Directional detector of gamma ray sources.


:This work describes the design, development, and characterization of an ionization chamber to detect and locate gamma ray sources with intensities down to 100 mu Gy h(-1). The results show that sources of x ray and gamma radiation in the energy range of 14 to 1,250 keV can be located. The directional sensitivity of this type of monitor is dependent on several parameters, such as photon energy, intensity, and the degree of complexity in terms of the number and type of sources in a contaminated area. An application important to the Army is to identify hotspots in a contaminated area and thereby indicate to personnel safer paths around them. Another possible use for this type of monitor may be in security applications in the prevention of shipping or storing clandestine sources.


Health Phys


Health physics


Kronenberg S,Bruckner GJ,Bechtel E,Gentner F




Has Abstract


1996-04-01 00:00:00












  • Mitigating radiation-induced toxicity: an overview of new approaches developed at the French Military Biomedical Research Institute.

    abstract::Acute radiation syndrome represents the clinical response of radiation-sensitive key tissues (i.e., hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular) following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. In this context, the hematopoietic syndrome remains the first therapeutic challenge. Today, identifying new drug...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Drouet M,Hérodin F

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Manhattan Project plutonium workers: an update.

    abstract::Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the e...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Voelz GL,Lawrence JN,Johnson ER

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • LIFE: a sustainable solution for developing safe, clean fusion power.

    abstract::The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California is currently in operation with the goal to demonstrate fusion energy gain for the first time in the laboratory-also referred to as "ignition." Based on these demonstration experiments, the Laser Inertial Fusion Ener...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reyes S,Dunne M,Kramer K,Anklam T,Havstad M,Mazuecos AL,Miles R,Martinez-Frias J,Deri B

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Systematic indoor radon and gamma-ray measurements in Slovenian schools.

    abstract::During the winter months of 1992/93 and 1993/94, instantaneous indoor radon concentrations and gamma dose rates were measured in 890 schools in Slovenia attended in total by about 280,000 pupils. Under "closed conditions," the room to be surveyed was closed for more than 12 h prior to sampling, the air was sampled int...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaupotic J,Sikovec M,Kobal I

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    abstract::Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Simon SL,Bouville A

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Medical preparedness for Radiation Emergency for the Olympic Games, Beijing 2008.

    abstract::Facing the challenge from terrorism, separatism, and extremism, China spared no effort to be prepared for every possible threat in order to host a safe Olympic Games. According to its statutory role, the Ministry of Health (MOH) is in charge of medical preparedness and response for radiological and nuclear emergencies...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu Y,Lei C,Qin B,Chen H,Su X

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • A review of the risks of leukemia in relation to parental pre-conception exposure to radiation.

    abstract::The apparent risk of childhood leukemia resulting from paternal pre-conception radiation exposure found among children of the Sellafield (West Cumbria, UK) workforce is compared with the apparent risk in a number of other epidemiological studies. In particular, the extent of the incompatibility of the leukemia pre-con...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Little MP,Charles MW,Wakeford R

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sensitivity of effective radiating area measurement for therapeutic ultrasound transducers to variations in hydrophone scanning technique.

    abstract::Clinical efficacy and safety may be compromised if output from ultrasonic therapy transducers differs significantly from the indicated value. Space-averaged effective intensities selected for treatment are a ratio of the emitted ultrasonic power to the effective radiating area (ERA). In this study, ERA measurements fo...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bly SH,Hussey RG,Kingsley JP,Dickson AW

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of human gonadal Pu and Ce concentrations from animal data.

    abstract::Data were obtained from the literature for gonad and body weights and for the Pu or Ce content of the gonads and body at death for several laboratory animal species, five human Pu injection cases, and 731 human adults exposed environmentally to Pu in fallout. Data for Pu concentration in gonads, liver, and bone sample...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomas RG,Durbin PW,McInroy JF,Healy JW

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Review of Cases of Occult Radiation Exposure and an Analysis of Time to Diagnosis.

    abstract::Radiation sickness is challenging to diagnose, and the diagnosis is often based on nonclinical data. In accidents where patients are not aware of their exposure to radiation (so-called "occult exposures"), a correct diagnosis can take weeks or months. The purpose of this study is to review the time to diagnosis of rad...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kunkler J,Adams TG,Manger M,Casagrande R

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation hormesis in plants.

    abstract::Many reports discuss plant growth stimulation by exposure of seeds or plants to low doses of ionizing radiation. The reported effects include increased height, weight, growth rate, flowering and yield. The magnitude of the effect(s) is usually small, being about 10% of control values; and the effects often are not rep...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Miller MW,Miller WM

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Thorium concentration in human tissues from two U.S. populations.

    abstract::The concentrations of natural alpha-emitting isotopes of thorium (228Th, 230Th and 232Th) have been determined in 22 sets of human tissue samples obtained at autopsy from Grand Junction, CO and in 10 sets from Washington, DC. Tissues included lung, pulmonary lymph nodes, liver, kidney, bone, a few gonads, spleen and t...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ibrahim SA,Wrenn ME,Singh NP,Cohen N,Saccomano G

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    abstract::Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians a...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Drozdovitch V,Brill AB,Mettler FA Jr,Beckner WM,Goldsmith SJ,Gross MD,Hays MT,Kirchner PT,Langan JK,Reba RC,Smith GT,Bouville A,Linet MS,Melo DR,Lee C,Simon SL

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Biological elimination rates of radioisotopes by mallards contaminated at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area.

    abstract::The biological elimination of nine gamma-emitting radioisotopes was studied in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) which were released onto liquid radioactive waste pounds in southeastern Idaho. After 68, 75 or 145 days, the ducks were removed from the contaminated environment and placed in metabolic cages. Whole-body and f...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Halford DK,Markham OD,White GC

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Doses to patients from diagnostic radiology in France.

    abstract::Reported here are results of a 1982 national survey in France to establish the collective effective dose equivalent associated with the main types of radiological examinations practiced annually in this country (except nuclear medicine, C.T. scans, dental radiology and mass chest screening). This report describes the ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maccia C,Benedittini M,Lefaure C,Fagnani F

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cosmic-ray ionization in the lower atmosphere.

    abstract::A high-pressure ion chamber filled with 2.5825 X 10(5) kg m-2 argon as used to measure the dose rates of several sites of interest in an attempt to evaluate the dose rates contributed by cosmic rays. Observation sites included two water reservoirs deeper than 110 m, Mount Ali which is higher than 2500 m, airliners fly...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weng PS,Chen CF

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation Brain Drain? The Impact of Demographic Change on U.S. Radiation Protection.

    abstract::The use of radiation has a substantial beneficial impact, particularly in the areas of medicine, energy production, basic science research, and industrial applications. Radiation protection knowledge and experience are required for acquiring and implementing scientific knowledge to protect workers, members of the publ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hricak H,Dauer LT

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Radon release from building materials in Hong Kong.

    abstract::Indoor 222Rn in high-rise buildings originates inside the building materials, then diffuses gradually through the intergranular spaces of the material into the room atmosphere. Therefore, the radionuclide contents and the physical properties of the building materials are important for indoor 222Rn levels in Hong Kong....

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tso MY,Ng CY,Leung JK

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Tests of the linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship for high-LET radiation.

    abstract::It is pointed out that induction of lung cancer by exposure to Rn daughters, applied at high doses to miners and at low doses to exposures in homes, provides a very stringent and sensitive test of the linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship for high-LET radiation, because this relationship predicts that a subs...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen BL

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Individual thyroid dose estimation for a case-control study of Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer among children of Belarus-part I: 131I, short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I), and short-lived radiotelluriums (131MTe and 132Te).

    abstract::Large amounts of radioiodines were released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. In order to investigate whether the thyroid cancers observed among children in Belarus could have been caused by radiation exposures from the Chernobyl accident, a team of Belarusi...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Gavrilin Y,Khrouch V,Shinkarev S,Drozdovitch V,Minenko V,Shemiakina E,Ulanovsky A,Bouville A,Anspaugh L,Voillequé P,Luckyanov N

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Nationwide survey of radon levels in Korea.

    abstract::A nationwide radon survey was conducted to provide data on the annual average indoor radon concentration in Korean homes. This survey also provided data on the variation of radon concentration with season, house type, and building age. The arithmetic mean (AM) of annual radon concentration in Korean homes was 53.4 +/-...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim CK,Lee SC,Lee DM,Chang BU,Rho BH,Kang HD

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Dose-dependent analysis of acute medical effects of mixed neutron-gamma radiation from selected severe 235U or 239Pu criticality accidents in USSR, United States, and Argentina.

    abstract::Eight of the most severe cases of acute radiation disease (ARS) known to have occurred in humans (as the result of criticality accidents) had survival times less than 120 h (herein defined as "early death"). These accidents were analyzed and are discussed with respect to the specific accident scenarios and the resulti...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barabanova T,Wiley AL,Bushmanov A

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Performance evaluation of diagnostic radiology dosimeters in clinical and calibration x-ray beams.

    abstract::Diagnostic radiology dosimeters should comply with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61674 standard in order to perform measurements with sufficient accuracy and reliability. The calibration of a dosimeter is performed under, and pertains to, reference conditions. However, in most cases, dosimeters are u...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hourdakis CJ,Boziari A,Manetou A

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • A passive diffusion 222Rn sampler based on activated carbon adsorption.

    abstract::A simple passive sampler for 222Rn with up to 24-hr integration times can be constructed by using a diffusion barrier to regulate the effective sampling rate of an ambient temperature activated carbon bed. The diffusion element serves to make sampler performance relatively independent of the properties of the type of ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prichard HM,Mariën K

    更新日期:1985-06-01 00:00:00

  • Reconstruction of Enriched Uranium Released to Air from the Former Apollo Facility, Apollo, Pennsylvania.

    abstract::The former Apollo facility converted enriched uranium hexafluoride into uranium oxide for shipment to nuclear fuel fabrication plants from 1957 to 1983. This paper describes quantification of the source term from the Apollo facility in terms of quantities of uranium released, particle size, and solubility characterist...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caffrey EA,Voillequé PG,Rood AS,Grogan HA,Mohler HJ,Meyer KR,Till JE

    更新日期:2020-12-11 00:00:00

  • Diffusive transport of radon in a homogeneous column of dry sand.

    abstract::To validate a model for radon transport in soil, measurements of diffusive radon transport under well-defined and controlled conditions have been made in a homogeneous column of dry sand with an air-filled volume on top. This volume simulates a crawl space. The measurements concern time-dependent diffusive transport w...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Spoel WH,van der Graaf ER,de Meijer RJ

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Performance of a diffusion barrier charcoal adsorption 222Rn monitor under conditions of varying humidity and temperature.

    abstract::An investigation of the performance of a diffusion barrier, charcoal-based 222Rn monitor under several artificial environmental conditions showed that both temperature and relative humidity levels affect 222Rn uptake. A physical model was developed adequately describing the temperature effects, while an empirical mode...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pojer PM,Peggie JR,O'Brien RS,Solomon SB,Wise KN

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Measurement of outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in the Sultanate of Oman.

    abstract::The terrestrial gamma radiation level was determined throughout the Sultanate of Oman over a 3-y period. The dose rate at 1 m above the ground was measured at 512 locations using a compensated Geiger-Miller detector. The activity concentration of soil/rock samples, collected from 112 locations, was determined by gamma...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goddard CC

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • The Time Course of Radiation-induced Lung Injury in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Partial-body Irradiation With Minimal Bone Marrow Sparing: Clinical and Radiographic Evidence and the Effect of Neupogen Administration.

    abstract::The primary objectives of two companion manuscripts were to assess the natural history of delayed radiation-induced lung injury in a nonhuman primate model of acute high-dose, partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing, to include the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological evidence and the effect of N...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacVittie TJ,Farese AM,Parker GA,Jackson W 3rd

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of Embedded Low-level Radioactive Shrapnel after the Explosion of a Radiological Dispersal Device in Radiological Emergency Imaging.

    abstract::Concern about the threat of a terrorist attack with a Radiological Dispersal Device has increased considerably over the last few years, and this comes along with an immense challenge, especially regarding medical treatment of combined injuries with incorporated radioactive fragments. In such scenarios, the identificat...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Majewski M,Nestler K,Veit DA,Diekmeyer B,Waldeck S,Port M,Becker BV

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00