Heat strain and gross efficiency during endurance exercise after lower, upper, or whole body precooling in the heat.

Abstract:

:The maximal power that muscles can generate is reduced at low muscle temperatures. However, in prolonged heavy exercise in the heat, a high core temperature may be the factor limiting performance. Precooling has been shown to delay the attainment of hyperthermia. It is still unclear if the whole body should be cooled or if the active muscles should be excluded from cooling in order to maintain muscle power. An experiment was performed to compare thermal strain and gross efficiency following whole body or partial body cooling. Eight well-trained participants performed 40 min of 60% VO2max cycling exercise in a 30 degrees C, 70% relative humidity climatic chamber after four different precooling sessions in a water perfused suit: N (no precooling), CC (45 min whole body precooling), WC (45 min lower body precooling), and CW (45 min upper body precooling). The uncooled body part was warmed in such a way that the core temperature did not differ from that in session N. Gross efficiency was used to compare performance between the sessions since it indicates how much oxygen is needed for a certain external load. The gross efficiency did not differ significantly between the sessions. Differences in heat loss and heat storage were observed during the first 20 min of exercise. The evaporative heat loss in session WC (305 +/- 67 W) and CW (284 +/- 68 W) differed from session N (398 +/- 77 W) and CC (209 +/- 58 W). More heat was stored in session CC (442 +/- 125 W) than in sessions WC (316 +/- 39 W), CW (307 +/- 63 W), and N (221 +/- 65 W). It was confirmed that precooling reduces heat strain during exercise in the heat. No differences in heat strain and gross efficiency were observed between precooling of the body part with the exercising muscles and precooling of the tissues elsewhere in the body.

journal_name

Int J Sports Med

authors

Daanen HA,van Es EM,de Graaf JL

doi

10.1055/s-2005-865746

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2006-05-01 00:00:00

pages

379-88

issue

5

eissn

0172-4622

issn

1439-3964

journal_volume

27

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Reproducibility of self-paced treadmill performance of trained endurance runners.

    abstract::The reproducibility of performance in a laboratory test impacts on the statistical power of that test to detect changes of performance in experiments. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of performance of distance runners completing a 60 min time trial (TT) on a motor-driven treadmill. Eight...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-971879

    authors: Schabort EJ,Hopkins WG,Hawley JA

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma catecholamines in trained and untrained volunteers during graduated exercise.

    abstract::Ten untrained subjects and nine trained cyclists were examined during graduated ergometric exercise in the supine position. The levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood as well as the heart rate and oxygen intake were determined. At submaximum levels, epinephrine, norepinephrine, lactate, and the heart ra...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2008-1034601

    authors: Lehmann M,Keul J,Huber G,Da Prada M

    更新日期:1981-08-01 00:00:00

  • Body composition of female wheelchair athletes.

    abstract::Wheelchair users undergo changes in body composition as a result of disability. In this study the distribution of bone mineral, lean and fat mass was assessed in highly-trained female wheelchair athletes and a reference group by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The transferability of anthropometric equations co...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-0028-1105941

    authors: Sutton L,Wallace J,Goosey-Tolfrey V,Scott M,Reilly T

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Residual lung volume and ventilatory muscle strength changes following maximal and submaximal exercise.

    abstract::In order to evaluate a mechanism which may be responsible for the often observed acute increase in residual lung volume (RV) following exercise, 12 non-smoking males (20-30 yrs) performed two bouts of exercise on separate days; one to maximal heart rate (HRmax) and one to 85% of HRmax for 20 min. Prior to exercise and...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021039

    authors: Cordain L,Rode EJ,Gotshall RW,Tucker A

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of voluntary exercise on the expression of IGF-I and androgen receptor in three rat skeletal muscles and on serum IGF-I and testosterone levels.

    abstract::The effects of anabolic agents and training on skeletal muscle are believed to be mediated by a variety of growth and transcription factors. Among these regulatory proteins, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and androgen receptor (AR) play a crucial role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2004-820945

    authors: Matsakas A,Nikolaidis MG,Kokalas N,Mougios V,Diel P

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Iron status of active women and the effect of running a marathon on bowel function and gastrointestinal blood loss.

    abstract::This study compared the bowel function, fecal hemoglobin (Hb) loss, iron status and diets of 36 women of varying activity levels. In addition, we examined the effect of a marathon race on bowel function and fecal Hb loss in 15 of these women. The subjects were divided into 4 groups based on estimated daily exercise en...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024663

    authors: Lampe JW,Slavin JL,Apple FS

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of a 24-h CHO-poor diet on metabolic and hormonal responses during prolonged CHO-loaded leg exercise.

    abstract::This study examined the effects of a pre-experimental period of arm exercise followed by a 24-h carbohydrate (CHO)-poor intake, intended to reduce initial hepatic glycogen levels, on substrate and endocrine responses during prolonged CHO-loaded leg exercise. Seven subjects pedaled a cycle ergometer for 60 min at 62% V...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025897

    authors: Lavoie JM,Péronnet F,Cousineau D,Provencher PJ

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in senescent rats.

    abstract::Limited data exist concerning exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in senescent animals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to examine the exercise training-induced changes in oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in skeletal muscle of...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021290

    authors: Hammeren J,Powers S,Lawler J,Criswell D,Martin D,Lowenthal D,Pollock M

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of a long-term training program of increasing intensity on the immune function of indoor Olympic cyclists.

    abstract::We have studied, on blood samples, the level of immunocompetence (concentration of immune cells, phagocytic process of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, proliferative response of lymphocytes to mitogens), the ascorbic acid content of such immunocompetent cells and the "stress hormone" status (cortisol, ACTH and beta-endo...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-972900

    authors: Ferrández MD,Maynar M,De la Fuente M

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Responses of serum androgenic-anabolic and catabolic hormones to prolonged strength training.

    abstract::Endocrine and neuromuscular effects of prolonged strength training were investigated in 21 strength-trained male subjects during the course of a 24-week progressive strength training and during a subsequent detraining period of 12 weeks. Maximal isometric leg extensor force increased by 19% (P less than 0.001) during ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1025011

    authors: Alén M,Pakarinen A,Häkkinen K,Komi PV

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • GNB3 C825T polymorphism and elevated blood pressure.

    abstract::Unlike in Europeans and Africans, the relationship between the human guanine nucleotide binding beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) C825T gene polymorphism (rs5443) and blood pressures is inconsistent in Asians. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the GNB3 genotype demonstrates different associations with resting bl...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-0029-1233465

    authors: Lee JY,Kim SU,Cho JK,Woo SK,Kang HS

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of cryotherapy on muscle soreness and strength following eccentric exercise.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine whether a post-exercise cryotherapy protocol could facilitate recovery of elbow flexor strength and reduce the severity of delayed onset muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. Eight resistance-trained males (23 +/- 3 yr) performed 64 eccentric elbow flexions with each ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-972686

    authors: Paddon-Jones DJ,Quigley BM

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Aerial and Terrestrial Patterns: A Novel Approach to Analyzing Human Running.

    abstract::Biomechanical parameters are often analyzed independently, although running gait is a dynamic system wherein changes in one parameter are likely to affect another. Accordingly, the Volodalen® method provides a model for classifying running patterns into 2 categories, aerial and terrestrial, using a global subjective r...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-0035-1555931

    authors: Gindre C,Lussiana T,Hebert-Losier K,Mourot L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptation of the "Conconi test" to children and adolescents.

    abstract::A field test for the determination of anaerobic threshold (AT) based on the relationship between work intensity and heart rate was previously developed in adult runners (4) and then applied in various sports activities (3, 5, 9). In the current study the same relationship between running speed (S) and heart rate (HR) ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024924

    authors: Ballarin E,Borsetto C,Cellini M,Patracchini M,Vitiello P,Ziglio PG,Conconi F

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in footprint with resistance exercise.

    abstract::We aimed to describe the changes in footprint characteristics after 2 types of resistance training sessions performed at different intensities. 18 young subjects (8 men and 10 women) volunteered for the study. All of them performed 2 different resistance training sessions, one with light loads (LS) and the other with ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-0031-1275354

    authors: Jimenez-Ormeño E,Aguado X,Delgado-Abellan L,Mecerreyes L,Alegre LM

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Acute intensive interval training and in vitro t-lymphocyte function.

    abstract::Five male endurance-trained runners completed an interval running session of 15 x 1-min intervals at 95% VO2 max. Venous blood samples were collected pre-exercise and then immediately, 30- and 60-minutes post-exercise. The response of cultures of total lymphocytes to mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin) were significantly re...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-972608

    authors: Hinton JR,Rowbottom DG,Keast D,Morton AR

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Food restriction, performance, psychological state and lipid values in judo athletes.

    abstract::Dietary intake, plasma lipids, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels, anthropometric measurements and anaerobic performance were studied in eleven judo athletes during a period of weight maintenance (T1) and after a 7d food restriction (T2). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day diet record. Nutrient analysis indi...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2001-16244

    authors: Filaire E,Maso F,Degoutte F,Jouanel P,Lac G

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Sauna-induced rapid weight loss decreases explosive power in women but not in men.

    abstract::This study aimed at investigating to what extent sauna-induced dehydration is effective to rapidly decrease body weight and whether this practice alters strength and/or explosive power (jump capacity) in healthy athletes. We also investigated whether the observed changes could be rapidly reversed through rehydration. ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2003-42017

    authors: Gutiérrez A,Mesa JL,Ruiz JR,Chirosa LJ,Castillo MJ

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Aerobic demands of the dance simulation game.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to assess the intensity and energy cost of dance simulation in relation to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommendations on the quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness, and to assess its safety. Forty subjects (21 males an...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2002-20132

    authors: Tan B,Aziz AR,Chua K,Teh KC

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockade and calcium antagonism, alone and in combination, on thermoregulation during prolonged exercise.

    abstract::The effect of clinically used doses of propranolol, atenolol, nifedipine, propranolol plus nifedipine, and atenolol plus nifedipine on thermoregulatory responses of 11 healthy men was studied during 2-h block-stepping in heat. Drug intervention did not alter ventilation during exercise. In contrast, propranolol and at...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025631

    authors: Gordon NF,van Rensburg JP,Russell HM,Kielblock AJ,Myburgh DP

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Utility of a Non-Exercise VO2max Prediction Model for Designing Ramp Test Protocols.

    abstract::This study investigated the validity of determining the final work rates of cycling and walking ramp-incremented maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) using a non-exercise model to predict maximal oxygen uptake VO2max and the American College of Sports Medicine ACSM's metabolic equations. The validity of usin...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-0034-1395590

    authors: Cunha FA,Midgley A,Montenegro R,Vasconcellos F,Farinatti P

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of hematologic data in world elite junior speed skaters and in non-athletic juniors.

    abstract::During the world junior speed skating championship 2002 all athletes (60 males, 56 females) were subjected to hematologic blood testing one day before the competition as requested by International Skating Union--ISU. This study aimed to obtain hematological reference values for junior athletes, whilst the influence of...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2005-865676

    authors: Mayr A,Kuipers H,Falk M,Santer P,Wierer B

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of a training taper on tissue damage indices, serum antioxidant capacity and half-marathon running performance.

    abstract::This study investigated the effects of a training taper on muscle damage indices and performance. Two matched groups of seven male runners each performed two self paced half-marathons on a motorised treadmill. After the first half-marathon one group maintained their normal weekly training volume, while the taper group...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2000-3778

    authors: Child RB,Wilkinson DM,Fallowfield JL

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Intracompartmental pressure before and after fasciotomy in runners with chronic deep posterior compartment syndrome.

    abstract::Exercise induced pain in the posterior part of the leg is common among runners; the underlying reason for these complaints may be very different. The purpose of the present, controlled study was therefore 1. to confirm a clinically diagnosed deep posterior compartment syndrome by using intramuscular pressure measureme...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-972650

    authors: Biedert RM,Marti B

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of High-intensity Intermittent and Moderate-intensity Continuous Exercise on Autonomic Modulation in Young Men.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) recovery after two iso-volume (5 km) exercises performed at different intensities. 14 subjects volunteered (25.17±5.08 years; 74.7±6.28 kg; 175±0.05 cm; 59.56±5.15 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-0042-100292

    authors: Cabral-Santos C,Giacon TR,Campos EZ,Gerosa-Neto J,Rodrigues B,Vanderlei LC,Lira FS

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle fiber composition and enzyme activities in elite female distance runners.

    abstract::This study has attempted to describe the fiber composition and respiratory potential in the leg (gastrocnemius) muscle of highly trained, elite female distance runners. As noted, many of these women were competing successfully in middle-distance (1500-3000 m) rather than long distance (10 km and marathon) events. This...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025714

    authors: Costill DL,Fink WJ,Flynn M,Kirwan J

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of 4-min vertical whole body vibration on muscle performance and body balance: a randomized cross-over study.

    abstract::The purpose of this randomized cross-over study was to investigate the effects of a 4-min long, 2-mm vertically-vibrating vibration-exercise on muscle performance and body balance in healthy subjects. Sixteen volunteers (eight men and women aged 18-35 years) underwent both the 4-min vibration- and sham-interventions i...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1055/s-2002-33148

    authors: Torvinen S,Sievänen H,Järvinen TA,Pasanen M,Kontulainen S,Kannus P

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Compensatory movements following gait perturbations: changes in cinematic and muscular activation patterns.

    abstract::The present study was designed to investigate the neuronal control and biomechanical effects of stumbling reactions. To induce these perturbations, a specially prepared treadmill was used which allowed rapid and powerful changes of treadmill speed. EMG recordings of leg muscles were related to cinematic movement patte...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025785

    authors: Gollhofer A,Schmidtbleicher D,Quintern J,Dietz V

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Young patients with cystic fibrosis: attitude toward physical activity and influence on physical fitness and spirometric values of a 2-week training course.

    abstract::The purpose of this investigation was to study the attitude toward physical activity in young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and the influence of 2 weeks of training on physical fitness and spirometric values. Two groups of CF patients with mean ages of 11 and 15 years, respectively (total of 13 patients, range 9-...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1025058

    authors: Stanghelle JK,Winnem M,Roaldsen K,de Wit S,Notgewitch JH,Nilsen BR

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Blood ammonia determination in a specific field test as a method supporting talent selection in runners.

    abstract::Twenty-six male runners aged 14-16 years not yet specifically trained for sprint or middle-distance running performed a field test with distances of 25 m, 75 m, and 1000 m. Before the field test they were designated as sprinters (n = 19) and middle-distance runners (n = 7) according to their self-assessment and the es...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024855

    authors: Hageloch W,Schneider S,Weicker H

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00