Human choice under schedules of negative reinforcement.


:The generalized matching equation provides a good description of response allocation in concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement in nonhumans as well as in humans. The present experiment was conducted to further investigate the allocation of responding under concurrent schedules of negative reinforcement (i.e., timeouts from pressing a force cell) in humans. Each of three participants was exposed to different reinforcement ratios (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9) in the terminal links of a concurrent-chains schedule of negative reinforcement. The allocation of responding under this schedule was well described by the generalized matching equation, for each participant. These results replicate previous findings obtained with nonhumans and humans under concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement. In addition, they extend the results reported by Alessandri and Rivière (2013) showing that human behavior maintained by timeouts from an effortful response is sensitive to changes in relative reinforcement ratios as well as relative delays of reinforcement.


Behav Processes


Behavioural processes


Alessandri J,Cançado CR




Has Abstract


2015-12-01 00:00:00












  • Self-control and social cooperation.

    abstract::Participants repeatedly played a self-control game in which choice of the higher of two monetary rewards on the present trial reduced the overall reward ('alone condition'). Other participants played a prisoner's dilemma (social cooperation) game in which choices alternated so that overall reward-reducing consequences...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown J,Rachlin H

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Renewal and reinstatement of the conditioned but not the unconditioned response following habituation of the unconditioned stimulus.

    abstract::Research on the inhibition of learned fear currently relies almost exclusively on one specific procedure, namely extinction of the conditioned stimulus (CS). Importantly, however, learned fear responses can be reduced by a number of other procedures, including habituation of the unconditioned stimulus (US). We recentl...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Storsve AB,McNally GP,Richardson R

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Massed and spaced stimulus sequences in dimensional discrimination.

    abstract::In two experiments, pigeons' responding to a visual flicker-rate continuum was established by a maintained generalization procedure. For both experiments, variable-interval reinforcement was available for responses during stimuli from one half of the stimulus continuum while responses during other stimuli were extingu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hinson JM,Higa JJ

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • An experimental examination of female responses to infant face coloration in rhesus macaques.

    abstract::In many primates, infants possess distinctive coloration that changes as a function of age. This colour is thought to serve the purpose of eliciting caretaking behaviour from the mother as well as other conspecifics. The present study investigated the responses of adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to pictu...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerald MS,Waitt C,Maestripieri D

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement history.

    abstract::Pavlovian conditioning is sensitive to the temporal relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). This has motivated models that describe learning as a process that continuously updates associative strength during the trial or specifically encodes the CS-US interval. These mod...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chan CKJ,Harris JA

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    abstract::This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahmad F,Richardson MK

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    abstract::Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat o...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Howell TJ,Bowen J,Fatjó J,Calvo P,Holloway A,Bennett PC

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Windows.

    abstract::Some models of performance assume that behavior depends on environmental quantities (for example, rates of reinforcement) that are defined over intervals of fixed duration. Although such window models may serve as useful approximations, they are incompatible with well-known properties of behavior (for instance, sensit...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tonneau F

    更新日期:2005-05-31 00:00:00

  • Multimodal communication, mismatched messages and the effects of turbidity on the antipredator behavior of the Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum.

    abstract::Prey may use multiple sensory channels to detect predators, whose cues may differ in altered sensory environments, such as turbid conditions. Depending on the environment, prey may use cues in an additive/complementary manner or in a compensatory manner. First, to determine whether the purely aquatic Barton Springs sa...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zabierek KC,Gabor CR

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differential roles of the right and left brain hemispheres in the social interactions of a free-ranging ungulate.

    abstract::Despite the abundant empirical evidence on lateralized social behaviours, a clear understanding of the relative roles of two brain hemispheres in social processing is still lacking. This study investigated visual lateralization in social interactions of free-ranging European bison (Bison bonasus). The bison were more ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giljov A,Karenina K

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Distress of mice induces approach behavior but has an aversive property for conspecifics.

    abstract::In the first experiment, approach/avoidance behavior of mice to a restrained cage mate was examined. The mice explored the restrained mates but they did not stay longer at the restrained mates in comparison to free moving mates. Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) training in the presence of a restrained mate did not r...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watanabe S

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Kin discrimination in prepubescent and adult Long-Evans rats.

    abstract::The present study investigated the preference of prepubescent and adult rats for an unrelated conspecific over a closely related conspecific (e.g., father, mother). Preference was measured by the amount of time spent in the vicinity of the stimulus animals as well as who was visited first. To prevent mating behavior, ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bolton JL,Winland C,Ford B,Burbey A,Zewail-Foote M,Guarraci FA

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral persistence is associated with poorer olfactory discrimination learning in domestic dogs.

    abstract::Domestic dogs are trained for a wide variety of jobs; however, half of dogs that enter working dog training organizations never become certified. The aim of this study was to identify whether a basic measure of behavioral persistence was associated with sixteen dogs' performance on an odor discrimination learning task...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalal S,Hall NJ

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Tool-use and tool-making by captive, group-living orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) at an artificial termite mound.

    abstract::The present study examined the use and making of tools to obtain foodstuffs in artificial-mound holes by five captive, group-living Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Three adult orangutans frequently stripped leaves and twigs from a branch provided (tool-making), and then inserted the tool into a hole to ob...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamichi M

    更新日期:2004-01-30 00:00:00

  • The functions of contexts in associative learning.

    abstract::Although contexts play many roles during training and also during testing, over the last four decades theories of learning have predominantly focused on one or the other of the two families of functions served by contexts. In this selective review, we summarize recent data concerning these two functions and their inte...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Urcelay GP,Miller RR

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative study of parental care between two rodent species: implications for the mating system of the mound-building mouse Mus spicilegus.

    abstract::Paternal care is uncommon in mammals where males are more often involved in sexual competition than in providing care for their own offspring. However some species present some form of paternal care and, most of the time, this phenomenon is associated with a monogamous mating system. Mice of the genus Mus, such as the...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patris B,Baudoin C

    更新日期:2000-10-05 00:00:00

  • Duration, response, and location: the influence of upcoming 32% sucrose on rats' licking or lever pressing for 1% liquid sucrose.

    abstract::The present study investigated whether rats' rates of licking or pressing a lever for 1% liquid sucrose delivered by a continuous reinforcement schedule would decrease (contrast) or increase (induction) when the upcoming period would allow access to 32% sucrose and whether such changes would be influenced by how long ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weatherly JN,Nurnberger JT,Arthur EI,King BM

    更新日期:2005-08-31 00:00:00

  • A comparative analysis of auditory perception in humans and songbirds: a modular approach.

    abstract::We propose that a relatively small number of perceptual skills underlie human perception of music and speech. Humans and songbirds share a number of features in the development of their auditory communication systems. These similarities invite comparisons between species in their auditory perceptual skills. Here, we s...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weisman R,Hoeschele M,Sturdy CB

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Male vulnerability explains the occurrence of sexual cannibalism in a moderately sexually dimorphic wolf spider.

    abstract::Sexual cannibalism is a widespread phenomenon among a few animal taxa. Its occurrence is interpreted as female and/or male optimal reproductive decisions or as a non-adaptive side effect of selection for efficiently foraging females. In spite of the amount of research addressed at understanding its evolutionary origin...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernández-Montraveta C,González JM,Cuadrado M

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Overshadowing between visual and tactile stimulus elements in an object recognition task.

    abstract::In recent decades there has been great progress in discovering the conditions under which cue competition occurs during animal learning. In humans, however, the evidence remains equivocal regarding the degree to which stimuli compete with one another for behavioral control. We report here the results of a single exper...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stahlman WD,McWaters M,Christian E,Knapp E,Fritch A,Mailloux JR

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Rats' memory for event duration: differential effects of delaying the discriminative choice cue as opposed to the opportunity to execute the choice response.

    abstract::Rats were trained to discriminate short or long durations of houselight illumination using a choice procedure. During the test phase of each trial, the left and right levers were presented with an auditory cue above one of them on (cued lever) while the other was off (uncued lever). The auditory cue was presented imme...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santi A,Stanford L,Coyle J

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Vigilance adjustments in relation to long- and short term risk in wild fallow deer (Dama dama).

    abstract::The risk allocation hypothesis predicts that vigilance should be adjusted to the temporal variation in risk. We test this hypothesis in wild fallow deer exposed to short term (disturbance) and long term (presence of a fawn after parturition) changes in risk. We recorded the proportion, frequency and type of vigilance ...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bergvall UA,Svensson L,Kjellander P

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genomic basis of delayed reward discounting.

    abstract::Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity, reflecting how rapidly a reward loses value based on its temporal distance. In humans, more impulsive DRD is associated with susceptibility to a number of psychiatric diseases (e.g., addiction, ADHD), health outcomes (e.g., obesity), and...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gray JC,Sanchez-Roige S,de Wit H,MacKillop J,Palmer AA

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Is play a behavior system, and, if so, what kind?

    abstract::Given that many behavior patterns cluster together in sequences that are organized to solve specific problems (e.g., foraging), a fruitful perspective within which to study behaviors is as distinct 'behavior systems'. Unlike many behavior systems that are widespread (e.g., anti-predator behavior, foraging, reproductio...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pellis SM,Pellis VC,Pelletier A,Leca JB

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Polyethism in social interactions in ants.

    abstract::Worker ants, which perform various tasks in their society (division of labour or polyethism), also demonstrate different types of antennal activity in trophallactic interactions. These differences concern the variability in successions of behavioural units performed by the worker in the course of substance transmissio...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bonavita-Cougourdan A,Morel L

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Being a weakling and surviving: Keep the fittest siblings close-by when eating.

    abstract::Weaklings serve as a buffer, allowing an increase in the overall prospect of offspring survival. Whereas birds are able to directly determine which offspring to invest in via selective feeding, multiparous mammals have fewer methods of excluding weaklings from milk provision. In pigs the maternal investment strategy i...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Skok J

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Choice of timeout from fixed-time schedules: Comparison of two procedures.

    abstract::Four rats obtained food on fixed-time (FT) 1-, 4-, and 16-min schedules. During FT schedules, a lever press produced a timeout period during which food could not be delivered. When timeout was in effect, a lever press ended the timeout period and reinstated the FT schedule. In different conditions, the timing of the F...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lydersen T

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Hunger and satiety determine foraging decissions in land snails: Evidence from the invasive species Theba pisana.

    abstract::The foraging behaviour of gastropod molluscs usually involves complex decisions that provide a model for the study of high-order cognitive processes. Land snails tested for food-finding in the laboratory, however, have shown an invariable feeding pattern: novel foods are mostly missed (i.e. just found by chance) whils...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez M,Álvarez B,Loy I

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of extinction in multiple contexts on renewal of instrumental responses.

    abstract::In two experiments with rats, we investigated the effects of using multiple contexts during extinction on renewal of lever-pressing behavior. During the first phase of both experiments, rats were reinforced to press a lever for food in Context A. Then, responses underwent extinction. For half of the animals, extinctio...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernal-Gamboa R,Nieto J,Uengoer M

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • A test of the reward-contrast hypothesis.

    abstract::Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated...

    journal_title:Behavioural processes

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dalecki SJ,Panoz-Brown DE,Crystal JD

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00