Exogenous fluorescent tracer agents based on pegylated pyrazine dyes for real-time point-of-care measurement of glomerular filtration rate.

Abstract:

:Novel pyrazine carboxamides bearing hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) moieties were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for use as fluorescent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) tracer agents. Among these, compounds 4d and 5c that contain about 48 ethylene oxide units in the PEG chain exhibited the most favorable physicochemical and renal clearance properties. In vitro studies show that these two compounds have low plasma protein binding, a necessary condition for renal excretion. In vivo animal model results show that 4d and 5c have a higher urine recovery of the injected dose than iothalamate (a commonly considered gold standard GFR agent). Pharmacokinetic studies show that these two compounds exhibit a plasma clearance equivalent to iothalamate, but with a faster (i.e. lower) terminal half-life than iothalamate (possibly from restricted distribution into the extracellular space due to large molecular size and hydrodynamic volume). Furthermore, the plasma clearance of 4d and 5c remained unchanged upon blockage of the tubular secretion pathway with probenecid, a necessary condition for establishment of clearance via glomerular filtration exclusively. Finally, noninvasive real-time monitoring of this class of compounds was demonstrated by pharmacokinetic clearance of 5c by optical measurements in rat model, which correlates strongly with plasma concentration of the tracer. Hence, 4d and 5c are promising candidates for translation to the clinic as exogenous fluorescent tracer agents in real-time point-of-care monitoring of GFR.

journal_name

Bioorg Med Chem

authors

Poreddy AR,Neumann WL,Freskos JN,Rajagopalan R,Asmelash B,Gaston KR,Fitch RM,Galen KP,Shieh JJ,Dorshow RB

doi

10.1016/j.bmc.2012.03.015

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2012-04-15 00:00:00

pages

2490-7

issue

8

eissn

0968-0896

issn

1464-3391

pii

S0968-0896(12)00194-0

journal_volume

20

pub_type

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