Bile acid sequestrants: more than simple resins.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The last decade, bile acids are emerging as integrated regulators of metabolism via induction of various signal transduction pathways. Consequently, BAS treatment may exert unexpected side-effects. We discuss a selection of recently published studies that evaluated BAS in several metabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS:Recently, an increasing body of evidence has shown that BAS in addition to ameliorating hypercholesterolemia are also effective in improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, although the mechanism is not completely understood. Furthermore, some reports suggested using these compounds to modulate energy expenditure. Many of these effects have been related to the local effects of BAS in the intestine by directly binding bile acids in the intestine or indirectly by interfering with signaling processes. SUMMARY:A substantial effort is being made by researchers to fully define the mechanism by which BAS improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. A new challenge will be to confirm in clinical trials the recent discoveries coming from animal experiments suggesting a role for bile acids in energy metabolism.


Curr Opin Lipidol


Out C,Groen AK,Brufau G




Has Abstract


2012-02-01 00:00:00












  • Fatty acids, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance: which comes first?

    abstract::The inhibiting effect of insulin on the mobilization of free fatty acids (FFA) from adipose tissue is halted in prevalent conditions with systemic insulin resistance. The nature and cause of this perturbation are unknown, but steroid hormones may be involved. The consequence is the creation or amplification of insulin...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Björntorp P

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a hereditary disorder of lipoprotein metabolism which causes a lifelong increase in LDL-C levels resulting in premature coronary heart disease. The present review looks at some of the recent literature on how molecular methods can be used to assist in the definitive d...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Graham CA,Latten MJ,Hart PJ

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Lipoprotein lipase: the regulation of tissue specific expression and its role in lipid and energy metabolism.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss recent advances in the understanding of the physiological role of lipoprotein lipase in lipid and energy metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS:Studies on the transcriptional and the posttranscriptional level of lipoprotein lipase expression have provided new i...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Preiss-Landl K,Zimmermann R,Hämmerle G,Zechner R

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • How high-density lipoprotein protects against the effects of lipid peroxidation.

    abstract::The protective effect of HDL against the development of atherosclerosis appears to be multifaceted involving a number of mechanisms. One of the major mechanisms is, however, the ability of HDL to decrease, directly or indirectly, the lipid peroxidation of LDL. The hydrolysis of lipid peroxides by PON1 makes a major co...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mackness MI,Durrington PN,Mackness B

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Apolipoprotein B messenger RNA editing: insights into the molecular regulation of post-transcriptional cytidine deamination.

    abstract::A site-specific cytidine deamination (cytidine to uridine) in nuclear apolipoprotein B messenger RNA creates a translational stop codon that produces apolipoprotein B48. This process is mediated by an enzyme composed of distinct subunits, including apolipoprotein B messenger RNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-1 ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davidson NO,Anant S,MacGinnitie AJ

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • SPPARM alpha: the Lazarus effect.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Atherogenic dyslipidaemia, characterized by high plasma triglycerides (a surrogate for triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), is prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and contributes to a high modifiable residual cardiovascula...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fruchart JC,Santos RD

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • GPIHBP1 and lipolysis: an update.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review will provide an update on the structure of GPIHBP1, a 28-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, and its role in the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. RECENT FINDINGS:Gpihbp1 knockout mice on a chow diet have milky plasma and plasma triglyceride level...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beigneux AP,Weinstein MM,Davies BS,Gin P,Bensadoun A,Fong LG,Young SG

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • MicroRNAs in lipid metabolism.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Although the role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating multiple physiological processes including apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cancer is well established, the importance of these tiny RNAs in regulating lipid metabolism has only recently been uncovered. This review summarizes the evidence for ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fernández-Hernando C,Suárez Y,Rayner KJ,Moore KJ

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular risk factors in inflammatory arthritis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To assess factors that promote atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, to determine how control of inflammation with conventional and biological antirheumatic drugs affects cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS:An excess risk of CVD occurs early in the RA dis...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mirjafari H,Al-Husain A,Bruce IN

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolomics as a tool in nutritional research.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Metabolomics is emerging as a powerful tool for studying metabolic processes and in recent years, the applications in the area of nutrition have risen rapidly. The present review gives an overview of the current applications in the field of nutrition and identifies areas in need of advancement. RECEN...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gibbons H,O'Gorman A,Brennan L

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Is oxidized low-density lipoprotein present in vivo?

    abstract::Basic research has provided strong evidence that oxidation of LDL plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Several mechanisms have been identified which can lead to LDL oxidation in vivo. Clinical and epidemiological studies have provided circumstantial evidence that oxidized LDL, as measured by...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ylä-Herttuala S

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pathophysiology of dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk in HIV lipodystrophy: a model of 'systemic steatosis'.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review addresses a syndrome of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy that has emerged in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The term 'HIV/HAART associated dyslipidemic lipodystrophy (HADL)' describes this syndrome. Although HAART increases patient survival rate...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Balasubramanyam A,Sekhar RV,Jahoor F,Jones PH,Pownall HJ

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-like 1.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The discovery of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ezetimibe, a drug that lowers intestinal cholesterol absorption, has contributed to the recognition of the intestine as an important organ in whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Unfortunately, the majority of the studies on NPC1L1 have been conducte...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pramfalk C,Jiang ZY,Parini P

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Vaccine strategies for lowering LDL by immunization against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:mAbs targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have the potential to become groundbreaking therapies for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, one major drawback of mAb-based therapy for a chronic condition like dyslipidemia is its relatively high cost. This review summ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chackerian B,Remaley A

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Adipose tissue failure and mitochondria as a possible target for improvement by bioactive food components.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Adipose tissue is an essential, highly dynamic and metabolically active tissue that vigorously communicates to support its primary function: the storage of lipids. It performs this function to secure energy supply and prevent lipotoxicity. Adipose tissue is essential for maintaining a healthy glucose ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Keijer J,van Schothorst EM

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Epidemiological and clinical studies link low levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, genetic polymorphisms linked to HDL-C do not associate consistently with CVD risk, and randomized clinical studies of drugs that elevate HDL-C v...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ronsein GE,Heinecke JW

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Oxidized phospholipids as modulators of inflammation in atherosclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review will summarize recent evidence demonstrating that biologically active phospholipid oxidation products modulate inflammatory reactions. RECENT FINDINGS:Structural identification of new biologically active oxidized phospholipids and the finding that they can also be formed at inflammatory s...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Leitinger N

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance: links in a chain or spokes on a wheel?

    abstract::Rather than a link in a causal chain leading to hypertension, insulin resistance and resultant hyperinsulinemia may be 'spokes on a wheel', with central or visceral obesity as the postulated hub of the wheel. Hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and high density lipoprotein cholesterol are depicted as other spokes. Newl...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hopkins PN,Hunt SC,Wu LL,Williams GH,Williams RR

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Fibrates, dyslipoproteinaemia and cardiovascular disease.

    abstract::Recent epidemiological data have reaffirmed that elevated plasma triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol levels are important risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease. The rationale for the clinical use of fibric acid derivatives, which are designed to correct this metabolic nexus, is now on firmer ground. The m...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Watts GF,Dimmitt SB

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cholesterol efflux capacity, macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and cardioprotective HDL.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Randomized clinical trials provide strong evidence that pharmacological elevation of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) fails to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in statin-treated humans. It is thus critical to identify new metrics that capture HDL's cardioprotective effects. RECENT FINDINGS:We review r...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hutchins PM,Heinecke JW

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of dietary cholesterol on macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: implications for systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:It is well recognized that adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation and local inflammation. This review summarizes current evidence regarding dietary cholesterol on adipose tissue macrophage accrual, systemic inflammation and its potential link to atherosclerosis. RECENT ...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Subramanian S,Chait A

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • The future of imaging in cardiovascular disease intervention trials: 2017 and beyond.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:As our understanding of cardiovascular disease has advanced over the past decades, multiple novel treatment strategies have been developed with the hope of reducing the global morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. Large-scale trials to test such novel therapies using clinical end poi...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Doris MK,Dweck MR,Fayad ZA

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Novel anti-inflammatory strategies in atherosclerosis.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Inflammation has been widely acknowledged to contribute throughout all stages of atherogenesis. However, these recent advances in our understanding have not been translated into clinical practice in which the mainstay of treatment is still lipid-targeted therapy. This review provides an overview of pr...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van der Valk FM,van Wijk DF,Stroes ES

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular genetics of the fibrinolytic and coagulation systems in haemostasis, thrombogenesis, restenosis and atherosclerosis.

    abstract::The plasminogen and coagulation systems have been extensively characterized at the biochemical level. Recent gene targeting and gene transfer studies have provided novel insights into their role in the formation of blood vessels and in the pathogenesis of blood vessel disorders including thrombosis, restenosis and ath...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carmeliet P,Collen D

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term follow-up of lipid-lowering trials.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Most LDL-lowering trials are limited in duration while the disease process occurs over decades. It is informative, therefore, to evaluate the long-term effects of treatment by undertaking extended observation beyond the formal double-blind phase of intervention studies. The current review brings toget...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Packard CJ,Ford I

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • PCSK9 inhibitors.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize the therapeutic strategies to inhibit PCSK9 and to describe the main results obtained in phase I and II trials with monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9. RECENT FINDINGS:Among the various approaches for PCSK9 inhibition, human data are only available for inhibition of PCSK9 binding to L...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Farnier M

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • RNA interference to target lipid disorders.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review focuses on proof-of-principle experiments providing validation of new targets for the development of RNA interference-based therapeutics for dyslipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS:Over the past few years, RNA interference has become an accepted approach to manipulate gene expression in mammalian s...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rondinone CM

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Apolipoprotein structural organization in high density lipoproteins: belts, bundles, hinges and hairpins.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize recent advances towards an understanding of the three-dimensional structures of the apolipoprotein components of HDL with a specific focus on high resolution models of apolipoprotein A-I. RECENT FINDINGS:Since the primary sequence was first reported, various models have been advanced for...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davidson WS,Silva RA

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Estrogens and atherosclerosis: phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators.

    abstract::The development of atherosclerosis in animal models and the incidence of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women are markedly reduced by estrogen treatment. Estrogen have acute beneficial effects on vascular reactivity and longer-term effects on critical steps in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Phytoestrog...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: St Clair RW

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Nutrition, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the microbiome: recent progress in the field.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide and it has overlapping pathogenesis with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Reviewed here are recent advances in understanding the contribution of diet and selected nutrients to NAFLD. RECENT FINDINGS:To und...

    journal_title:Current opinion in lipidology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vos MB

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00