Modification of collagen-based sponges can induce an upshift of the early inflammatory response and a chronic inflammatory reaction led by M1 macrophages: an in vivo study.


BACKGROUND:The present study evaluated the cellular tissue reaction of two equine-derived collagen hemostatic sponges (E-CHS), which differed in thickness after pressing, over 30 days in vivo. The inflammatory response during physiological wound healing in sham-operated animals was used as control group. MATERIAL AND METHODS:First, the E-CHS was pressed by applying constant pressure (6.47 ± 0.85 N) for 2 min using a sterile stainless-steel cylinder until the material was uniformly flattened. Consequently, the original (E-CHS), the pressed (P-E-CHS), as well as the control group (CG; sham operation) were studied independently. The 3 groups were evaluated in vivo after subcutaneous implantation in Wistar rats during 3, 15, and 30 days. Histochemical and immunohistochemical methods provided observations of biomaterial degradation rate, cellular inflammatory response, and vascularization pattern. A derivative of human blood known as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was used as an ex vivo model to simulate the initial biomaterial-cell interaction. Segments of E-CHS and P-E-CHS were cultivated for 3 and 6 days with PRF, and the release of pro-inflammatory proteins was measured using ELISA. PRF cultivated alone was used as a control group. RESULTS:At day 3, the CG induced a statistically significant higher presence of monocytes/macrophages (CD68+), pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1; CCR7+), and pro-wound healing macrophages (M2; CD206+) compared to E-CHS and P-E-CHS. At the same time point, P-E-CHS induced a statistically significant higher presence of CD68+ cells compared to E-CHS. After 15 days, E-CHS was invaded by cells and vessels and showed a faster disintegration rate compared to P-E-CHS. On the contrary, cells and vessels were located only in the outer region of P-E-CHS and the biomaterial did not lose its structure and accordingly did not undergo disintegration. The experimental groups induced similar inflammatory reaction primarily with positive pro-inflammatory CD68+/CCR7+ macrophages and a low presence of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). At this time point, significantly lower CD68+/CCR7+ macrophages and no MNGCs were detected within the CG when compared to the experimental groups (P < 0.05). After 30 days, E-CHS and P-E-CHS were fully degraded. All groups showed similar inflammatory reaction shifted to a higher presence CD206+ macrophages. A low number of CCR7+ MNGCs were still observable in the implantation bed of both experimental groups. In the ex vivo model, the cells and fibrin from PRF penetrated E-CHS. However, in the case of P-E-CHS, the cells and fibrin stayed on the surface and did not penetrate towards materials central regions. The cultivation of P-E-CHS with PRF induced a statically significant higher release of pro-inflammatory proteins compared to the CG and E-CHS after 3 days. CONCLUSION:Altering the original presentation of a hemostatic sponge biomaterial by pressing modified the initial biomaterial-cell interaction, delayed the early biomaterial's degradation rate, and altered the vascularization pattern. A pressed biomaterial seems to induce a higher inflammatory reaction at early time points. However, altering the biomaterial did not modify the polarization pattern of macrophages compared to physiologic wound healing. The ex vivo model using PRF was shown to be an effective model to simulate the initial biomaterial-cell interaction in vivo. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:A pressed hemostatic sponge could be applied for guided tissue regeneration and guided bone regeneration. In that sense, within the limitations of this study, the results show that the same biomaterial may have two specific clinical indications.


Clin Oral Investig


Herrera-Vizcaíno C,Al-Maawi S,Sader R,Kirkpatrick CJ,Choukroun J,Ghanaati S




Has Abstract


2020-10-01 00:00:00














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    abstract:: ...

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    pub_type: 信件


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

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