Increased secretion of 32,33 split proinsulin after intravenous glucose in glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes of European, but not Asian, origin.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE:The aetiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes is unknown, but defective insulin secretion is a feature. The disease also has a strong genetic basis and first-degree relatives of patients have an increased risk of future diabetes. To investigate whether beta-cell dysfunction is an early feature of the disease, we studied insulin secretion in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes. DESIGN:Each subject underwent a 1-hour intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.3 g/kg). PATIENTS:Seventeen first-degree relatives of patients (10 of European and 7 of Asian (Indian subcontinent) origin) with normal glucose tolerance were compared with 17 matched control subjects with no family history of diabetes. MEASUREMENTS:Plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) was measured by radioimmunoassay, and specific insulin, intact and 32,33 split proinsulin were measured by specific immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) for the 1st phase (0-10 minutes) and 2nd phase (10-60 minutes) responses. Glucose and intermediary metabolites were measured enzymatically. RESULTS:Fasting concentrations of IRI, IRMA insulin, intact and 32,33 split proinsulin were similar in relatives and controls in each group. Fasting glucose levels were similar in European relatives and controls but lower in Asian relatives compared to their controls (mean +/- SE 4.9 +/- 0.2 vs 5.5 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P < 0.05). Following intravenous glucose, European relatives had similar IRI and glucose levels to their controls. Secretion of 32,33 split proinsulin was increased in European relatives compared to their controls, significantly so for 2nd phase secretion (1st phase median (range): 71 (7-352) vs 55 (17-118) pmol/l min, NS; 2nd phase: 433 (115-1459) vs 234 (55-745) pmol/l min, P < 0.05). Secretion of IRMA insulin and intact proinsulin were similar in European relatives and controls (IRMA insulin: 1st phase 2757 (700-10,969) vs 2830 (632-4682) pmol/l min; 2nd phase 6387 (3006-15,865) vs 5284 (2060-18,605) pmol/l min; intact proinsulin: 1st phase 31 (13-113) vs 32 (16-72) pmol/l min; 2nd phase: 174 (87-737) vs 159 (97-298) pmol/l min). European relatives had a greater percentage of proinsulin-like molecules (intact + 32,33 split proinsulin) to total insulin (sum of IRMA insulin + intact + 32,33 split proinsulin) during the 2nd phase of secretion (9.1 (5.0-11.8) vs 5.9 (4.3-12.6)%, P < 0.05). In contrast, Asian relatives had similar secretion of IRI, IRMA insulin, intact and 32,33 split proinsulin to their controls. Glucose disappearance (KG) was similar in relatives and controls within each ethnic group (Europeans: relatives 725 +/- 101 vs controls 668 +/- 47/min; Asian: relatives 610 +/- 97 vs controls 783 +/- 936/min). Asian relatives had higher fasting circulating glycerol (65 +/- 7 vs 44 +/- 4 mumol/l, P < 0.05), non-esterified fatty acid (569 +/- 59 vs 375 +/- 64 mumol/l, P < 0.05) and 3-hydroxybutyrate levels (147 (44-187) vs 35 (21-57) mumol/l, P < 0.01) than their controls and this persisted following intravenous glucose. This difference was not observed in the European group. CONCLUSION:First-degree relatives of European patients with NIDDM possess early signs of beta-cell dysfunction, with increased and disproportionate secretion of 32,33 split proinsulin after intravenous glucose, whilst glucose tolerance is still normal.

journal_name

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)

journal_title

Clinical endocrinology

authors

Gelding SV,Andres C,Niththyananthan R,Gray IP,Mather H,Johnston DG

doi

10.1111/j.1365-2265.1995.tb01873.x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1995-03-01 00:00:00

pages

255-64

issue

3

eissn

0300-0664

issn

1365-2265

journal_volume

42

pub_type

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