the incidence of varicella in children. However the vaccine's long-term impact on the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) has attracted attention. By controlling gender, underlying diseases, and age effects, a Poisso...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chao DY,Chien YZ,Yeh YP,Hsu PS,Lian IB

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Multistate outbreak of Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) and Salmonella Weltevreden infections linked to imported frozen raw tuna: USA, March-July 2015.

    abstract::Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hassan R,Tecle S,Adcock B,Kellis M,Weiss J,Saupe A,Sorenson A,Klos R,Blankenship J,Blessington T,Whitlock L,Carleton HA,Concepción-Acevedo J,Tolar B,Wise M,Neil KP

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a novel international clonal complex (CC32) of Acinetobacter baumannii with epidemic potential.

    abstract::Twelve non-replicate Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from five European hospitals, Kuwait, and the US military healthcare system collected between 1980 and 2005 revealed a new clone, CC32. These included representative isolates of outbreaks/cross-infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility and carbapenem-resistant genet...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Da Silva GJ,Van Der Reijden T,Domingues S,Mendonça N,Petersen K,Dijkshoorn L

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cryptosporidium hominis genotypes involved in increased incidence and clusters of cases, Navarra, Spain, 2012.

    abstract::SUMMARY Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating s...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fuentes I,Martín C,Beristain X,Mazón A,Saugar JM,Blanco A,García Cenoz M,Valle-Cristia M,Ezpeleta C,Castilla J

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • A meta-analysis of the association between obesity and COVID-19.

    abstract::Owing to limited data, we conducted a meta-analysis to re-evaluate the relationship between obesity and coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). Literature published between 1 January 2020 and 22 August 2020 was comprehensively analysed, and RevMan3.5 was used for data analysis. A total of 50 studies, including data on 18 260 378...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Yang J,Ma Z,Lei Y

    更新日期:2020-12-22 00:00:00

  • The relationships between the HIV test interval, demographic factors and HIV disease progression.

    abstract::Individuals developing an HIV seroconversion illness may experience rapid disease progression. Information on seroconversion illness is rarely collected in most cohort studies, thus the aim of this study was to assess the value of the HIV test interval (the time between last negative and first positive HIV tests) as a...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of hepatitis C in a German prison for young men in relation to country of birth.

    abstract::A high prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection of up to 80% has been reported for injecting drug users (IDUs) in prison communities. However, there are only very limited data available on the prevalence and course of HCV in young offenders. We performed a study on hepatitis C markers in the largest German Youn...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meyer MF,Wedemeyer H,Monazahian M,Dreesman J,Manns MP,Lehmann M

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Attribution of human Salmonella infections to animal and food sources in Italy (2002-2010): adaptations of the Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models.

    abstract::The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combin...

    journal_title:Epidemiology and infection

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mughini-Gras L,Barrucci F,Smid JH,Graziani C,Luzzi I,Ricci A,Barco L,Rosmini R,Havelaar AH,VAN Pelt W,Busani L

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00