Vaccines and Internet: characteristics of the vaccine safety net web sites and suggested improvements.


UNLABELLED:The Internet contains a large amount of useful information on many subjects, but also information of doubtful quality. To help identify Web sites on vaccine safety that fulfil good practice, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety of the World Health Organization (WHO) has published criteria to which sites should adhere and a listing of Web sites that fulfil them. There are no studies describing the common attributes of these sites. OBJECTIVE:To examine the attributes, design characteristics and resources of Web sites belonging to the Vaccine Safety Net (VSN) of the WHO. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study using an evaluation questionnaire was carried out applied to the VSN web sites listed in March-April 2007. RESULTS:Twenty-six Web sites accredited by the VSN by April 2007 were analysed. With respect to design and quality, all sites contained information about the site manager. Postal and Email addresses were available for 84.6% of the sites. About privacy and personal data processing, 73.1% of sites specified the data protection procedure used and stated that data were not sold or passed third parties. The most-used language was English (76.9%). 96.3% of sites had links to other pro-vaccination sites and 19.2% provided the addresses of vaccination centres. 63.6% of webs were aimed at general public and health care workers but there was no clear separation of documents or different entry routes. With respect to information on vaccine safety, 84.6% of sites had information on adverse effects. In the general information section, 92.3% of sites had a new developments section. Some sites had multiple sources of financing and in 57% of sites, the financing was public. CONCLUSIONS:The most-important plus factors found were the transparency of financing, the lack of links to the pharmaceutical industry, the transparency of site management and responsibility and the proven scientific quality and constant updating of contents.






Martínez-Mora M,Alvarez-Pasquín MJ,Rodríguez-Salvanés F




Has Abstract


2008-12-09 00:00:00
















  • Efficacy of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in immunocompetent adults: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    abstract::The use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is low in some countries, maybe because of doubts regarding its efficacy. This meta-analysis aims at combining evidence from randomized trials of PPV assessing its efficacy in preventing Streptococcus pneumoniae related diseases in immunocompetent adults. In the fou...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Cornu C,Yzèbe D,Léophonte P,Gaillat J,Boissel JP,Cucherat M

    更新日期:2001-09-14 00:00:00

  • Purification of O-specific polysaccharide from lipopolysaccharide produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A.

    abstract::The O specific polysaccharide (OSP) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and the target for vaccine development. LPS is the major constituent of the outer membrane of S. Paratyphi A with the OSP exposed on the surface, in addition to the cell associated LPS...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kothari S,Kim JA,Kothari N,Jones C,Choe WS,Carbis R

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-effectiveness of the introduction of two-dose bi-valent (Cervarix) and quadrivalent (Gardasil) HPV vaccination for adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that leads to a substantial disease burden for health systems. Prevention through vaccination can significantly reduce the prevalence of cervical cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the poten...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahumud RA,Gow J,Alam K,Keramat SA,Hossain MG,Sultana M,Sarker AR,Islam SMS

    更新日期:2020-01-10 00:00:00

  • The web and public confidence in MMR vaccination in Italy.

    abstract::Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage in Italy has been decreasing starting from 2012 and, at the present, none of the Italian regions has achieved the goal of 95% coverage target. A decision of the Court of Justice of Rimini in March 2012 that awarded vaccine-injury compensation for a case of autism h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aquino F,Donzelli G,De Franco E,Privitera G,Lopalco PL,Carducci A

    更新日期:2017-08-16 00:00:00

  • Estimates of the timing of reductions in genital warts and high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after onset of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to estimate the number of years after onset of a quadrivalent HPV vaccination program before notable reductions in genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will occur in teenagers and young adults in the United States. METHODS:We applied a previously publish...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chesson HW,Ekwueme DU,Saraiya M,Dunne EF,Markowitz LE

    更新日期:2013-08-20 00:00:00

  • Impact of the introduction of rotavirus vaccine on the timeliness of other scheduled vaccines: the Australian experience.

    abstract::Strict age limits for receipt of rotavirus vaccines and simultaneous use of vaccines requiring two (Rotarix(®)) and three (RotaTeq(®)) doses in Australia may impact on coverage and timeliness of other vaccines in the infant schedule. Using data from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), coverage and t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hull BP,Menzies R,Macartney K,McIntyre PB

    更新日期:2013-04-08 00:00:00

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis on the safety of newly adjuvanted vaccines among children.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:New adjuvants such as the AS- or the MF59-adjuvants improve vaccine efficacy and facilitate dose-sparing. Their use in influenza and malaria vaccines has resulted in a large body of evidence on their clinical safety in children. METHODS:We carried out a systematic search for safety data from published cli...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Stassijns J,Bollaerts K,Baay M,Verstraeten T

    更新日期:2016-02-03 00:00:00

  • Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in HIV-negative men who have sex with men to prevent recurrent high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    abstract::We examined the long-term clinical and economic benefits of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine as a secondary/adjunct prevention strategy in the prevention of recurrent high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and are 27 years or older. We constructed a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deshmukh AA,Chiao EY,Das P,Cantor SB

    更新日期:2014-12-05 00:00:00

  • The biology of influenza viruses.

    abstract::The influenza viruses are characterized by segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes requiring an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of viral origin for replication. The particular structure ofthe influenza virus genome and function of its viral proteins enable antigenic drift and antigenic shift. These processes result in vir...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bouvier NM,Palese P

    更新日期:2008-09-12 00:00:00

  • Effect of thiomersal on dissociation of intact (146S) foot-and-mouth disease virions into 12S particles as assessed by novel ELISAs specific for either 146S or 12S particles.

    abstract::Intact (146S) foot-and-mouth disease virions (FMDVs) can dissociate into specific (12S) viral capsid degradation products. Using two single-domain antibody fragments that bind specifically to either 146S or 12S particles we developed two ELISAs for the quantification of these particles in FMDV antigen preparations use...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harmsen MM,Fijten HP,Westra DF,Coco-Martin JM

    更新日期:2011-03-24 00:00:00

  • Varicella vaccination as useful strategy for reducing the risk of varicella-related hospitalizations in both vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts (Italy, 2003-2018).

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The present study summarizes evidences of the impact that varicella vaccination (VV) introduction and coverage can have on varicella attributable hospitalization rates. METHODS:A retrospective observational study was carried out by considering hospital discharge records and VV coverage at 24 months collec...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amodio E,Casuccio A,Tramuto F,Costantino C,Marrella A,Maida CM,Vitale F,Restivo V

    更新日期:2020-07-31 00:00:00

  • Immunogenicity, safety, biodistribution and persistence of ADVAX, a prophylactic DNA vaccine for HIV-1, delivered by in vivo electroporation.

    abstract::ADVAX is a DNA-based candidate HIV vaccine that was safe but weakly immunogenic when delivered intramuscularly (IM) in humans. Studies were performed in animal models to determine whether an alternative delivery method, in vivo electroporation (EP), could improve the immunogenicity of ADVAX while maintaining an accept...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dolter KE,Evans CF,Ellefsen B,Song J,Boente-Carrera M,Vittorino R,Rosenberg TJ,Hannaman D,Vasan S

    更新日期:2011-01-17 00:00:00

  • Changes in pathogens and pneumococcal serotypes causing community-acquired pneumonia in The Netherlands.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2006 a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the immunisation programme for infants in The Netherlands and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. Limited data exist about the impact of PCV on the aetiology of CAP as a whole. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall changes in...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Vestjens SMT,Wagenvoort GHJ,Grutters JC,Meek B,Aldenkamp AF,Vlaminckx BJM,Bos WJW,Rijkers GT,van de Garde EMW

    更新日期:2017-07-24 00:00:00

  • An assessment of shedding with the oral rabies virus vaccine strain SPBN GASGAS in target and non-target species.

    abstract::A safety requirement for live vaccines is investigating possible shedding in recipients since the presence of replication competent vaccine in secretions could result in direct and indirect horizontal transmission. This is especially relevant for oral rabies vaccine baits that are deliberately distributed into the env...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vos A,Freuling C,Ortmann S,Kretzschmar A,Mayer D,Schliephake A,Müller T

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Enhancing the role of vaccines in combatting antimicrobial resistance.

    abstract::Interest in addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has grown recently but little effort has been made to consider how existing and new vaccines could impact on AMR. A 2017 Chatham House meeting considered the role of vaccines and how to demonstrate their value through their impact on AMR. Ways existing vaccines hav...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clift C,Salisbury DM

    更新日期:2017-12-04 00:00:00

  • Antibodies against cell surface antigens as very potent immunological adjuvants.

    abstract::We describe here two very potent adjuvant systems which are thought to work directly on antigen specific lymphocytes, thus by-passing the normal route for adjuvants, which is to activate antigen presenting cells (APCs) inducing release of inflammatory cytokines with resultant side effects of local and systemic reactog...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barr T,Carlring J,Hatzifoti C,Heath AW

    更新日期:2006-04-12 00:00:00

  • Quantifying population preferences around vaccination against severe but rare diseases: A conjoint analysis among French university students, 2016.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several concepts are available to explain vaccine decision making by individual and inter-individual factors, including risk perception, social conformism and altruism. However, only a few studies have quantified the weight of these determinants in vaccine acceptance. Using a conjoint analysis tool, we aimed...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seanehia J,Treibich C,Holmberg C,Müller-Nordhorn J,Casin V,Raude J,Mueller JE

    更新日期:2017-05-09 00:00:00

  • Levels of antibodies specific to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and Haemophilus influenzae type b in healthy children born to Tdap-vaccinated mothers.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Vaccination of pregnant women protects both women and their newborns against some infectious diseases. Thailand implemented tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination of pregnant women in 1977, which was replaced by tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (dT) vaccination in 2005. The tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wanlapakorn N,Maertens K,Thongmee T,Srimuan D,Thatsanathorn T,Van Damme P,Leuridan E,Poovorawan Y

    更新日期:2020-10-14 00:00:00

  • Assessment of neutralization of Micrurus venoms with a blend of anti-Micrurus tener and anti-ScNtx antibodies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Micrurus venoms contain two main groups of toxic protein components: short-chain α-neurotoxins (SNtx) and phospholipases type A2 (PLA2). In North America, generally, the Micrurus venoms have low abundance of SNtx compared to that of PLA2s; however, both are highly toxic to mammals, and consequently both can ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Archundia IG,de la Rosa G,Olvera F,Calderón A,Benard-Valle M,Alagón A,Corzo G

    更新日期:2021-02-05 00:00:00

  • Inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses to B-T construct of F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis in microsphere delivery.

    abstract::Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis, an etiological agent of pneumonic and bubonic plague. There is a need for an improved plague vaccine that may overcome the limitation of presently available whole cell vaccine. An alternative approach described here, is the use of protective epitopes from immunod...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tripathi V,Chitralekha KT,Bakshi AR,Tomar D,Deshmukh RA,Baig MA,Rao DN

    更新日期:2006-04-12 00:00:00

  • HBV-vaccination in recipients of kidney allografts.

    abstract::Recipients of renal transplants were vaccinated with 20 ng hepatitis B surface antigen aluminium-adsorbed vaccine in order to gauge their resistance to hepatitis B infection, to which these patients are at high risk. The patients were given three 40 micrograms doses of the vaccine over a period of six months and their...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Feuerhake A,Muller R,Lauchart W,Pichlmayr R,Schmidt FW

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Immunological cross-reactivity against a drug mutated HIV-1 protease epitope after DNA multi-CTL epitope construct immunization.

    abstract::Epitopes in HIV polymerase were analyzed by peptide binding to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A0201 molecules, the most frequent HLA class in the Caucasian population. We found that HIV-1 protease peptides representing both the wild type and anticipated drug resistance variants of the sequence bound well to HLA-A0201. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boberg A,Sjöstrand D,Rollman E,Hinkula J,Zuber B,Wahren B

    更新日期:2006-05-22 00:00:00

  • Potentiation by a novel alkaloid glycoside adjuvant of a protective cytotoxic T cell immune response specific for a preerythrocytic malaria vaccine candidate antigen.

    abstract::We have recently demonstrated that the novel glycoalkaloid tomatine, derived from leaves of the wild tomato Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium, can act as a powerful adjuvant for the elicitation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we have extended our previous investigation with the model antigen ovalbumin to ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heal KG,Sheikh NA,Hollingdale MR,Morrow WJ,Taylor-Robinson AW

    更新日期:2001-07-20 00:00:00

  • A comparative study of PENTA vaccine booster doses given at 12, 15, or 18 months of age.

    abstract::For infants immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, booster immunization is usually recommended in the second year of life, typically between 12 and 18 months. This study assessed the effect of age at booster immunization on pre-immunization antibody trough levels and on subsequent responses, ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Scheifele DW,Guasparini R,Lavigne P

    更新日期:1999-02-12 00:00:00

  • Effect of influenza immunization on CYP3A4 activity.

    abstract::A number of clinical reports of drug interactions with influenza vaccine have been made. We hypothesized that CYP3A4 activity would decrease following influenza immunization. Fifteen healthy subjects had erythromycin breath tests (ERMBT) and influenza antibody titer hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HIA) before and afte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayney MS,Hammes RJ,Fine JP,Bianco JA

    更新日期:2001-12-12 00:00:00

  • HSP65 DNA as therapeutic strategy to treat experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.

    abstract::The conventional treatment for paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, involves long periods of therapy resulting in sequels and high frequency of relapses. The search for new alternatives of treatment is necessary. Previously, we have demonstrated that the hsp65 gene from Mycobacterium le...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ribeiro AM,Bocca AL,Amaral AC,Souza AC,Faccioli LH,Coelho-Castelo AA,Figueiredo F,Silva CL,Felipe MS

    更新日期:2010-02-10 00:00:00

  • Human papillomavirus vaccine effectiveness by number of doses: Systematic review of data from national immunization programs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were first licensed as a three-dose series; a two-dose series is now recommended in some age groups and there is interest in possible one-dose vaccination. METHODS:We conducted a systematic literature review of HPV vaccine effectiveness by number of doses, including asses...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Markowitz LE,Drolet M,Perez N,Jit M,Brisson M

    更新日期:2018-08-06 00:00:00

  • Induction of anti-viral immune responses by immunization with recombinant-DNA encoded avian coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    abstract::Immune responses to the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) nucleocapsid protein were studied using a recombinant-DNA expression product. In mice, a lymphocyte proliferative response and a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to IBV were induced upon immunization with this nucleocapsid protein. Next, we studied the ro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boots AM,Benaissa-Trouw BJ,Hesselink W,Rijke E,Schrier C,Hensen EJ

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • DNA immunisation against the CFA/I fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

    abstract::The CFA/I fimbria promotes the attachment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to the surface of human enterocytes. The generation of a protective immune response requires the induction of antibodies able to block the CFA/I-mediated binding of ETEC to receptors located on the small intestine epithelium or on the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alves AM,Lásaro MO,Almeida DF,Ferreira LC

    更新日期:2000-11-22 00:00:00

  • BBG2Na an RSV subunit vaccine candidate intramuscularly injected to human confers protection against viral challenge after nasal immunization in mice.

    abstract::Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory pathogen responsible for severe pulmonary disease. We have developed a parenterally administered vaccine, BBG2Na, which is currently in a phase III clinical trial. BBG2Na comprises residues 130--230 of RSV-A G protein (G2Na) fused to the BB carrier protein. In t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goetsch L,Plotnicky-Gilquin H,Aubry JP,De-Lys P,Haeuw JF,Bonnefoy JY,Nguyen NT,Corvaïa N,Velin D

    更新日期:2001-07-16 00:00:00