Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Assuring the safety of medical diagnostic ultrasound.


:In 1980, the NCRP formed Scientific Committee 66 with an assignment to address the subject of "biological effects of ultrasound and exposure criteria." It was recognized that the primary source of exposure to ultrasound was through medical applications and, especially, through procedures employing diagnostic ultrasound. While the risk to patients from these procedures was believed small, it was considered important for users to understand it, in view of the widespread use of diagnostic ultrasound. In proceeding with this assignment, much emphasis has been given to the mechanisms by which ultrasound can bring about changes in biological structures or processes. Thermal effects are possible; the local temperature can rise especially rapidly where ultrasound impinges on bone. From theory for heat production and transport, and by analysis of experimental results with mammals, information has been obtained for guiding users in avoiding harm from temperature elevation. Nonthermal effects, such as capillary rupture, can occur when ultrasound is incident on tissue that normally contains gas-filled cavities, as in adult lung or intestine, or on any tissue containing gaseous contrast agents. Theory from fluid dynamics, together with experimental findings, has led to quantitative guidance for avoiding damage from acoustically activated cavities. It is felt that good practice in applying diagnostic ultrasound is best assured by making it possible for users to be well informed on safety matters so that they can feel justifiably confident in making appropriate choices of operating conditions. A promising and useful approach is in the display of safety information on the diagnostic ultrasound screen, which is now a feature of United States standards.


Health Phys


Health physics


Nyborg WL





Has Abstract


2002-05-01 00:00:00












  • Low-dose extrapolation of radiation health risks: some implications of uncertainty for radiation protection at low doses.

    abstract::Ionizing radiation is a known and well-quantified human cancer risk factor, based on a remarkably consistent body of information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. Typical examples of risk estimation include use of Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to estimate future risk from radiation-related canc...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Land CE

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • A study of amplifying the response of an LR115 solid state track detector by combining it with electret.

    abstract::Radon progeny are positively charged immediately after formation. A negatively charged electret collects radon progeny atoms which are produced in the diffusion chamber. The detector sensitivity may be increased by using an electret in front of solid state nuclear track detector. Dependence of detection sensitivity on...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nikezić D,Krstić D

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Dose-dependent analysis of acute medical effects of mixed neutron-gamma radiation from selected severe 235U or 239Pu criticality accidents in USSR, United States, and Argentina.

    abstract::Eight of the most severe cases of acute radiation disease (ARS) known to have occurred in humans (as the result of criticality accidents) had survival times less than 120 h (herein defined as "early death"). These accidents were analyzed and are discussed with respect to the specific accident scenarios and the resulti...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barabanova T,Wiley AL,Bushmanov A

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Selective Shielding of Bone Marrow: An Approach to Protecting Humans from External Gamma Radiation.

    abstract::The current feasibility of protecting emergency responders through bone marrow selective shielding is highlighted in the recent OECD/NEA report on severe accident management. Until recently, there was no effective personal protection from externally penetrating gamma radiation. In Chernobyl, first-responders wore make...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waterman G,Kase K,Orion I,Broisman A,Milstein O

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ocular exposure to infrared radiation in the Swedish iron and steel industry.

    abstract::This study was carried out to determine the level of potentially off-damaging infrared (IR) radiation in the iron and steel industry. Determinations of IR radiation were made in different positions in many types of processes. Forging was found to give the highest radiant exposure to the eyes, while workers in electros...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lydahl E,Glansholm A,Levin M

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Alternative goals and policy mechanisms for radiation protection.

    abstract::For decades, radiation protection philosophy and practice have been the domain of professionals trained in the physical and medical sciences. Radiation protection policy was formulated and implemented largely without consultation with or participation by other professional disciplines or the general public. Although, ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Florig HK

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • The U.S. Transuranium Registry report on the 241Am content of a whole body.

    abstract::An analysis and evaluation of 241Am in the whole body of a donor to the U.S. Transuranium Registry (USTR) is presented in five parts. The USTR donor's pertinent medical history, autopsy findings and antemortem evaluations of intake and systemic burden are described in Parts I and II. The donor was a 49-yr-old male Cau...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章



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  • Imaging radiation induced muscular necrosis with antimyosin-scintigraphy and computed tomography.

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    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albérini JL,Lefaix JL,Bansard JY,Bourguet P

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Projected Cancer Risks to Residents of New Mexico from Exposure to Trinity Radioactive Fallout.

    abstract::The Trinity nuclear test, conducted in 1945, exposed residents of New Mexico to varying degrees of radioactive fallout. Companion papers in this issue have detailed the results of a dose reconstruction that has estimated tissue-specific radiation absorbed doses to residents of New Mexico from internal and external exp...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cahoon EK,Zhang R,Simon SL,Bouville A,Pfeiffer RM

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  • Absorbed dose from traversing spherically symmetric, Gaussian radioactive clouds.

    abstract::If a large radioactive cloud is produced, sampling may require that an airplane traverse the cloud. A method to predict the absorbed dose to the aircrew from penetrating the radioactive cloud is needed. Dose rates throughout spherically symmetric Gaussian clouds of various sizes, and the absorbed doses from traversing...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thompson JM,Poston JW Sr

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Summer outdoor radon variations in Canada and their relation to soil moisture.

    abstract::In the summers of 1990 and 1991, outdoor 222Rn detectors were installed for 3 mo in 78 communities across Canada. The 1990 measurements showed large regional variations with the average outdoor levels for the provinces of Manitoba (59 Bq m-3) and Saskatchewan (61 Bq m-3) exceeding the average indoor levels of 55 Bq m-...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grasty RL

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation safety implications of 131I treatment in a patient with Grave's disease undergoing home hemodialysis.

    abstract::The radiation safety implications following the administration of 131I for the treatment of Grave's disease to a patient undergoing home-based renal dialysis was investigated. External dose-rate measurements from the patient revealed a peak value at around day 2, post administration. The effective half-life was determ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpson JB,Godwin GA

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Uncertainty of the tritium dose conversion factor.

    abstract::Environmental releases of tritium oxide at a number of Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities contribute to a significant portion of environmental dose. Several conversion factors are utilized in the estimation of human impact from these releases, e.g., dispersion coefficients, consumption rates, uptake facto...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamby DM

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diurnal and seasonal variations of radon levels, effects of climatic conditions, and radon exposure assessment in a former uranium metal production facility.

    abstract::Storage of radon-producing material in two silos and two waste pits is one of the major environmental and occupational issues at a former uranium production facility, now a Superfund site. In addition, up to 100 metric tons of thorium is stored on the northeast side of the site. Concentrations of radium up to 17,600 B...

    journal_title:Health physics

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    authors: Merrill EA,Akbar-Khanzadeh F

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  • Thoron Mitigation from Building Materials with Surface Barriers.

    abstract::Thoron (Rn) exhalation from building materials has become increasingly recognized as a potential source for radiation exposure in dwellings. However, few studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce exposure from thoron and its progeny. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) determine the reduction ...

    journal_title:Health physics

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    authors: de With G,de Jong P,Donk JJ

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    abstract::Twenty-six white male subjects, who worked with plutonium (239Pu) during World War II at Los Alamos, have been given medical examinations periodically over a period of 42 y to identify potential health effects. Inhalation was the primary mode of Pu exposures. The latest examinations, including urine bioassay and in-vi...

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    authors: Voelz GL,Lawrence JN

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  • Significance of Bioindicators for Early Predictions on Diagnosis and Therapy of Irradiated Minipigs.

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    authors: Moroni M,Port M,Gulani J,Chappell M,Abend M

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  • Occupational radiation studies: status, problems, and prospects.

    abstract::At least 350,000 workers at U.S. radiation facilities are being followed up to monitor their mortality experience, with particular reference to cancer. Although these studies are expensive, they are needed from the standpoint of public health and radiation protection; they also provide a useful check that the risk ext...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shore RE

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer mortality in counties near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania, 1950-1995.

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    authors: Boice JD Jr,Bigbee WL,Mumma MT,Blot WJ

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of human gonadal Pu and Ce concentrations from animal data.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomas RG,Durbin PW,McInroy JF,Healy JW

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  • Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on radiation protection and measurements: what makes particle radiation so effective?

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    authors: Blakely EA

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    journal_title:Health physics

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    authors: Raza S,Avila R

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial variation of residential radon concentrations: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study.

    abstract::Homeowners and researchers frequently estimate the radon concentrations in various areas of the home from a single radon measurement often performed in the home's basement. This study describes the spatial variation of radon concentrations both between floors and between rooms on the same floor. The geometric mean bas...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fisher EL,Field RW,Smith BJ,Lynch CF,Steck DJ,Neuberger JS

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    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cauwels P,Poffijn A,Mondelaers W,Lahorte P,Masschaele B,Meesen G,Van Deynse A

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    abstract::The Pantex Plant significantly revised its Radiological Control Manual to improve its usability, streamline plant procedures, and clarify conflicting guidance. This article overviews the process used to develop the new Radiological Control Manual. ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farrell LM

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests: Environmental, Health, Political, and Sociological Considerations.

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    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouville A

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • On the reduction of error in alpha track detector measurements of indoor 222Rn.

    abstract::Small plastic chambers containing alpha track detectors are often used for measuring indoor concentrations of 222Rn. This paper reports an experimental assessment of sources of error in measurements made with alpha track detector-containing chambers. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a nondestructive test for...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dudney CS,Wilson DL,Bertini H,Gammage RB,Otten JA

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Federal interagency communication strategies for addressing radiation emergencies and other public health crises.

    abstract::Federal agencies have a variety of roles and responsibilities related to communicating with the public before, during, and after a radiological emergency. To better understand the various efforts currently underway, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a roundtable of...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller CW,McCurley MC

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Dose rates from contaminated soil and hot particles have been calculated for several organs of a reference human. The calculation was performed using the computer code QAD-CGGP, a point kernel code employing combinatorial geometry for the representation of the human phantom. QAD uses buildup factors based on the geome...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsoulfanidis N,Phillips K

    更新日期:1991-11-01 00:00:00

  • Monte Carlo based method for conversion of in-situ gamma ray spectra obtained with a portable Ge detector to an incident photon flux energy distribution.

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    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clouvas A,Xanthos S,Antonopoulos-Domis M,Silva J

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00