Human choice under schedules of negative reinforcement.


:The generalized matching equation provides a good description of response allocation in concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement in nonhumans as well as in humans. The present experiment was conducted to further investigate the allocation of responding under concurrent schedules of negative reinforcement (i.e., timeouts from pressing a force cell) in humans. Each of three participants was exposed to different reinforcement ratios (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9) in the terminal links of a concurrent-chains schedule of negative reinforcement. The allocation of responding under this schedule was well described by the generalized matching equation, for each participant. These results replicate previous findings obtained with nonhumans and humans under concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement. In addition, they extend the results reported by Alessandri and Rivière (2013) showing that human behavior maintained by timeouts from an effortful response is sensitive to changes in relative reinforcement ratios as well as relative delays of reinforcement.


Behav Processes


Behavioural processes


Alessandri J,Cançado CR




Has Abstract


2015-12-01 00:00:00












  • Elevated testosterone levels affect female breeding success and yolk androgen deposition in a passerine bird.

    abstract::Although it is well documented that testosterone (T) is an important mediator in the regulation of behaviour in male vertebrates, its functional significance in females is less understood. Experimentally increased T in adult female birds has been found to have both advantageous and detrimental effects on behaviour and...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: López-Rull I,Gil D

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Acquisition of visually guided conditional associative tasks in Göttingen minipigs.

    abstract::Fourteen Göttingen minipigs were trained on two different visually guided conditional associative tasks. In a spatial conditional task, a black stimulus signalled that a response to the left was correct, and a white stimulus signalled that a response to the right was correct. In a conditional go/no-go task, a blue sti...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moustgaard A,Arnfred SM,Lind NM,Hemmingsen R,Hansen AK

    更新日期:2005-01-31 00:00:00

  • Dominance hierarchy establishment in the invasive round goby, Neogobius melanostomus.

    abstract::Organisms living at high densities may be forced to engage in conflict for access to resources such as food or shelter. When these resources are limited, the outcome of interactions may have important fitness implications. We investigated the behavioural interactions of the invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus)...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maytin AK,Ligocki IY

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Does intraspecific competition among Allenby's gerbils lead to an Ideal Free Distribution across foraging patches?

    abstract::Employing the Ideal Free Distribution (IFD) principle as a tool, we investigated how Allenby's gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) utilized food patches within and moved between connected quadrants (i.e., 'habitats') in a large outdoor semi-natural enclosure. These habitats differed in initial forager densities, bu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makin DF,Kotler BP

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Achieving optimal welfare for the Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) in North American zoos and aquariums.

    abstract::Compared to other megafauna managed in zoos and aquariums, the current state of welfare for the Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) is poorly understood. Complex behavior and physiological characteristics make hippos a difficult species to manage. Thus, hippos in managed care are currently at risk for a decreas...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tennant KS,Segura VD,Morris MC,Snyder KD,Bocian D,Maloney D,Maple TL

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Male vulnerability explains the occurrence of sexual cannibalism in a moderately sexually dimorphic wolf spider.

    abstract::Sexual cannibalism is a widespread phenomenon among a few animal taxa. Its occurrence is interpreted as female and/or male optimal reproductive decisions or as a non-adaptive side effect of selection for efficiently foraging females. In spite of the amount of research addressed at understanding its evolutionary origin...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernández-Montraveta C,González JM,Cuadrado M

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    abstract::This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahmad F,Richardson MK

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • A new version of the Monty Hall Dilemma with unequal probabilities.

    abstract::In the Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD), a contestant makes a guess as to which door conceals a prize. The host then reveals the contents of an unchosen, incorrect door, and then gives the contestant a choice of sticking with the initial guess or switching to the remaining door. Given certain crucial assumptions, the rational...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Granberg D

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Changing rates of reinforcement perturbs the flow of time.

    abstract::This experiment tested the hypothesis that changes in rate of reinforcement affect the rate of an internal pacemaker as suggested by the Behavioral Theory of Timing (BeT: Killeen and Fetterman, 1988). Pigeons were trained to discriminate durations of 10 s and 20 s, and then exposed to higher or lower rates of freely d...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morgan L,Killeen PR,Fetterman JG

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • How the foraging decisions of a small ruminant are influenced by past feeding experiences with low-quality food.

    abstract::Feeding experiences with low-quality foods can be improved when these foods are ingested in close temporal association with foods of higher nutritional quality. However, preference for low-quality foods in nature seems to be rather insensitive to past positive experiences and more related to their intrinsic nutritiona...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Catanese F,Distel RA,Fernández P,Villalba JJ

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulus-dependent processing of temporal order.

    abstract::Two distinct conceptualisations of processing mechanisms have been proposed in the research on the perception of temporal order, one that assumes a central-timing mechanism that is involved in the detection of temporal order independent of modality and stimulus type, another one assuming feature-specific mechanisms th...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Fink M,Ulbrich P,Churan J,Wittmann M

    更新日期:2006-02-28 00:00:00

  • Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    abstract::Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a diff...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: da Silva SP,Cançado CR,Lattal KA

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • All "chick-a-dee" calls are not created equally. Part II. Mechanisms for discrimination by sympatric and allopatric chickadees.

    abstract::The 'chick-a-dee' call, common to all members of the genus Poecile, is used by both sexes throughout the year to putatively co-ordinate flock movements and register alarm. In some regions, two or more chickadee species occupy overlapping territories, and therefore it is essential that these sympatric species learn to ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bloomfield LL,Farrell TM,Sturdy CB

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of translocation on movement behaviour--a test of the assumptions of behavioural studies.

    abstract::Animal movement behaviour is intensively investigated with capture-mark-recapture studies. For the analysis of such experiments, the influence of marking technique, handling and translocation of marked animals on movement pattern is of crucial importance since it may mask or overrule the effects of the main research q...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heidinger IM,Poethke HJ,Bonte D,Hein S

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Fixed interval and fixed time treadle pressing in the pigeon: A comparison with FI and FT keypecking.

    abstract::Experiment I used non-naive pigeons having previously performed on both keypecking and treadlepressing Fixed Interval schedules. In condition IT, treadlepressing was reinforced on successive Fixed Interval 60 seconds, Fixed Time 60 seconds and Fixed Interval 60 seconds schedules. Subsequently (condition IK), the same ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lejeune H,Jasselette P

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interactions of timing and prediction error learning.

    abstract::Timing and prediction error learning have historically been treated as independent processes, but growing evidence has indicated that they are not orthogonal. Timing emerges at the earliest time point when conditioned responses are observed, and temporal variables modulate prediction error learning in both simple cond...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kirkpatrick K

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of enhancing cage complexity on the behaviour and welfare of laboratory rats.

    abstract::This experiment was carried out to investigate the long-term effects of enhancing cage complexity on behavioural measures of welfare in laboratory rats. We housed 72 rats in groups of four in either 'enriched' or 'unenriched' cages for six weeks. Scan and focal animal sampling were conducted in both the light and dark...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abou-Ismail UA,Burman OH,Nicol CJ,Mendl M

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Multimodality: a way to cope with road traffic noise? The case of European treefrog (Hyla arborea).

    abstract::In the last decades, traffic noise has become a new challenge for efficient animal communication and several studies suggest that it is involved in population declines. Although poorly investigated in a traffic noise context, communication is generally multimodal, which can be viewed as a way to improve communication ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Troïanowski M,Melot G,Lengagne T

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • The evolution of the behavior systems framework and its connection to interbehavioral psychology.

    abstract::The present article traces the development of Timberlake's behavior systems framework while noting connections between it and Kantor's interbehavioral psychology. Congruent with Timberlake's behavior systems approach, interbehaviorists assert that (a) behavior is best understood as part of a complex causal system inst...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Silva KM,Silva FJ,Machado A

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Social discounting: Choice between rewards for other people.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to test the prediction that when two rewards, a smaller but "socially closer" one and a larger but "socially more distant" one, are moved away from the subject by the same social distance, subjective value of the socially more distant reward will increase (i.e. the rate of social d...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osiński J,Karbowski A,Ostaszewski P

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Genomic basis of delayed reward discounting.

    abstract::Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity, reflecting how rapidly a reward loses value based on its temporal distance. In humans, more impulsive DRD is associated with susceptibility to a number of psychiatric diseases (e.g., addiction, ADHD), health outcomes (e.g., obesity), and...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gray JC,Sanchez-Roige S,de Wit H,MacKillop J,Palmer AA

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Caution for using ventilatory frequency as an indicator of stress in fish.

    abstract::This study tested the use of ventilatory frequency (VF) as an indicator of stress in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Firstly, we tested the relationship between VF and plasma cortisol after confinement. Confined fish showed higher VF and plasma cortisol levels, but the latter continued to increase signif...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barreto RE,Volpato GL

    更新日期:2004-04-30 00:00:00

  • Seasonal variation of reproductive success under female philopatry and male-biased dispersal in a common vole population.

    abstract::Variation of reproductive success, an important determinant of the opportunity for sexual selection, is an outcome of competition within one sex for mating with members of the other sex. In promiscuous species, males typically compete for access to females, and their reproductive strategies are strongly related to the...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borkowska A

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of prenatal stress on lever-press acquisition with delayed reinforcement in male and female rats.

    abstract::The prenatally stressed (PS) rat shows enhanced conditioned fear and increased behavioral inhibition in response to footshock compared to control (CON) rats. It is unclear whether this facilitated learning will occur only with aversive stimulation, or if it will also be observed in the context of positive reinforcemen...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruner NR,Salm AK,Anderson KG

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioural and morphological dose-responses to testosterone and to 5α-dihydrotestosterone in the castrated male Japanese quail.

    abstract::Morphological and behavioural effects of testosterone (T) and of 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) injected daily for a 3-week period at dosages of 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mg for T and 1 and 5 mg for α-DHT were studied in the adult male castrated Japanese quail. Injections of 0.5 or 1.0 mg T produced only slight development o...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deviche P,Schumacher M

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Mandible strike: the lethal weapon of Odontomachus opaciventris against small prey.

    abstract::In order to study both the hunting efficiency and the flexibility of their predatory behavior, solitary hunters of the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus opaciventris were offered small prey (termites, fruit flies and tenebrionid larvae), presenting different morphological or defensive characteristics. The monomorphic hunters ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De la Mora A,Pérez-Lachaud G,Lachaud JP

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Preference for mirror images and video image in Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora).

    abstract::Java sparrows were exposed to a mirror and a frosted mirror, a mirror and a live bird, a mirror and a live bird with frosted screen, a closed circuit TV monitor and a TV program or the closed circuit monitor and an upside down monitor. The birds showed strong preference for the self-image on the mirror, the live bird ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watanabe S

    更新日期:2002-10-31 00:00:00

  • Les Sequences De Remplacement Chez Ctenodactylus gundi: Competition Ou Cooperation?

    abstract::Ctenodactylus gundi, a colonial rodent inhabiting saharian Atlas, is often seen standing at the top of the rocks. At more or less regular intervals, another conspecific is taking the place of the "resident" animal. This relief impues only amicable reliationships and is to be considered as a kind of cooperation. The fu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gouat P,Ggouat J

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral contrast of a complex operant.

    abstract::Two experiments were conducted in which pigeons were trained to perform a complex operant consisting of a peck to one key followed by a peck to another key. In the first experment this performance was reinforced on a variable-interval schedule and the birds were then subjected to a multiple schedule in which the varia...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kendall SB

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • On several factors that control rates of discounting.

    abstract::Discounting occurs when the subjective value of an outcome decreases because its delivery is either delayed or uncertain. Discounting has been widely studied because of its ubiquitous nature. Research from our laboratory has demonstrated that rates of discounting are systematically altered by several different factors...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weatherly JN

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00