Estrogen receptor-negative progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer - "Nobody's land" or just an artifact?


:The estrogen receptor α (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PgR) are one of the most important prognostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers in breast cancer. Breast cancers may express various profiles of hormone receptors: ER(+)/PgR(+), ER(-)/PgR(-), ER(+)/PgR(-) and ER(-)/PgR(+). The existence of the latter profile is a matter of controversy since PgR expressions is induced by ER-dependent pathways in breast cancer cells. One of the most extensively propagated hypotheses trying to explain the origin of ER(-)/PgR(+) breast cancers claims that they are technical artifacts dependent on the immunohistochemical procedure. On the other hand, in recent years there is a growing body of evidence, suggesting that such cancers create a unique group with distinct molecular and clinical features. In the following review, we present background theories on the ER(-)/PgR(+) breast cancer origin and their epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics, including the predictive and prognostic significance of these rare tumors.


Cancer Treat Rev


Cancer treatment reviews


Kunc M,Biernat W,Senkus-Konefka E




Has Abstract


2018-06-01 00:00:00












  • Treatment of refractory malignant lymphomas with ifosfamide/etoposide combination chemotherapy.

    abstract::Twenty patients with malignant lymphomas refractory to prior combination chemotherapy were treated with ifosfamide (40 mg/kg/day i.v. days 1-5) and etoposide (120 mg/m2/day i.v., days 1, 3, 5). Altogether, 56 courses of treatment were given with prophylaxis of urinary side effects by mesna (8 mg/kg i.v. 0, 4, 8 hours ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheulen ME,Bremer K,Niederle N,Seeber S

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evolving strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: from clinical-guided to molecularly-tailored therapeutic options.

    abstract::Hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is the commonest primary liver cancer (80-90%) and represents the leading cause of cancer-related death, after lung and stomach cancer. The process of neoplastic transformation proceeds through the accumulation of mutations in the genes governing cell proliferat...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Faloppi L,Scartozzi M,Maccaroni E,Di Pietro Paolo M,Berardi R,Del Prete M,Cascinu S

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the tumor-microenvironment in lung cancer-metastasis and its relationship to potential therapeutic targets.

    abstract::Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of lung cancer cases and currently has an overall five-year survival rate of only 15%. Patients presenting with advanced stage NSCLC die within 18-months of diagnosis. Metastatic spread accounts for >70% of these deaths. Thus elucidation of the mechanistic basis of ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wood SL,Pernemalm M,Crosbie PA,Whetton AD

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in the domiciliary care of tumour patients.

    abstract::Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was administered in the domiciliary environment in 143 pre-terminally and terminally ill tumour patients suffering either from excruciating chronic pain or severe chronic/acute complex pain that could not be relieved adequately by oral analgesia. Morphine solutions were infused subcu...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meuret G,Jocham H

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer; oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, growth factors, and their receptors from a clinical perspective.

    abstract::Pancreatic cancer represents the fourth leading cause of cancer death in men and the fifth in women. Prognosis remains dismal, mainly because the diagnosis is made late in the clinical course of the disease. The need to improve the diagnosis, detection, and treatment of pancreatic cancer is great. It is in this type o...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sakorafas GH,Tsiotou AG,Tsiotos GG

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Beyond BRCA: new hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    abstract::Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases might be inheritable, up to 30% of which are due to BRCA1/2 mutations. During the past few years and thanks to technology evolution, we have been witnesses of an intensive search of additional genes with similar characteristics, under the premise that successful gene discover...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Economopoulou P,Dimitriadis G,Psyrri A

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Current concepts and treatments.

    abstract::Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare proliferative disorder of cells with the phenotype of activated Langerhans cells. The diagnosis of LCH is often delayed or missed. Many questions about LCH remain to be answered, including whether it is caused by a malignancy or by immune dysregulation. Data from the early...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abla O,Egeler RM,Weitzman S

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    abstract::Surgery has been considered the standard of care in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in some cases of stage III, for a long time. Poor survival after complete resection has led to the search for new therapeutic strategies such as combining anticancer treatments. However, at the ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Depierre A,Westeel V,Jacoulet P

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Radionuclide treatment of painful bone metastases in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review.

    abstract::Bone-seeking radionuclides, such as Sr-89, Sm-153, and Re-186, have been shown to have an effect on pain from bone metastasis in prostate cancer. The effect on bone pain in other cancer types, including breast cancer, remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to perform a systematic review of the use of radioisoto...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验,评审


    authors: Christensen MH,Petersen LJ

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • AR-V7 and prostate cancer: The watershed for treatment selection?

    abstract::The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Despite the recent progress in targeting persistent AR activity with the next-generation hormonal therapies (abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide), resistance to these agents limits therapeutic effica...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ciccarese C,Santoni M,Brunelli M,Buti S,Modena A,Nabissi M,Artibani W,Martignoni G,Montironi R,Tortora G,Massari F

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Participation of adolescents with cancer in clinical trials.

    abstract::Adolescent patients with cancer reside in a "no-man's land" between the world of pediatric oncology and that of "adult" medical oncology. As compared to younger and older patients, adolescents and young adults are under-represented on clinical trials. This relative lack of participation in clinical protocols has been ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ferrari A,Bleyer A

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Phase I study and pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal carboplatin.

    abstract::In the early stages of this phase I study the tolerance of carboplatin intraperitoneally was good. Pharmacokinetic profiles suggest a possible therapeutic advantage for giving the drug intraperitoneally for the treatment of tumour nodules situated in the peritoneum. The extent of penetration of carboplatin through tum...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McVie JG,ten Bokkel Huinink W,Dubbelman R,Franklin H,van der Vijgh W,Klein I

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • Role of donor lymphocyte infusions in relapsed hematological malignancies after stem cell transplantation revisited.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Treatment of relapsed hematological malignancies after an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (SCT) is challenging. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) from the stem cell donor is an attractive clinical option to salvage this group of patients. METHODS:We reviewed the important studies looking at d...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deol A,Lum LG

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Review of conditioning regimens for haplo-identical donor transplants using post-transplant cyclophosphamide in recipients of G-CSF mobilised peripheral stem cell.

    abstract::Haplo-identical transplant is being increasingly used in patients who do not have a readily available matched related or unrelated donor. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide's use due to its simplicity and documented efficacy has made this approach readily employable across diverse transplant centres across the globe. Th...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Patil S,Potter V,Mohty M

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Progress in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children.

    abstract::During the last decade, important progress has been made in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children. For hepatoblastoma, there is a general consensus for combining surgical resection with neoadjuvant (and adjuvant) chemotherapy. Long-term disease-free survival of around 85-90% can be achieved for ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Otte JB

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of targeted therapy: Implications for response and impact of genetic polymorphisms.

    abstract::Targeted therapies have unique toxicity profiles. Common adverse events include rash, diarrhea, hypertension, hypothyroidism, proteinuria, depigmentation, and hepatotoxicity. Some of these toxicities are caused by on-target, mechanism-associated effects, which can be stratified as to whether or not the targets are rel...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liu S,Kurzrock R

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer: from gemcitabine single agent to combinations and targeted therapy.

    abstract::The prognosis of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma is still poor nowadays. Gemcitabine in monotherapy (30-min infusion) has been the standard of treatment during the last decade, and many clinical trials have failed to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival (OS) with the addition of different drugs to gemcita...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rivera F,López-Tarruella S,Vega-Villegas ME,Salcedo M

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Anticancer drugs: estrophilic cisplatin derivatives.

    abstract::Our approach to develop platinum complexes with a selective effect on the hormone-dependent MC by exchanging the two NH3 groups of cisplatin by an 1,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)ethylenediamine derivative which possesses estrogenic activity, was successful. The most interesting compound of this new platinum complex series, ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Engel J,Schönenberger H,Lux F,Hilgard P

    更新日期:1987-12-01 00:00:00

  • Unraveling galectin-1 as a novel therapeutic target for cancer.

    abstract::Galectins belong to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins with an affinity for β-galactosides. Galectin-1 is differentially expressed by various normal and pathologic tissues and displays a wide range of biological activities. In oncology, galectin-1 plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and in the multistep proces...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Astorgues-Xerri L,Riveiro ME,Tijeras-Raballand A,Serova M,Neuzillet C,Albert S,Raymond E,Faivre S

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer surgery: the last 25 years.

    abstract::Surgery is, and always has been, the main treatment modality of solid tumours. For a long period, it consisted of a number of surgical procedures dictated by basic oncologic principles, most of which are still adhered to. Over the last few decades, increased understanding of the disease, new or improved diagnostic fac...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bremers AJ,Rutgers EJ,van de Velde CJ

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Timing of first-line cancer treatments - early versus late - a systematic review of phase III randomized trials.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all phase III randomized controlled trials comparing efficacy of early versus late first-line or initial treatments for cancer. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane library databases was performed (1966-2008). Data was extracted a...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Mhaskar AR,Quinn G,Vadaparampil S,Djulbegovic B,Gwede CK,Kumar A

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Microtubule stabilizing agents: their molecular signaling consequences and the potential for enhancement by drug combination.

    abstract::Microtubule stabilization by chemotherapy is a powerful weapon in the war against cancer. Disruption of the mitotic spindle activates a number of signaling pathways, with consequences that may protect the cell or lead to its death via apoptosis. Taxol, the first microtubule stabilizing drug to be identified, has been ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bergstralh DT,Ting JP

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Fertility preservation in cancer patients: the global framework.

    abstract::Cancer treatment is the most frequent cause of reduced fertility in cancer patients, with up to 80% of survivors affected. None of the established or experimental fertility preservation methods can assure parenthood, rather they may provide a future opportunity to overcome treatment induced sterility. Around 70-75% of...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Linkeviciute A,Boniolo G,Chiavari L,Peccatori FA

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of outcomes and toxicities among radiation therapy treatment options for prostate cancer.

    abstract::We review radiation therapy (RT) options available for prostate cancer, including external beam (EBRT; with conventional fractionation, hypofractionation, stereotactic body RT [SBRT]) and brachytherapy (BT), with an emphasis on the outcomes, toxicities, and contraindications for therapies. PICOS/PRISMA methods were us...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zaorsky NG,Shaikh T,Murphy CT,Hallman MA,Hayes SB,Sobczak ML,Horwitz EM

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Current status and future perspectives in gastric cancer management.

    abstract::Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Environmental and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) acting early in life in a multistep and multifactorial process may cause intestinal type carcinomas, whereas genetic abnormalities are related more...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roukos DH

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Management of brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    abstract::Lung cancer represents the most common cause of brain dissemination. Oncogene-addicted (EGFR- and ALK-positive) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are characterized by a unique metastatic neurotropism resulting in a particularly high incidence of brain metastases. The goal of optimal brain metastases management is t...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wrona A,Dziadziuszko R,Jassem J

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of tumor-associated macrophages in gastric cancer development and their potential as a therapeutic target.

    abstract::Gastric cancer (GC) represents the fifth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Molecular biology has become a central area of research in GC and there are currently at least three major classifications available to elucidate the mechanisms that drive GC oncogenesis. Further, tumor microenvironment seems to play a c...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gambardella V,Castillo J,Tarazona N,Gimeno-Valiente F,Martínez-Ciarpaglini C,Cabeza-Segura M,Roselló S,Roda D,Huerta M,Cervantes A,Fleitas T

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Second-line treatment options in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a comparison of key trials with recently approved agents.

    abstract::Standard first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is docetaxel plus prednisone; however, patients will usually experience disease progression during or after docetaxel treatment due to inherent or acquired resistance. Before 2010, second-line options for mCRPC were limited. Howe...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bahl A,Masson S,Birtle A,Chowdhury S,de Bono J

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo antitumor activity of ilmofosine.

    abstract::Ilmofosine is a cytostatic/cytotoxic thioether phospholipid derivative. The in vivo anti-tumour activity of this compound was investigated in a methylcholanthrene (MethA)-induced fibrosarcoma and in the 3Lewis-lung carcinoma systems, respectively. Ilmofosine showed antineoplastic and antimetastatic properties at oral ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herrmann DB,Pahlke W,Opitz HG,Bicker U

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: evidence and analysis.

    abstract::Although surgery provides excellent control for localized prostate cancer, pathologic examination of more than one-third of specimens will reveal positive surgical margins, seminal vesicle invasion, and/or extracapsular extension, thus putting these patients at increased risk of cancer recurrence. "Adjuvant" radiother...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Raldow A,Hamstra DA,Kim SN,Yu JB

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00