HIV-associated immune activation: from bench to bedside.


:HIV infection is associated with a state of chronic, generalized immune activation that has been shown in many studies to be a key predictor of progression to AIDS. Consistent with this model, nonpathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts, such as the sooty mangabeys, are characterized by low levels of immune activation during the chronic phase of infection. The molecular, cellular, and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the HIV-associated immune activation are complex and still poorly understood. There is, however, growing consensus that both viral and host factors contribute to this phenotype, with emphasis on the role played by the mucosal immune dysfunction (and consequent microbial translocation) as well as the pattern of in vivo-infected CD4(+) T cells. The observation that antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced suppression of HIV replication does not fully resolve immune activation provided the rationale for a number of exploratory studies of potential immune modulatory treatments to be used in HIV-infected individuals in addition to standard ART. This review provides an update on the causes and consequences of the HIV-associated immune activation, and a summary of the immune modulatory approaches that are currently under clinical investigation.


d'Ettorre G,Paiardini M,Ceccarelli G,Silvestri G,Vullo V




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00












  • Characterization of a naphthalene derivative inhibitor of retroviral integrases.

    abstract::The retroviral integrase protein (IN) is essential for virus replication and, therefore, an attractive target for the development of inhibitors to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Diverse classes of compounds that are active against this protein have been discovered using in vitro assays. Here we de...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Daniel R,Myers CB,Kulkosky J,Taganov K,Greger JG,Merkel G,Weber IT,Harrison RW,Skalka AM

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Diagnosed Adults and Children in São Paulo, Brazil.

    abstract::Transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) have been a constant threat to treatment efficacy. We evaluated TDRM in plasma RNA of 217 antiretroviral therapy-naive patients from sites in the São Paulo metropolitan area, collected from 2012 to 2014. The partial HIV-1 polymerase region was sequenced using Big Dye termin...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guimarães PM,Ferreira JL,Coelho LP,Cavalcanti Jde S,Lopes GI,Matsuda EM,Almeida FJ,Almeida VC,Campeas AE,Junior LC,Brígido LF,Sa˜o Paulo Salvage Workgroup.

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • An HIV type 2 case series in Italy: a phylogenetic analysis.

    abstract::In recent years, the increase of migration from countries where human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is endemic to industrialized countries has facilitated the spread of the virus in individuals previously unexposed to this threat. In this report, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on pol and env sequences of...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: D'Ettorre G,Lo Presti A,Gori C,Cella E,Bertoli A,Vullo V,Perno CF,Ciotti M,Foley BT,Ciccozzi M,HIV-2 Study Group.

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • HIV Care Among Elderly Population: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    abstract::Elderly people living with HIV are increasing. At present in the United States, nearly half of newly diagnosed HIV-infected people are aged >50 years. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected elderly patients tends to be delayed by several health care factors as several life-threatening diseases are common in elderly p...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhatta M,Nandi S,Dutta N,Dutta S,Saha MK

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation of Antibody Responses to a Peptide Antigen gp120-C5501-512/gp41732-744 with HIV Disease Progression.

    abstract::Antibodies to the carboxy-terminal constant (C5) region 5 of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 have previously been associated with slow disease progression. This is one of the regions on gp120 that interact with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, anchoring it to the viral and infected cell membrane. This study...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sørensen B,Sommerfelt MA,Stjernholm G,Smith PL,Ökvist M,Hovden AO,Hoddevik G,Redfield R,Ustina V,Jelmert Ø,Zeldis J,Dalgleish A

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Full-length genome sequencing of HIV type 1 group O viruses isolated from a heterosexual transmission cluster in Senegal.

    abstract::In a polygamous marriage in Senegal, the husband and his two spouses were infected with HIV-1 group O. This study provides new full-length genome sequences for the two spouses (99SE-MP1299 and 99SE-MP1300) and the 3'-end LTR-tat fragment (6084 bp) for the husband (98SE-42HALD). Phylogenetic tree and diversity plot ana...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kane CT,Montavon C,Toure MA,Faye MA,Ndiaye AG,Diallo AG,Ndoye I,Liegeois F,Delaporte E,Mboup S,Peeters M

    更新日期:2001-08-10 00:00:00

  • HTLV type I Tax activation of the CXCR4 promoter by association with nuclear respiratory factor 1.

    abstract::Human T lymphotropic virus type I trans-activator Tax protein regulates expression of several cellular genes that are involved in cellular activation, proliferation, and transformation. Tax mediates its regulatory activity through interaction with cellular transcription factors such as members of the cAMP-responsive e...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moriuchi M,Moriuchi H,Fauci AS

    更新日期:1999-06-10 00:00:00

  • HIV type 1 antigen-responsive CD4+ T-lymphocytes in exposed yet HIV Type 1 seronegative Ugandans.

    abstract::CD4(+) T cell help is important for the functionality of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) in limiting viral replication and may contribute to mediation of apparent resistance to HIV-1 infection in exposed seronegative (ESN) individuals. Using five HIV-1 antigens in an intracellular cytokine assay, the presence of...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kebba A,Kaleebu P,Serwanga J,Rowland S,Yirrell D,Downing R,Gilmour J,Imami N,Gotch F,Whitworth J

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic evidence of multiple transmissions of HIV type 1 subtype F within Romania from adult blood donors to children.

    abstract::We studied the phylogeny of HIV-1 subtype F viruses from children and adults in Romania in order to (1) clarify whether the Romanian subtype F epidemic was caused by one or several virus introductions and (2) gain insight into the route of spread of the HIV-1 subtype F virus among children and adults in Romania. env (...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Op De Coul E,van den Burg R,Asjö B,Goudsmit J,Cupsa A,Pascu R,Usein C,Cornelissen M

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Increase in sensitivity to soluble CD4 by primary HIV type 1 isolates after passage through C8166 cells: association with sequence differences in the first constant (C1) region of glycoprotein 120.

    abstract::Primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were obtained by coculture of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from HIV-1-infected people with PBLs from uninfected donors. These viral stocks tend to be resistant to neutralization/inactivation by soluble CD4 (sCD4). When these stocks were passed thro...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orloff SL,Bandea CI,Kennedy MS,Allaway GP,Maddon PJ,McDougal JS

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of glutathione peroxidase activity decreases HIV type 1 activation after oxidative stress.

    abstract::Am important aspect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection is the regulation of its expression by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) by redox-controlled signal transduction pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that selenium supplementation can effectively increase glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity i...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sappey C,Legrand-Poels S,Best-Belpomme M,Favier A,Rentier B,Piette J

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Predominance of three NF-kappaB binding sites in the long terminal repeat region of HIV Type 1 subtype C isolates from Zambia.

    abstract::Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, with almost 46 million people infected globally. HIV-1 subtype C accounts for 55% of these infections. In Zambia, the majority of HIV-1 infections are subtype C. However, to its north most countries have non-subtype...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Munkanta M,Handema R,Kasai H,Gondwe C,Deng X,Yamashita A,Asagi T,Yamamoto N,Ito M,Kasolo F,Terunuma H

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Active immunization of patients with HIV infection: a study of the effect of VaxSyn, a recombinant HIV envelope subunit vaccine, on progression of immunodeficiency.

    abstract::Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to a progressive immunodeficiency characterized by decreasing levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes. VaxSyn, a vaccine based on the recombinant envelope glycoprotein subunit (rgp160) of HIV-1IIIB, was used to immunize HIV-infected patients to determine whether its adm...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Tsoukas CM,Raboud J,Bernard NF,Montaner JS,Gill MJ,Rachlis A,Fong IW,Schlech W,Djurdjev O,Freedman J,Thomas R,Lafrenière R,Wainberg MA,Cassol S,O'Shaughnessy M,Todd J,Volvovitz F,Smith GE

    更新日期:1998-04-10 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HIV prevention; current status and future directions: a summary of the DAIDS and BMGF sponsored think tank on pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) in HIV prevention.

    abstract::Thirty years after its beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still raging around the world. According to UNAIDS, in 2011 alone 1.7M deaths were attributable to AIDS, and 2.5M people were newly infected by the virus. Despite the success in treating HIV-infected people with potent antiretroviral drugs, preventing HIV infe...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Romano J,Kashuba A,Becker S,Cummins J,Turpin J,Veronese F,Antiretroviral Pharmacology In HIV Prevention Think Tank Participants.

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Inflammatory biomarker changes and their correlation with Framingham cardiovascular risk and lipid changes in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients treated for 144 weeks with abacavir/lamivudine/atazanavir with or without ritonavir in ARIES.

    abstract::Propensity for developing coronary heart disease (CHD) is linked with Framingham-defined cardiovascular risk factors and elevated inflammatory biomarkers. Cardiovascular risk and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated in ARIES, a Phase IIIb/IV clinical trial in which 515 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected subjects init...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Young B,Squires KE,Ross LL,Santiago L,Sloan LM,Zhao HH,Wine BC,Pakes GE,Margolis DA,Shaefer MS,Aries EPZ108859 Study Team.

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Stages in the progression of HIV infection in chimpanzees.

    abstract::Circulating HIV antigens and HIV specific antibodies in sera of experimentally infected chimpanzees were monitored by ELISA immunoassay, Western blot, and radioimmunoprecipitation procedures. Three of three chimpanzees given plasma from patients with AIDS or ARC tested positive for HIV antigens beginning six to ten we...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saxinger C,Alter HJ,Eichberg JW,Fauci AS,Robey WG,Gallo RC

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct but related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant populations in genital secretions and blood.

    abstract::For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because ther...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Overbaugh J,Anderson RJ,Ndinya-Achola JO,Kreiss JK

    更新日期:1996-01-20 00:00:00

  • HIV type 1 protease cleavage site mutations and viral fitness: implications for drug susceptibility phenotyping assays.

    abstract::The recombinant virus assay (RVA) is a method for assessing the susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plasma isolates to antiretroviral drugs. The RVA involves the production of viable virus in vitro by homologous recombination of RT-PCR products from plasma virus with a noninfectious reverse t...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robinson LH,Myers RE,Snowden BW,Tisdale M,Blair ED

    更新日期:2000-08-10 00:00:00

  • Env gp120 sequence analysis of HIV type 1 strains from diverse areas of the brain shows preponderance of CCR5 usage.

    abstract::In this study diverse areas of the autopsied brain of 12 HIV-infected patients with and without dementia were analyzed. All brain samples were obtained at autopsy through prior consent. Env C2-V5 region was PCR amplified and sequenced and compared between different brain regions within the same patient and also betwee...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shah M,Smit TK,Morgello S,Tourtellotte W,Gelman B,Brew BJ,Saksena NK

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Short communication: persistence of high blood levels of the chemokines CCL2, CCL19, and CCL20 during the course of HIV infection.

    abstract::Dendritic cells (DCs) are important mediators of the immune response against HIV and yet blood DC numbers fall substantially during HIV infection. Here we report that blood levels of the DC-tissue tropic chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1/CCL2), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-3α/CCL20), and MIP-3β/C...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fontaine J,Poudrier J,Roger M

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro susceptibility of Macaca nemestrina to human herpesvirus 6: a potential animal model of coinfection with primate immunodeficiency viruses.

    abstract::Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a lymphotropic herpesvirus, has been suggested as a potential cofactor in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Previous studies indicate that HHV-6 has a restricted range of susceptible species. In this study, we tested the in vitro susceptibility to HHV-6 of Macaca nemestrina (p...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lusso P,Secchiero P,Crowley RW

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evolutionary repair of HIV type 1 gp41 with a kink in the N-terminal helix leads to restoration of the six-helix bundle structure.

    abstract::The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) can be stabilized by the introduction of a disulfide bond between the gp120 and gp41 subunits. The resulting protein is monomeric, but trimerization can be improved by the introduction of a single helix-breaking residue at the conserved Ile559 site in the N-terminal heptad...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanders RW,Busser E,Moore JP,Lu M,Berkhout B

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • RNA secondary structure and squence conservation in C1 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env gene.

    abstract::We have analyzed amino acid, nucleotide sequence, and RNA secondary structure variability in the env gene of human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV-1). In applying algorithms for computing optimal RNA-folding patterns to a nonredundant data set of 178 env nucleotide sequences, we found a conserved RNA stem-loop struct...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peleg O,Brunak S,Trifonov EN,Nevo E,Bolshoy A

    更新日期:2002-08-10 00:00:00

  • Translation of Pr55(gag) augments packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in a cis-acting manner.

    abstract::The full-length RNA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) serves both as a messenger (mRNA) to direct the translation of Pr55(gag) proteins and as genomic or viral particle RNA (vpRNA) to be packaged into virions. In this study, we have assessed a putative cis-acting effect of Pr55(gag) translation on HIV-1 R...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liang C,Hu J,Russell RS,Wainberg MA

    更新日期:2002-10-10 00:00:00

  • Assessment of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in HIV type 1-infected individuals: impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    abstract::Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 replication has been established, the mechanisms involved in restoration of immune responses and reconstitution remain unknown. This study provides evidence of changes in expression of type 1 and type 2 cytokine-specific mRNA occurring during...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imami N,Antonopoulos C,Hardy GA,Gazzard B,Gotch FM

    更新日期:1999-11-20 00:00:00

  • Nonaffinity purification of recombinant gp120 for use in AIDS vaccine development.

    abstract::The gene encoding the major envelope glycoprotein of the HIV-SF2 isolate was engineered for the secretion of recombinant gp120 (rgp120SF2) from permanent Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cellular production methods were scaled up and a method for purification of the secreted glycoprotein was devised. Mild purif...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scandella CJ,Kilpatrick J,Lidster W,Parker C,Moore JP,Moore GK,Mann KA,Brown P,Coates S,Chapman B

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Elimination of human T cell leukemia virus type-1-infected cells by neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-inducing antibodies against human t cell leukemia virus type-1 envelope gp46.

    abstract::Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is prevalent worldwide with foci of high prevalence. However, to date no effective vaccine or drug against HTLV-1 infection has been developed. In efforts to define the role of antibodies in the control of HTLV-1 infection, we capitalized on the use of our previously defined...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanaka Y,Takahashi Y,Tanaka R,Kodama A,Fujii H,Hasegawa A,Kannagi M,Ansari AA,Saito M

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity.

    abstract::Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flo...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thurman AR,Kimble T,Herold B,Mesquita PM,Fichorova RN,Dawood HY,Fashemi T,Chandra N,Rabe L,Cunningham TD,Anderson S,Schwartz J,Doncel G

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Amplification of simian retroviral sequences from human recipients of baboon liver transplants.

    abstract::Investigations into the use of baboons as organ donors for human transplant recipients, a procedure called xenotransplantation, have raised the specter of transmitting baboon viruses to humans and possibly establishing new human infectious diseases. Retrospective analysis of tissues from two human transplant recipient...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allan JS,Broussard SR,Michaels MG,Starzl TE,Leighton KL,Whitehead EM,Comuzzie AG,Lanford RE,Leland MM,Switzer WM,Heneine W

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • CD8+ T cells from HIV type 1-seronegative individuals suppress virus replication in acutely infected cells.

    abstract::CD8+ lymphocytes (CD8 cells) have been shown to inhibit replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro when cocultured with HIV-infected CD4+ lymphocytes (CD4 cells). This suppressive effect on HIV replication in experimentally infected CD4 cells has so far been demonstrated only for CD8 cells from HIV...

    journal_title:AIDS research and human retroviruses

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Røsok B,Voltersvik P,Larsson BM,Albert J,Brinchmann JE,Asjö B

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00