Leprosy in the early medieval Lauchheim community.

Abstract:

:Leprosy was a well-recognized and dreaded disease in medieval Europe (5th-15th century AD). It is reported to have reached Germany with the Roman invasion. A much larger fraction than previously assumed appears to have been affected by leprosy in the medieval period. This article estimates the frequency (i.e., the prevalence at death) of leprosy among adult people buried in the Lauchheim early medieval cemetery. Seven different dichotomous osteological lesions indicative of leprosy are analyzed, and it is possible to score at least one of these conditions on 110 adult skeletons (aged 15 or more). The scores were transformed to a statistic--lambda (lambda)--indicating the likelihood that the person to whom the skeleton belonged suffered from leprosy. The analyses indicate that 16% (95% confidence interval: 9-23%) of adult people in Lauchheim died with osteological signs of leprosy. Leprosy was significantly more prevalent among men than women. The lambda statistic indicates that people who died with signs of leprosy did not differ in the distribution of age at death from those who did not have such signs. Some of the leprosy-related lesions had a statistically significant nonrandom dispersal on the cemetery; but there is no clear pattern to this and the significant results could be easily attributed to a type-1 error in the statistical analysis.

journal_name

Am J Phys Anthropol

authors

Boldsen JL

doi

10.1002/ajpa.20744

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2008-03-01 00:00:00

pages

301-10

issue

3

eissn

0002-9483

issn

1096-8644

journal_volume

135

pub_type

历史文章,杂志文章
  • Ecological divergence and talar morphology in gorillas.

    abstract::Gorillas occupy a variety of habitats from the west coast to eastern central Africa. These habitats differ considerably in altitude, which has a pronounced effect on forest ecology. Although all gorillas are obligate terrestrial knuckle-walking quadrupeds, those that live in lowland habitats eat fruits and climb more ...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.22451

    authors: Dunn RH,Tocheri MW,Orr CM,Jungers WL

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • The feasibility of dental strontium analysis for diet-assessment of human populations.

    abstract::It has been suggested that bone and dental strontium contents of extinct terrestrial vertebrates vary in direct proportion to the strontium levels present in the animals' diets. It has been hypothesized that these trace quantities decrease as one moves upward along the food chain--herbivores having more strontium than...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330530102

    authors: Elias M

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • Age estimation in older adults: Use of pulp/tooth ratios calculated from tooth sections.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Accurate age estimates are foundational for bioarchaeological research, yet the ability to accurately age older adult skeletons remains elusive. This study uses a new version of pulp/tooth area calculations to investigate chronological age of older archaeological individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Pulp/toot...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.23371

    authors: D'Ortenzio L,Prowse T,Inskip M,Kahlon B,Brickley M

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromandibular integration in humans and chimpanzees: Implications for dental and mandibular reduction in Homo.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robustici...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.23606

    authors: Veneziano A,Meloro C,Irish JD,Stringer C,Profico A,De Groote I

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • A factor analysis of cranial base and vault dimensions in children.

    abstract::Lengths within the cranial base and vault were measured in cephalometric radiographs of 220 boys and 177 girls ranging in age from 0 to 15 years; all these children are participants in The Fels Longitudinal Growth Study. The present study is based on mixed longitudinal data derived from 1640 radiographs for boys and 1...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330580305

    authors: Ohtsuki F,Mukherjee D,Lewis AB,Roche AF

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • A functional analysis of the primate masticatory system and the origin of the anthropoid post-orbital septum.

    abstract::Study of the dry weights of primate and non-promate masticatory musculature reveals a significant relationship between the Anterior Temporalis/Masseter ratio and the relative development of the anterior dentition. Available dietary information demonstrates that species emphasizing incisal preparation of food have a hi...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330500102

    authors: Cachel SM

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hunter-gatherer postcranial robusticity relative to patterns of mobility, climatic adaptation, and selection for tissue economy.

    abstract::Human skeletal robusticity is influenced by a number of factors, including habitual behavior, climate, and physique. Conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of these factors complicates our ability to interpret variation in robusticity in the past. It remains unclear how the pattern of robusticity in the sk...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.20398

    authors: Stock JT

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Electromyography of back muscles during quadrupedal and bipedal walking in primates.

    abstract::Despite the extensive electromyographic research that has addressed limb muscle function during primate quadrupedalism, the role of the back muscles in this locomotor behavior has remained undocumented. We report here the results of an electromyographic (EMG) analysis of three intrinsic back muscles (multifidus, longi...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330930408

    authors: Shapiro LJ,Jungers WL

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic diversity of two African and sixteen South American populations determined on the basis of six hypervariable loci.

    abstract::A total of 582 individuals (1,164 chromosomes) from two African, eight African-derived South American, five South American Amerindian, and three Brazilian urban populations were studied at four variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) and two short tandem repeat (STR) hypervariable loci. These two sets of loci did not ...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199908)109:4<425::AID-AJPA

    authors: Da Silva WA Jr,Bortolini MC,Meyer D,Salzano FM,Elion J,Krishnamoorthy R,Schneider MP,De Guerra DC,Layrisse Z,Castellano HM,Weimer TD,Zago MA

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • European pliopithecid diets revised in the light of dental microwear in Pliopithecus canmatensis and Barberapithecus huerzeleri.

    abstract::Pliopithecinae and Crouzeliinae (Primates: Pliopithecidae) are distinguished dentally by the sharper crests, more compressed cusps, larger foveae, and narrower molars of the latter. Traditionally, such differences were qualitatively related to increased folivory in crouzeliines. This was subsequently disproved by micr...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.22299

    authors: DeMiguel D,Alba DM,Moyà-Solà S

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers.

    abstract::A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups (A1A2BO, MNSs, Rh, Duffy, Lutheran, Kidd, and P) on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo León, Mexico. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199907)109:3<281::AID-AJPA

    authors: Cerda-Flores RM,Barton SA,Marty-Gonzalez LF,Rivas F,Chakraborty R

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the nariokotome Homo erectus with juveniles from a modern human population.

    abstract::The Nariokotome Homo erectus has an apparent disjunction of inferred age as judged by dental maturity, by epiphyseal closure and by stature, when compared to modern human norms. On this basis, it has been suggested that this fossil hominin differed in its pattern of growth and development from modern humans. In partic...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199909)110:1<81::AID-AJPA7

    authors: Clegg M,Aiello LC

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • The shape of things to come? household dependency ratio and adolescent nutritional status in rural and urban Ethiopia.

    abstract::Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to fr...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.21463

    authors: Hadley C,Belachew T,Lindstrom D,Tessema F

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sequence diversity of the control region of mitochondrial DNA in Tuscany and its implications for the peopling of Europe.

    abstract::The control region of mitochondrial DNA has been widely studied in various human populations. This paper reports sequence data for hypervariable segments 1 and 2 of the control region from a population from southern Tuscany (Italy). The results confirm the high variability of the control region, with 43 different hapl...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199608)100:4<443::AID-AJPA

    authors: Francalacci P,Bertranpetit J,Calafell F,Underhill PA

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • An outbreak of relapsing fever unmasked by microbial paleoserology, 16th century, France.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Depicting past epidemics currently relies on DNA-based detection of pathogens, an approach limited to pathogens with well-preserved DNA sequences. We used paleoserology as a complementary approach detecting specific antibodies under a mini line-blot format including positive and negative control antigens. M...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.24138

    authors: Oumarou Hama H,Barbieri R,Guirou J,Chenal T,Mayer A,Ardagna Y,Signoli M,Aboudharam G,Raoult D,Drancourt M

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Brief communication: bone remodeling rates: a test of an algorithm for estimating missing osteons.

    abstract::Frost (1987a) proposed an algorithm for estimating the number of missing osteons that correspond to observed osteon population densities (OPD). Such an algorithm should allow more accurate estimates of bone remodeling rates for skeletal remains for which in vivo labeling is not possible. In order to validate the algor...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330930109

    authors: Stout SD,Paine RR

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Isotopic evidence for age-related immigration to imperial Rome.

    abstract::Oxygen stable isotope ratios (delta(18)O) have been determined in carbonate in paired first and third molar teeth from individuals (N = 61) who lived in the town of Portus Romae ("Portus") and who were buried in the necropolis of Isola Sacra (First to Third centuries AD) near Rome, Italy. We compare these analyses wit...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.20541

    authors: Prowse TL,Schwarcz HP,Garnsey P,Knyf M,Macchiarelli R,Bondioli L

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • A twin study of dental dimension. I. Discordance, asymmetry, and mirror imagery.

    abstract::Bilateral tooth measurements in twins are partitioned into three orthogonal contrasts, each associated with one degree of freedom, to estimate three parameters: discordance, asymmetry, and mirror imagery. The probability levels of the within-pair variance ratios were used to test for significance of these estimates. T...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330440303

    authors: Potter RH,Nance WE

    更新日期:1976-05-01 00:00:00

  • Mobility, mortality, and the middle ages: identification of migrant individuals in a 14th century black death cemetery population.

    abstract::Mobility and migration patterns of groups and individuals have long been a topic of interest to archaeologists, used for broad explanatory models of cultural change as well as illustrations of historical particularism. The 14th century AD was a tumultuous period of history in Britain, with severely erratic weather pat...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.22194

    authors: Kendall EJ,Montgomery J,Evans JA,Stantis C,Mueller V

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Functional and developmental influences on intraspecific variation in catarrhine vertebrae.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We tested whether patterns of intraspecific variation in catarrhine vertebral shape are consistent with developmental or functional predictions. Intraspecific variation was compared across column regions, morphological features, and species. Transitional regions and later ossifying morphological features wer...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.23730

    authors: Shapiro LJ,Kemp AD

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Arthritis in the prehistoric Southeastern United States: biological and cultural variables.

    abstract::Recent research shows that a bacterial life form, Erysipelothrix insidiosa, can produce rheumatoid arthritis in deer, swine, and dogs, and that a number of animals, including man, birds, and fish, may be infected by the organism. Examination of the archaeological record suggests that both cultural and biological varia...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330430109

    authors: Hudson C,Butler R,Sikes D

    更新日期:1975-07-01 00:00:00

  • Nasal morphology and the emergence of Homo erectus.

    abstract::Modern humans, among extant hominoids, possess a unique projecting, external nose whose basic structure is reflected in a series of skeletal features including nasal bone convexity, an internasal angle, lateral nasal aperture eversion, prominence and anterior positioning of the anterior nasal spine, an acute angle of ...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330750409

    authors: Franciscus RG,Trinkaus E

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Technical note: estimating sex using cervical canine odontometrics: a test using a known sex sample.

    abstract::The size of the permanent human canine tooth is one of the few sexually dimorphic features to be present in childhood and as such offers the opportunity to assist in the identification of sex in remains where no other appropriate criteria exist, such as in subadults. However, canine odontometrics are often associated ...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.21584

    authors: Hassett B

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Individual variation in enamel structure of human mandibular first premolars.

    abstract::Nine human mandibular first premolars were examined to assess variation in external morphology and enamel structural organization within a tooth type. The relationship of enamel ultrastructure to gross dental morphology was also studied. The teeth were cut in the mesiodistal direction just lingual to the buccal cusp, ...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680207

    authors: Stern D,Skobe Z

    更新日期:1985-10-01 00:00:00

  • Socioeconomic variation in estimated growth velocity of schoolchildren from a rural, subsistence agricultural community in southern Mexico.

    abstract::Socioeconomic variation in estimated growth velocities (annual growth increments) of several anthropometric dimensions was considered in schoolchildren from a rural, subsistence agricultural community in the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. The children (114 males, 99 females), 6-13 years of age, were measured twi...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330760404

    authors: Little BB,Buschang PH,Malina RM

    更新日期:1988-08-01 00:00:00

  • "These boots were made for walking": the isotopic analysis of a C(4) Roman inhumation from Gravesend, Kent, UK.

    abstract::As part of the road widening scheme between London and Dover, Oxford Archaeology South uncovered a large boundary ditch of Iron Age origin that contained Iron Age and Roman inhumations, adjacent to which was a small mid-late Roman cemetery, interpreted as a rural cemetery for Romano-British farmers. Grave goods in the...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.21602

    authors: Pollard AM,Ditchfield P,McCullagh JS,Allen TG,Gibson M,Boston C,Clough S,Marquez-Grant N,Nicholson RA

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • The natural endocast of Taung (Australopithecus africanus): insights from the unpublished papers of Raymond Arthur Dart.

    abstract::Dart's 1925 announcement of Australopithecus africanus (Dart: Nature 115 [1925] 195-199) was highly controversial, partly because of an interpretation of the Taung natural endocast that rested on an erroneous identification of the lambdoid suture as the lunate sulcus. Unpublished materials from the University of Witwa...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.21184

    authors: Falk D

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • The peopling of sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Cameroon.

    abstract::This study analyzes the distribution of ten protein genetic polymorphisms in eighteen populations from the most densely inhabited areas of Cameroon. The languages spoken belong to three different linguistic families [Afro-Asiatic (AA), Nilo-Saharan (NS) and Niger-Kordofanian (NK)]. The analysis of variation of allele ...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199910)110:2<143::AID-AJPA

    authors: Spedini G,Destro-Bisol G,Mondovì S,Kaptué L,Taglioli L,Paoli G

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Race, health, and disease in 19th-century-born males.

    abstract::This study analyzed skeletal health disparities among African American and Euro-American males of low socioeconomic status born between 1825 and 1877. A total of 651 skeletons from the Cobb, Hamann-Todd, and Terry anatomical collections were macroscopically examined for skeletal pathologies related to dietary deficien...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/ajpa.21434

    authors: de la Cova C

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Initial studies on the contributions of body size and gastrointestinal passage rates to dietary flexibility among gorillas.

    abstract::Large body size has been traditionally seen as the primary dietary adaptation of gorillas, facilitating their consumption of fibrous foods (Schaller ¿1963 The Mountain Gorilla; Watts ¿1990 Int. J. Primatol. 11:21-45). Nevertheless, recent research has emphasized frugivory among western lowland gorillas, as well as the...

    journal_title:American journal of physical anthropology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(2000)112:2<171::AID-AJPA4>

    authors: Remis MJ

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00