HIV-associated immune activation: from bench to bedside.


:HIV infection is associated with a state of chronic, generalized immune activation that has been shown in many studies to be a key predictor of progression to AIDS. Consistent with this model, nonpathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts, such as the sooty mangabeys, are characterized by low levels of immune activation during the chronic phase of infection. The molecular, cellular, and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the HIV-associated immune activation are complex and still poorly understood. There is, however, growing consensus that both viral and host factors contribute to this phenotype, with emphasis on the role played by the mucosal immune dysfunction (and consequent microbial translocation) as well as the pattern of in vivo-infected CD4(+) T cells. The observation that antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced suppression of HIV replication does not fully resolve immune activation provided the rationale for a number of exploratory studies of potential immune modulatory treatments to be used in HIV-infected individuals in addition to standard ART. This review provides an update on the causes and consequences of the HIV-associated immune activation, and a summary of the immune modulatory approaches that are currently under clinical investigation.


d'Ettorre G,Paiardini M,Ceccarelli G,Silvestri G,Vullo V




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00












  • Simultaneous Evaluation of Safety, Acceptability, Pericoital Kinetics, and Ex Vivo Pharmacodynamics Comparing Four Rectal Microbicide Vehicle Candidates.

    abstract::Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection with tenofovir-containing regimens is effective, but plagued by poor adherence in some studies. Options for safe, effective, and acceptable PrEP products, especially for men and women at risk of HIV via receptive anal intercourse (RAI), are needed. We performed a randomi...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Leyva F,Fuchs EJ,Bakshi R,Carballo-Dieguez A,Ventuneac A,Yue C,Caffo B,Du Y,Torbenson M,Li L,Mullin G,Lee L,Rohan L,Anton PA,Hendrix CW

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence that mannosyl residues are involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis.

    abstract::The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS, is thought to bind to T4+ (CD4+) target cells through the heavily glycosylated gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Plant lectins bind glycoproteins through noncovalent interaction with specific hexose residues; therefore, lectins were evaluated for their ab...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robinson WE Jr,Montefiori DC,Mitchell WM

    更新日期:1987-10-01 00:00:00

  • Extraordinary high rate of HTLV type II seropositivity in intravenous drug abusers in south Vietnam.

    abstract::Serum specimens (n = 1899) were assayed for infections with HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and HIV-1 in seven classified groups of normal healthy controls, children, pregnant women, prostitutes, intravenous drug abusers, patients under going hemodialysis, and hemophiliacs in South and North Vietnam. Surprisingly, 125 of 954 samples...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukushima Y,Takahashi H,Hall WW,Nakasone T,Nakata S,Song P,Dinh Duc D,Hien B,Nguyen XQ,Ngoc Trinh T

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Ultra-Deep Sequencing Analysis on HIV Drug-Resistance-Associated Mutations Among HIV-Infected Individuals: First Report from the Philippines.

    abstract::A sharp increase in the number of people living with HIV has been documented in the Philippines. In response, the government has instituted antiretroviral therapy (ART) nationwide through HIV treatment hubs. However, no data presently exist on the status of ART drug-resistance-associated mutations (DRMs). In this stud...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: SahBandar IN,Samonte G,Telan E,Siripong N,Belcaid M,Schanzenbach D,Leano S,Chagan-Yasutan H,Hattori T,Shikuma CM,Ndhlovu LC

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Active immunization of patients with HIV infection: a study of the effect of VaxSyn, a recombinant HIV envelope subunit vaccine, on progression of immunodeficiency.

    abstract::Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to a progressive immunodeficiency characterized by decreasing levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes. VaxSyn, a vaccine based on the recombinant envelope glycoprotein subunit (rgp160) of HIV-1IIIB, was used to immunize HIV-infected patients to determine whether its adm...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Tsoukas CM,Raboud J,Bernard NF,Montaner JS,Gill MJ,Rachlis A,Fong IW,Schlech W,Djurdjev O,Freedman J,Thomas R,Lafrenière R,Wainberg MA,Cassol S,O'Shaughnessy M,Todd J,Volvovitz F,Smith GE

    更新日期:1998-04-10 00:00:00

  • Temporal lobe electroencephalogram power modifications during olfactory stimulation in HIV-infected patients.

    abstract::Evidence derived from studies concerning brain metabolism and brain electrical activity suggests that temporal lobe functioning is impaired in the course of HIV infection. To test the hypothesis of temporal lobe dysfunction in HIV infection, we utilized computerized electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis to evaluate temp...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Grassi B,Locatelli M,Lazzarin A,Scarone S

    更新日期:1996-04-10 00:00:00

  • The immune pathogenesis of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS.

    abstract::The present study investigated the immunological pathogenesis of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 238 patients with AIDS who received initial HAART were included in this prospecti...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zheng Y,Zhou H,He Y,Chen Z,He B,He M

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • The changing molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 among northern Thai drug users, 1999 to 2002.

    abstract::CRF01_AE and subtype B have dominated the HIV-1 epidemic in Thailand since 1989. We reported a new circulating recombinant form of HIV-1, CRF15_01B, as well as other unique CRF01_AE/B recombinants among prevalent HIV infections in Thailand. We sought to study this challenging molecular picture through assessment of su...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tovanabutra S,Beyrer C,Sakkhachornphop S,Razak MH,Ramos GL,Vongchak T,Rungruengthanakit K,Saokhieo P,Tejafong K,Kim B,De Souza M,Robb ML,Birx DL,Jittiwutikarn J,Suriyanon V,Celentano DD,McCutchan FE

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of a structured exercise program on nutrition and fitness outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    abstract::The feasibility and effectiveness of a hospital-based exercise-training program followed by a home-based program for improving fitness, strength, and changes in body composition in children and adolescents with HIV were evaluated. Subjects participated in nonrandomized 24-session, hospital supervised exercise training...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Miller TL,Somarriba G,Kinnamon DD,Weinberg GA,Friedman LB,Scott GB

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • A sensitive reporter cell line for HIV-1 tat activity, HIV-1 inhibitors, and T cell activation effects.

    abstract::The production and characterization of a cell line for quantitative HIV-1 Tat function and T cell activation assays is described. 1G5 is a clonal cell line derived from Jurkat T cells stably transfected with a luciferase gene driven by an HIV-1 long terminal repeat (HIV-LTR). The 1G5 clone was selected for low basal l...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aguilar-Cordova E,Chinen J,Donehower L,Lewis DE,Belmont JW

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • The Mathilde Krim Effect as a Way to Overcome the Matilda Effect.

    abstract::The Matilda effect illustrates how the contributions of women to science have been historically attributed to their male colleagues in some circumstances. This effect may perpetuate and even increase the gender gap we currently face. Recognizing the work of great women who led our way and committed their careers to tr...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Izquierdo-Useros N

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral-Naive Patients in Mexico After 10 Years: Is There a Difference?

    abstract::The aim of this study was to compare the extent of resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs among the population in Mexico before and after 2005. The mutations and drug resistance database of Stanford University were used for analyzing drug resistance tests that had been performed on HIV treatment-naive patients. The ...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Escoto-Delgadillo M,Torres-Mendoza BM,Flores-Soto M,Vazquez-Valls E

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular evidence of homosexual transmission of HIV type 2 in Spain.

    abstract::Eight HIV-2-infected Caucasian men living in the same geographical area in Gipuzkoa (northern Spain) have been identified in the last 5 years. HIV-2 infection in this area is uncommon, and no other cases of HIV-2 infection have been found after extensive testing for HIV-1/2 antibodies. Epidemiological data suggested a...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cilla G,Rodés B,Pérez-Trallero E,Arrizabalaga J,Soriano V

    更新日期:2001-03-20 00:00:00

  • Neutralizing antibodies and the course of HIV-induced disease.

    abstract::The capacity to neutralize the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro was examined in 52 sera obtained from 23 seropositive individuals in addition to 7 negative control sera. Neutralization was measured as the activity of a serum to protect MT-4 cells against the cytopathic effect of HTLV-IIIB. Virus neutralizat...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wendler I,Bienzle U,Hunsmann G

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a complex env subtype E HIV type 1 virus from the democratic republic of congo, recombinant with A, G, H, J, K, and unknown subtypes.

    abstract::Up to now, all known env subtype E viruses (CRF01-AE) have had the same mosaic structure with subtype A, and no other env subtype E HIV-1 viruses with non-A subtypes in their genomes have been described. In this report we describe the full-length genome sequence of an env subtype E isolate with a recombinant genome di...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vidal N,Mulanga-Kabeya C,Nzilambi N,Delaporte E,Peeters M

    更新日期:2000-12-10 00:00:00

  • HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.

    abstract::In this study, HIV strains circulating among military personnel were characterized, in Malabo, the capital city of Equatorial Guinea. One sample was found to be HIV-2 group A while a high degree of genetic diversity was recorded in the pol region of 41 HIV-1-positive samples. CRF02_AG accounted for 53.7% of the strain...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Djoko CF,Wolfe ND,Vidal N,Tamoufe U,Montavon C,LeBreton M,Pike BL,Fair J,Mbacham WF,Benito A,Rimoin AW,Saylors K,Mpoudi-Ngole E,Grillo MP,Peeters M

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nelfinavir in HIV-HCV coinfected patients: a 24-month follow-up in a cohort of 82 patients.

    abstract::This retrospective and longitudinal study evaluated the long-term hepatic tolerance of a nelfinavir (NFV)-antiretroviral combined regimen in 82 patients of the HCV-HIV Cohort of CISIH-Sud of Marseilles. Follow-up data (liver enzyme levels, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and metabolic parameters) of patients treated w...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poizot-Martin I,Marimoutou C,Drogoul-Vey MP,Vion-Dury F,Frixon-Marin V,Benhaim S,Poggi P,Gastaut JA

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of a primary isolate-like virus from simian and human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaque having broad neutralizing activity.

    abstract::To investigate the changes of neutralizing antibodies and viruses during simian and human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection, we examined the cross-neutralizing ability of sequential sera from three macaques infected with SHIV, NM-3rN, and analyzed the sensitivity of the reisolate to neutralizing antibodies. Neut...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyazaki Y,Kuwata T,Takehisa J,Hayami M

    更新日期:2002-04-10 00:00:00

  • Antiviral Activity of Tenofovir Alafenamide Against HIV-1 Subtypes and Emergence of K65R.

    abstract::Differences in emergence of HIV resistance between subtypes B and C in vitro and potential implications on tenofovir alafenamide efficacy in vivo were evaluated. Dose escalation resistance selections showed K65R emerging earlier for subtype C viruses in vitro, as previously reported. Viral breakthrough experiments at ...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cox S,Margot N,Miller M,Callebaut C

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro evaluation of mismatched double-stranded RNA (ampligen) for combination therapy in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    abstract::Multiple drug effect analyses with mismatched double-stranded RNA (mismatched dsRNA or Ampligen) as a core drug were performed to identify other agents and mechanisms through which mismatched dsRNA may potentiate effective therapeutic intervention in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiviral activities w...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montefiori DC,Robinson WE Jr,Mitchell WM

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by human salivas.

    abstract::Inhibitory factors to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in saliva may be responsible for the infrequent isolation of virus from saliva and also may account for the marked infrequency of salivary and/or oral transmission of HIV-1. Incubation of HIV-1 with human saliva followed by addition of the mixture to su...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Archibald DW,Cole GA

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infection by heparin derivatives.

    abstract::Heparin (Hep) and sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) have been reported to inhibit HIV infection in vitro. In vivo, anticoagulant activity and reduced bioavailability were found to limit the antiviral effects of Hep. In this investigation, three nonanticoagulant N-acylated Hep conjugates [OI1:3Hep, Pal1:5Hep, and Pal1:5He...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clayette P,Moczar E,Mabondzo A,Martin M,Toutain B,Marcé D,Dormont D

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of the Near Full-Length Genome of a Novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant in an Injection Drug User from Southern Taiwan.

    abstract::HIV-1 CRF07_BC became prevalent in Taiwan after the epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs). We describe a unique recombinant form (URF) consisting of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC (named URF_0107-H8) genes detected from an IDU. The 8.8 kb near full-length genome of URF_0107-H8 had a CRF01_AE backbone with two CRF07_BC fra...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee NY,Wang JC,Lin YC,Wu CJ,Li CW,Li MC,Wang SW,Tseng FC,Ko WC

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Short communication: HIV type 1 tropism determination in a novel dried blood spot membrane and the use of a mixture of outer nested polymerase chain reaction primers.

    abstract::Genotropism was determined in 608 Brazilian samples collected in dried blood spots using Polyethersulfone collection cards. Patients were infected by subtype B (88.8%), F (5.6%), C (3.3%), A (1.8%), and G (0.5%). All patients were exposed to three classes of antiretrovirals, and 59.8% of the samples harbored R5 viruse...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lavigne S,Santos C,Arif MS,Reis A,Samer S,Dos Santos CV,Diaz RS

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype C Reverse Transcriptase Between Children and Adults Likely Explained by Maturity of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses.

    abstract::In this study HIV-1 subtype C-infected adults demonstrated higher purifying selection on their viral populations in reverse transcriptase (RT) than infected children. This difference is likely explained by more mature cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in adults, which may have implications for the development of drug r...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saravanan S,Gomathi S,Kausalya B,Boobalan J,Murugavel KG,Balakrishnan P,Mothi SN,Solomon SS,Kumarasamy N,Selvamuthu P,Solomon S,Smith DM

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Severe Kaposi Sarcoma in an Urban Public Hospital.

    abstract::The national incidence of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has decreased dramatically since the availability of combined antiretroviral therapy. Despite national trends, we continue to see admissions for KS. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients with HIV who were admitted with active KS between 2010...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kasturia SE,Gunthel C,Zeng C,Nguyen ML

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and factors associated with a prolonged QTc interval in a cohort of asymptomatic HIV-infected patients.

    abstract::We aimed to determine the prevalence of a prolonged QTc interval in HIV-infected patients and its related factors through an observational study of a cohort of asymptomatic HIV-infected outpatients. All patients underwent a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram and a transthoracic echocardiogram. Prolonged QTc was consid...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreno T,Pérez I,Isasti G,Cabrera F,Santos J,Palacios R

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Short communication: emerging transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance mutations among patients prior to start of first-line antiretroviral therapy in middle and low prevalence sites in China.

    abstract::It is known that transmitted drug resistance (TDR) will most likely emerge in regions where antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been widely available for years. However, after a decade of rapid scale-up of ART in China, there are few data regarding TDR among HIV-infected patients prior to initiating first-line ART in Chi...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang X,He C,Xing H,Liao L,Xu X,He J,Liu Y,Ling H,Liang S,Hsi JH,Ruan Y,Shao Y

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Recent advances in AIDS vaccine research and development.

    abstract::There is an urgent need for a prophylactic vaccine to protect individuals from AIDS and to help abate the growing epidemic. In October 1993, the Conference on Advances in AIDS Vaccine Development reviewed the state-of-the-art in vaccine research and confirmed both the progress that has been made and the challenges tha...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnston MI,Noe JS,Killen JY

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Selective CD27+ (memory) B cell reduction and characteristic B cell alteration in drug-naive and HAART-treated HIV type 1-infected patients.

    abstract::To investigate HIV-1-related B cell disorders, the quantity of CD27 positive (CD27+) B cells and their CD38, CD95, and bcl-2 intensities were examined by flow cytometry analysis in 16 drug-naive patients, 27 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients, and 20 uninfected controls. CD27+ B cells have b...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chong Y,Ikematsu H,Kikuchi K,Yamamoto M,Murata M,Nishimura M,Nabeshima S,Kashiwagi S,Hayashi J

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00