Regulation of Botulinum Neurotoxin Synthesis and Toxin Complex Formation by Arginine and Glucose in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.


:Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia, is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation is not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation were affected by arginine and glucose in Clostridium botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine and glucose and of three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline, and ornithine. Cultures were analyzed for growth (optical density at 600 nm [OD600]), spore formation, and BoNT and TC formation by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation and for BoNT activity by mouse bioassay. A high level of arginine (20 g/liter) repressed BoNT production approximately 1,000-fold, enhanced growth, slowed lysis, and reduced endospore production by greater than 1,000-fold. Similar effects on toxin production were seen with equivalent levels of citrulline but not ornithine or proline. In TPM lacking glucose, levels of formation of BoNT/A1 and TC were significantly decreased, and extracellular BoNT and TC proteins were partially inactivated after the first day of culture. An understanding of the regulation of C. botulinum growth and BoNT and TC formation should be valuable in defining requirements for BoNT formation in foods and clinical samples, improving the quality of BoNT for pharmaceutical preparations, and elucidating the biological functions of BoNTs for the bacterium.IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major food safety and bioterrorism concern and is also an important pharmaceutical, and yet the regulation of its synthesis, activation, and stability in culture media, foods, and clinical samples is not well understood. This paper provides insights into the effects of critical nutrients on growth, lysis, spore formation, BoNT and TC production, and stability of BoNTs of C. botulinum We show that for C. botulinum ATCC 3502 cultured in a complex medium, a high level of arginine repressed BoNT expression by ca. 1,000-fold and also strongly reduced sporulation. Arginine stimulated growth and compensated for a lack of glucose. BoNT and toxin complex proteins were partially inactivated in a complex medium lacking glucose. This work should aid in optimizing BoNT production for pharmaceutical uses, and furthermore, an understanding of the nutritional regulation of growth and BoNT formation may provide insights into growth and BoNT formation in foods and clinical samples and into the enigmatic function of BoNTs in nature.


Appl Environ Microbiol


Fredrick CM,Lin G,Johnson EA




Has Abstract


2017-06-16 00:00:00












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