Vaccines and Internet: characteristics of the vaccine safety net web sites and suggested improvements.


UNLABELLED:The Internet contains a large amount of useful information on many subjects, but also information of doubtful quality. To help identify Web sites on vaccine safety that fulfil good practice, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety of the World Health Organization (WHO) has published criteria to which sites should adhere and a listing of Web sites that fulfil them. There are no studies describing the common attributes of these sites. OBJECTIVE:To examine the attributes, design characteristics and resources of Web sites belonging to the Vaccine Safety Net (VSN) of the WHO. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study using an evaluation questionnaire was carried out applied to the VSN web sites listed in March-April 2007. RESULTS:Twenty-six Web sites accredited by the VSN by April 2007 were analysed. With respect to design and quality, all sites contained information about the site manager. Postal and Email addresses were available for 84.6% of the sites. About privacy and personal data processing, 73.1% of sites specified the data protection procedure used and stated that data were not sold or passed third parties. The most-used language was English (76.9%). 96.3% of sites had links to other pro-vaccination sites and 19.2% provided the addresses of vaccination centres. 63.6% of webs were aimed at general public and health care workers but there was no clear separation of documents or different entry routes. With respect to information on vaccine safety, 84.6% of sites had information on adverse effects. In the general information section, 92.3% of sites had a new developments section. Some sites had multiple sources of financing and in 57% of sites, the financing was public. CONCLUSIONS:The most-important plus factors found were the transparency of financing, the lack of links to the pharmaceutical industry, the transparency of site management and responsibility and the proven scientific quality and constant updating of contents.






Martínez-Mora M,Alvarez-Pasquín MJ,Rodríguez-Salvanés F




Has Abstract


2008-12-09 00:00:00
















  • The effectiveness and safety of hepatitis A vaccine: a systematic review.

    abstract::We report on the conduct of a systematic review to assess the efficacy and the safety of hepatitis A vaccines in adults and children. We identified, retrieved, and assessed all trials evaluating the effects of hepatitis A vaccines on prevention of cases of hepatitis A, death from hepatitis A, and assessing nature and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Demicheli V,Tiberti D

    更新日期:2003-06-02 00:00:00

  • Recombinant West Nile virus envelope protein E and domain III expressed in insect larvae protects mice against West Nile disease.

    abstract::In this study, West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (rE) protein and its domain III (rDIII) were efficiently expressed in a cost-effective system based on insect larvae as non-fermentative living biofactories. Mice immunized with the partially purified rE or rDIII elicited high antibodies titers that neutralized viral infec...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alonso-Padilla J,de Oya NJ,Blázquez AB,Escribano-Romero E,Escribano JM,Saiz JC

    更新日期:2011-02-17 00:00:00

  • Vaccination of newborn mice induces a strong protective immune response against respiratory and genital challenges with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    abstract::Chlamydia trachomatis infections can occur early in life and may result in long-term sequelae. To assess the feasibility of implementing a vaccine in newborns, groups of 2-day-old BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally (i.n.) with 1x10(4) inclusion forming units (IFU) of C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). As a ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pal S,Peterson EM,de la Maza LM

    更新日期:2005-11-16 00:00:00

  • Isotype profiles induced in Balb/c mice during foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus infection or immunization with different FMD vaccine formulations.

    abstract::The IgG isotype response in Balb/c mice infected with FMDV or immunized with different vaccine formulations using inactivated virus particles as antigen was analyzed at various times post-inoculation. For this purpose an ELISA based on polyclonal antibodies for detection and quantification of mouse IgG isotypes with F...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pérez Filgueira DM,Berinstein A,Smitsaart E,Borca MV,Sadir AM

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • The Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    abstract::Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: LaForce FM,Konde K,Viviani S,Préziosi MP

    更新日期:2007-09-03 00:00:00

  • Enhancement of the protective effect of inactivated influenza virus vaccine by cytokines.

    abstract::The authors examined whether or not cytokines in conjunction with inactivated influenza virus vaccine enhance protection from influenza virus infection in mice. Mice were infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (PR/8) at 10 LD50 by nebulizer after intranasal administration of the cytokine and the vaccine. The survival...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cao M,Sasaki O,Yamada A,Imanishi J

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differential activities of alpha/beta IFN subtypes against influenza virus in vivo and enhancement of specific immune responses in DNA vaccinated mice expressing haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein.

    abstract::Vaccines are urgently needed to elicit immunity to different influenza virus strains. DNA vaccines can elicit partial protective immunity, however their efficacy requires improvement. We assessed the capacity of individual type I IFN multigene family members as subtype transgenes to abrogate influenza virus replicatio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: James CM,Abdad MY,Mansfield JP,Jacobsen HK,Vind AR,Stumbles PA,Bartlett EJ

    更新日期:2007-02-26 00:00:00

  • Newborn universal immunisation against hepatitis B: immunogenicity and reactogenicity of simultaneous administration of diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccines with hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 2 and 6 months of age.

    abstract::The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the administration of recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B simultaneously (but at separate sites) with diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccines were examined. Six hundred and twenty-six children (group I) were given hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 2 and 6 months ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Aristegui J,Muñiz J,Pérez Legorburu A,Imaz M,Arrate JP,Suárez MD,Goiri MD

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Selection of novel TB vaccine candidates and their evaluation as DNA vaccines against aerosol challenge.

    abstract::Putative TB vaccine candidates were selected from lists of genes induced in response to in vivo-like stimuli, such as low oxygen and carbon starvation or growth in macrophages, and tested as plasmid DNA vaccines for their ability to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge in a guinea pig aerosol infection...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vipond J,Vipond R,Allen-Vercoe E,Clark SO,Hatch GJ,Gooch KE,Bacon J,Hampshire T,Shuttleworth H,Minton NP,Blake K,Williams A,Marsh PD

    更新日期:2006-09-11 00:00:00

  • Toxicity assessment of Clostridium difficile toxins in rodent models and protection of vaccination.

    abstract::Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, also known as C. difficile associated diarrhea. The two major toxins, toxin A and toxin B are produced by most C. difficile bacteria, but some strains, such as BI/NAP1/027 isolates, produce a third toxin called binary toxin. The precise biologic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang S,Rustandi RR,Lancaster C,Hong LG,Thiriot DS,Xie J,Secore S,Kristopeit A,Wang SC,Heinrichs JH

    更新日期:2016-03-04 00:00:00

  • Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant.

    abstract::Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide particles based on a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Régnier M,Metz B,Tilstra W,Hendriksen C,Jiskoot W,Norde W,Kersten G

    更新日期:2012-11-06 00:00:00

  • A comparison of antibody responses to veterinary vaccine antigens potentiated by different adjuvants.

    abstract::Six adjuvant formulations were compared for their ability to potentiate the primary and memory antibody responses in mice to three companion animal vaccine immunogens--feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and a recombinantly-derived heartworm antigen. The combination of a novel bacterial ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Usinger WR

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in pathogens and pneumococcal serotypes causing community-acquired pneumonia in The Netherlands.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2006 a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the immunisation programme for infants in The Netherlands and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. Limited data exist about the impact of PCV on the aetiology of CAP as a whole. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall changes in...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Vestjens SMT,Wagenvoort GHJ,Grutters JC,Meek B,Aldenkamp AF,Vlaminckx BJM,Bos WJW,Rijkers GT,van de Garde EMW

    更新日期:2017-07-24 00:00:00

  • V-1 Immunitor: oral therapeutic AIDS vaccine with prophylactic potential.

    abstract::V-1 Immunitor (V1) is a therapeutic vaccine comprising pooled HIV antigens formulated into an oral pill. Recent V1 studies demonstrated body weight gain, increase in CD4 and CD8 cells, decrease in viral load, and improved survival of end-stage AIDS patients. The potential of V1 as a prophylactic vaccine has been evalu...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Jirathitikal V,Sooksathan P,Metadilogkul O,Bourinbaiar AS

    更新日期:2003-01-30 00:00:00

  • US Military contributions to the global response to pandemic chikungunya.

    abstract::Chikungunya virus, transmitted by mosquitoes to man, causes an acute illness characterized by fever, rash and striking joint symptoms. US Military investigators developed, manufactured at The Salk Institute-Government Services Division (TSI-GSD), and tested the live, attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine TSI-GSD-218. The man...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoke CH Jr,Pace-Templeton J,Pittman P,Malinoski FJ,Gibbs P,Ulderich T,Mathers M,Fogtman B,Glass P,Vaughn DW

    更新日期:2012-10-19 00:00:00

  • Biodegradable microspheres as controlled-release tetanus toxoid delivery systems.

    abstract::Purified tetanus toxoid, a high-molecular-weight protein, was entrapped within poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(D,L-lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres prepared by either a solvent extraction or a solvent evaporation method carried out in a multiple emulsion system (water-in-oil-in-water). The physical integri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alonso MJ,Gupta RK,Min C,Siber GR,Langer R

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children morbidity and mortality in Peru: Time series analyses.

    abstract::Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in children worldwide. Despite available evidence on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact on pneumonia hospitalizations in children, studies demonstrating PCV impact in morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suarez V,Michel F,Toscano CM,Bierrenbach AL,Gonzales M,Alencar AP,Ruiz Matus C,Andrus JK,de Oliveira LH

    更新日期:2016-09-07 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology of varicella in Haidian district, Beijing, China-2007-2015.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:1-Dose varicella vaccination was recommended for children in Beijing before November 2012. To further control school-based outbreaks and decrease incidence, a 2-dose vaccination was implemented in 2013. We described the varicella epidemiology and assessed impact of the 2-dose vaccination in Haidian district,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu J,Jiang C,Wang J,Zhao F,Ma T,Shi R,Zhao Y,Zhang X

    更新日期:2017-04-25 00:00:00

  • Considerations regarding efficacy endpoints in HIV vaccine trials: executive summary and recommendations of an expert consultation jointly organized by WHO, UNAIDS and ANRS in support of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise.

    abstract::HIV vaccines of the first generation are, in contrast to most currently licensed vaccines, unlikely to provide sterilizing immunity against infection with HIV. However, they are expected to exert a beneficial effect on the maintenance of CD4 T-cell counts by reducing viral load. There is a recognized need for clarifyi...




    authors: Fruth U

    更新日期:2009-03-23 00:00:00

  • ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia, plays a potent adjuvant and immunostimulatory role in immunization against Neospora caninum.

    abstract::ArtinM and Jacalin (JAC) are lectins from the jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) that have important role in modulation of immune responses to pathogens. Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive disorders in cattle, with economic impact on the livestock in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cardoso MR,Mota CM,Ribeiro DP,Santiago FM,Carvalho JV,Araujo EC,Silva NM,Mineo TW,Roque-Barreira MC,Mineo JR,Silva DA

    更新日期:2011-11-15 00:00:00

  • Visualizing knowledge and attitude factors related to influenza vaccination of physicians.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To characterize groups of primary healthcare physicians according to sociodemographic data, years of professional experience and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza, and to evaluate differences between groups with respect to influenza vaccination in the 2011-2012 season. METHODS:We carried out an anonymous...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antón-Ladislao A,García-Gutiérrez S,Soldevila N,González-Candelas F,Godoy P,Castilla J,Mayoral JM,Astray J,Martín V,Tamames S,Toledo D,Aguirre U,Domínguez A,CIBERESP Working Group for the Survey on Influenza Vaccination in Prim

    更新日期:2015-02-11 00:00:00

  • Comparative biological activities of whole cell pertussis vaccine and a new acellular preparation.

    abstract::The biological activities of whole-cell pertussis vaccine and a new acellular preparation were compared. It was observed that both preparations were similarly effective in inducing protection in mice against intracerebral challenge with B. pertussis, however, the acellular preparation was approximately 200-fold more p...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: García-Sánz JA,Ruiz-Puente J,Jiménez-Paredes J,González-Pacheco M,Villalva-Posada H

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • Guidance on the evaluation of Plasmodium vivax vaccines in populations exposed to natural infection.

    abstract::In this paper we give guidance for the design and conduct of vaccine trials against Plasmodium vivax malaria. The paper supplements earlier guidelines on the planning of vaccine trials against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [WHO. Guidelines for the evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum vaccines in populations exposed to ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引,评审


    authors: Mueller I,Moorthy VS,Brown GV,Smith PG,Alonso P,Genton B,WHO Malaria Vaccine Advisory Committee (MALVAC).

    更新日期:2009-09-18 00:00:00

  • Alpha-C-galactosylceramide as an adjuvant for a live attenuated influenza virus vaccine.

    abstract::There is a substantial need to develop better influenza virus vaccines that can protect populations that are not adequately protected by the currently licensed vaccines. While live attenuated influenza virus vaccines induce superior immune responses compared to inactivated vaccines, the manufacturing process of both t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kopecky-Bromberg SA,Fraser KA,Pica N,Carnero E,Moran TM,Franck RW,Tsuji M,Palese P

    更新日期:2009-06-08 00:00:00

  • Immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations containing pneumococcal proteins, and immunogenicity and reactogenicity of co-administered routine vaccines - A phase II, randomised, observer-blind study in Gambian infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Two conserved pneumococcal proteins, pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), combined with 10 polysaccharide conjugates from the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in two investigational pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV/dPl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Odutola A,Ota MOC,Antonio M,Ogundare EO,Saidu Y,Owiafe PK,Worwui A,Idoko OT,Owolabi O,Kampmann B,Greenwood BM,Alderson M,Traskine M,Swinnen K,Verlant V,Dobbelaere K,Borys D

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Absence of YF-neutralizing antibodies in vulnerable populations of Brazil: A warning for epidemiological surveillance and the potential risks for future outbreaks.

    abstract::Yellow Fever (YF) is an acute febrile illness caused by yellow fever virus (YFV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted to humans and non-human primates. In Brazil, YF is a public health threat and may cause recurrent epidemics, even with the availability of a vaccine. We evaluated the sero-status for YFV in 581 ind...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stoffella-Dutra AG,Silva de Oliveira J,Barbosa Costa G,Geessien Kroon E,Santos Abrahão J,Desiree LaBeaud A,Paiva Drumond B,Bretas de Oliveira D,de Souza Trindade G

    更新日期:2020-09-29 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of three recombinant multi-antigenic vaccines composed of surface and secretory antigens of Toxoplasma gondii in murine models of experimental toxoplasmosis.

    abstract::The great clinical and economical impact of Toxoplasma gondii infections makes the development of an effective vaccine for controlling toxoplasmosis an extremely important aim. In the presented study, we evaluate the protective and immunogenic properties of three recombinant subunit vaccines composed of rROP2+rGRA4+rS...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dziadek B,Gatkowska J,Brzostek A,Dziadek J,Dzitko K,Grzybowski M,Dlugonska H

    更新日期:2011-01-17 00:00:00

  • Immunity and protection by adoptive transfer of dendritic cells transfected with hepatitis C NS3/4A mRNA.

    abstract::In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) transfected ex vivo with mRNA encoding hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A would initiate potent HCV-specific protective immune responses in vivo. Murine DCs were transfected with NS3/4A mRNA or eGFP mRNA using either electroporation or...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu H,Babiuk LA,van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S

    更新日期:2007-02-26 00:00:00

  • Comparison of NITAG policies and working processes in selected developed countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vaccines are specific medicines characterized by two country-specific market access processes: (1) a recommendation by National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG), and (2) a funding policy decision. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to compare and analyze NITAGs of 13 developed countries...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ricciardi GW,Toumi M,Weil-Olivier C,Ruitenberg EJ,Dankó D,Duru G,Picazo J,Zöllner Y,Poland G,Drummond M

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of cross-reactive HIV-1 specific antibody responses by engineered V1V2 immunogens with reduced conformational plasticity.

    abstract::Antibodies against the HIV-1 V1V2 loops were the only correlate of reduced infection risk in the RV144 vaccine trial, highlighting the V1V2 loops as promising targets for vaccine design. The V1V2 loops are structurally plastic, exhibiting either an α-helix-coil or β-strand conformation. V1V2-specific antibodies may th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai JI,Eszterhas SK,Brooks SA,Guo C,Zolla-Pazner S,Seaman MS,Bailey-Kellogg C,Griswold KE,Ackerman ME

    更新日期:2020-04-16 00:00:00