Treatment of oral leukoplakia with a low-dose of beta-carotene and vitamin C supplements: a randomized controlled trial.


:Management of oral leukoplakia-a potentially malignant disorder-is currently not evidence-based. Of the few randomized trials that have been reported, most have negative data. Therefore, a multi-centre, randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the use of low-dose beta-carotene combined with vitamin C supplements for the treatment and to prevent malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. 46 Japanese participants with oral leukoplakia were allocated randomly either to an experimental arm (10 mg day(-1) of beta-carotene and 500 mg day(-1) of vitamin C) or placebo arm (50 mg day(-1) of vitamin C). Current or ex-smokers within 3 months of cessation were excluded. The supplements were continued over a period of 1 year. The primary endpoint was clinical remission at 1-year and the likelihood of malignant transformation during a 5-year follow-up period as a secondary endpoint. The overall clinical response rate in the experimental arm was 17.4% (4/23) and 4.3% (1/23) in the placebo arm (p = 0.346). During the median 60-month follow-up period, two subjects in the experimental arm and three in the control arm developed oral cancer. Under the intention-to-treat principle, relative risk by supplementing with beta-carotene and vitamin C was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.28-1.89) (p = 0.580) by the Cox proportional hazards model. No unfavorable side-effects were noted. Beta-carotene (10 mg day(-1) ) and vitamin C were neither effective for clinical remission, nor for protection against the development of cancer. Data from this RCT does not support the hypothesis that chemoprevention with this treatment is effective for oral leukoplakia.


Int J Cancer


Nagao T,Warnakulasuriya S,Nakamura T,Kato S,Yamamoto K,Fukano H,Suzuki K,Shimozato K,Hashimoto S




Has Abstract


2015-04-01 00:00:00












  • Population-based prevalence, type- and age-specific distribution of HPV in women before introduction of an HPV-vaccination program in Denmark.

    abstract::Knowledge about the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on a population level is important. We conducted a large population-based study in Denmark to determine the overall and age-specific HPV prevalence, and HPV type distribution in women. Liquid-based cytology samples (SurePath) were collected consecutively. HP...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kjaer SK,Breugelmans G,Munk C,Junge J,Watson M,Iftner T

    更新日期:2008-10-15 00:00:00

  • Oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in women.

    abstract::Evidence from epidemiologic studies suggests a possible role of exogenous and endogenous hormones in colorectal carcinogenesis in women. However, with respect to exogenous hormones, in contrast to hormone replacement therapy, few cohort studies have examined oral contraceptive use in relation to colorectal cancer risk...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kabat GC,Miller AB,Rohan TE

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • A novel circulating tumor cell subpopulation for treatment monitoring and molecular characterization in biliary tract cancer.

    abstract::In biliary tract cancer (BTC), tissue biopsies to guide treatment are rarely feasible, thus implementing liquid biopsy approaches to improve patient management represents a priority. So far, studies on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in BTC are insufficient to promote their use in patient clinical management and are li...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reduzzi C,Vismara M,Silvestri M,Celio L,Niger M,Peverelli G,De Braud F,Daidone MG,Cappelletti V

    更新日期:2020-06-15 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic effects of monoclonal antibody G250, interferons and tumor necrosis factor, in mice with renal-cell carcinoma xenografts.

    abstract::Because renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered relatively resistant to radio- and chemotherapy, RCC patients may benefit from new treatment modalities, e.g. immunotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that combinations of cytokines such as interferon gamma or interferon alpha (IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha) and tumor...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Dijk J,Uemura H,Beniers AJ,Peelen WP,Zegveld ST,Fleuren GJ,Warnaar SO,Oosterwijk E

    更新日期:1994-01-15 00:00:00

  • GC-binding factor 2 interacts with dishevelled and regulates Wnt signaling pathways in human carcinoma cell lines.

    abstract::GC-binding factor 2 (GCF2), a transcriptional repressor that decreases the activity of several genes is capable of binding directly to the GC-rich sequence of the EGFR promoter and repressing the transcriptional activity of EGFR. In addition to its function as a transcriptional repressor, GCF2 can directly interact wi...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohtsuka H,Oikawa M,Ariake K,Rikiyama T,Motoi F,Katayose Y,Unno M,Johnson AC

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • ZD6474 inhibits tumor growth and intraperitoneal dissemination in a highly metastatic orthotopic gastric cancer model.

    abstract::Angiogenesis inhibitors have been used to treat some cancers, but the therapeutic potential of these agents for gastric cancer has remained unclear. To investigate their therapeutic potential, we examined the effect of ZD6474, an agent that selectively targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2; KD...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arao T,Yanagihara K,Takigahira M,Takeda M,Koizumi F,Shiratori Y,Nishio K

    更新日期:2006-01-15 00:00:00

  • Human hepatic and renal microsomes, cytochromes P450 1A1/2, NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase and prostaglandin H synthase mediate the formation of aristolochic acid-DNA adducts found in patients with urothelial cancer.

    abstract::Aristolochic acid (AA), a naturally occurring nephrotoxin and carcinogen, has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans. Understanding which human enzymes are involved in AA activation and/or detoxication is important in the assessment of an individual's susceptibility to this plant carcinoge...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stiborová M,Frei E,Hodek P,Wiessler M,Schmeiser HH

    更新日期:2005-01-10 00:00:00

  • Optimum beam angles for the conformal treatment of lung cancer: a CT simulation study.

    abstract::Treatment of lung cancer is often performed with cone-down oblique beams to spare spinal cord and normal structures. However, there is no optimum technique to determine oblique beam angles when a CT simulation is not available. Impact of oblique beam angle was investigated in this study. Fifteen patients with centrall...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Das IJ,Cheng EC,Anderson PR,Movsas B

    更新日期:2000-12-20 00:00:00

  • Ly-6C+ natural T (NT) cells mediate immune surveillance against NK-sensitive and NK-resistant transplantable tumours in certain strains of mice.

    abstract::We have previously shown that anti-Ly-6C monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2B6-F2 identifies a subset of (CBA +/- C57BL/6)F1 splenic NK-1.1+ natural T (NT) cells which kill the NK-sensitive YAC-1 target in vitro. Furthermore, these Ly-6C+ cells are responsible for 40-50% of in vitro YAC-1 killing in all mouse strains tested. ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martiniello R,Burton RC,Smart YC

    更新日期:1996-05-16 00:00:00

  • Expression of MaTu-MN protein in human tumor cultures and in clinical specimens.

    abstract::MaTu is a novel agent which may be of relevance in human oncogenesis, and has 2 components. One of them, the exogenous MX (coding for protein p58X), is transmissible to human fibroblasts, to HeLa and to HeLa x fibroblast (H/F) hybrids. The other component, MN, is a cellular gene. Its product, the protein p54/58N, is i...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Závada J,Závadová Z,Pastoreková S,Ciampor F,Pastorek J,Zelník V

    更新日期:1993-05-08 00:00:00

  • Effects of peroxisome proliferators and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate on intercellular communication and connexin43 in two hamster fibroblast systems.

    abstract::Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and the hepatic peroxisome proliferators (HPPs) clofibrate, methyl clofenapate (MCP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) were studied in 2 gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) systems, metabolic cooperation in V79 ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cruciani V,Mikalsen SO,Vasseur P,Sanner T

    更新日期:1997-10-09 00:00:00

  • Next-generation sequencing reveals a novel role of lysine-specific demethylase 1 in adhesion of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    abstract::Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a histone lysine demethylase with the main specificity for H3K4me2, has been shown to be overexpressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumor samples. However, its role in RMS biology is not yet well understood. Here, we identified a new role of LSD1 in regulating adhesion of RMS cells. ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haydn T,Kehr S,Willmann D,Metzger E,Schüle R,Fulda S

    更新日期:2020-06-15 00:00:00

  • Antibody-induced growth inhibition is mediated through immunochemically and functionally distinct epitopes on the extracellular domain of the c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) gene product p185.

    abstract::Over-expression of the c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) gene product p185 occurs in 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. The p185 protein might serve as a target for serotherapy in that antibodies against different epitopes on the extracellular domain of p185 can inhibit growth of tumor cells in the absence of cellular or humoral e...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu F,Lupu R,Rodriguez GC,Whitaker RS,Boente MP,Berchuck A,Yu Y,DeSombre KA,Boyer CM,Bast RC Jr

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Histo-blotting: hybridization in situ detection of specific RNAs on tissue sections transferred on nitrocellulose.

    abstract::A simple and rapid variant of in situ hybridization on tissue sections (histo-blotting) usable for detection of specific RNA distribution among tissues is proposed. Tissue sections prepared with a cryostatic microtome are placed on nitrocellulose and these "histo-blots" are hybridized with labelled DNA or RNA probes u...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gudkov AV,Kashkin KN,Zaitsevskaya TE,Troyanovsky SM

    更新日期:1989-12-15 00:00:00

  • Laryngeal cancer mortality trends in European countries.

    abstract::After a steady increase between the 1950s and the 1970s, laryngeal cancer mortality has been levelling off since the early 1980s in men from most western and southern European countries and since the early 1990s in central and eastern Europe. To update trends in laryngeal cancer mortality, we analyzed data provided by...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chatenoud L,Garavello W,Pagan E,Bertuccio P,Gallus S,La Vecchia C,Negri E,Bosetti C

    更新日期:2016-02-15 00:00:00

  • Kinetics of the immune response of tumor-bearing hamsters to two simian virus 40 coded non-structural polypeptides present in simian virus 40 tumor cells.

    abstract::The kinetics of the immune response of hamsters transplanted with virus-free SV40 tumor cells (TSV5) to two SV40-coded non-structural proteins of 94,000 daltons (T antigen) and 17,000 daltons (t antigen) was studied in order to determine if the variation in the immune reactivity of serum from tumor-bearing animals tow...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ransom JH,Thompson DL,Tevethia SS

    更新日期:1982-02-15 00:00:00

  • Serological survey and virus isolation of simian T-cell leukemia/T-lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-I) in non-human primates in their native countries.

    abstract::Infection with a simian retrovirus (STLV-I) closely related to human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) was investigated in non-human primates living in their native countries in Africa and Asia. Serum antibodies cross-reacting with HTLV-I antigens were detected in 85 of 567 non-human primates of 30 species. Seropos...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishikawa K,Fukasawa M,Tsujimoto H,Else JG,Isahakia M,Ubhi NK,Ishida T,Takenaka O,Kawamoto Y,Shotake T

    更新日期:1987-08-15 00:00:00

  • Gastrointestinal toxicity during induction treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The impact of the gut microbiota.

    abstract::Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of chemotherapy leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and increased risk of infections. The intestinal microbiota has been recognized as a key regulator of mucosal immune responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that intestinal microbial changes would be associated with enterocy...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Pietri S,Ingham AC,Frandsen TL,Rathe M,Krych L,Castro-Mejía JL,Nielsen DS,Nersting J,Wehner PS,Schmiegelow K,Hasle H,Pamp SJ,Müller K

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine gene therapy can induce efficient anti-tumor effects and protective immunity in immunocompetent mice but not in athymic nude mice.

    abstract::Murine hepatocellular carcinoma cells were retrovirally transduced with the bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) gene. CD-transduced cells exhibited more than 120-fold higher sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) compared with parental cells. When syngeneic immunocompetent mice were inoculated s.c. with parental hepatoc...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuriyama S,Kikukawa M,Masui K,Okuda H,Nakatani T,Sakamoto T,Yoshiji H,Fukui H,Ikenaka K,Mullen CA,Tsujii T

    更新日期:1999-05-17 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of the Rhesus-negative phenotype in Caucasian patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

    abstract::We report that the Rhesus (Rh)-negative phenotype is more prevalent in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) than in the normal Caucasian population (SCLC: 25% Rh-negative vs. 15% expected, p less than 0.0001). This finding has been validated for a Central and a Northern European population (Switzerland and UK)....

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cerny T,Fey MF,Oppliger R,Castiglione M,Nachbur B,Gertsch M,Gasser A,Joss RA,Thatcher N,Lind M

    更新日期:1992-09-30 00:00:00

  • Direct cytolysis by partially-purified preparations of immune interferon.

    abstract::Mouse IFN gamma preparations purified 30-fold were found to have direct cytolytic activity against a number of tumor and normal cells. Cell killing was determined using a sensitive, rapid and accurate assay which employed very low numbers of cells and very small quantities of interferon. The cytolytic activity of IFN ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tyring S,Klimpel GR,Fleischmann WR Jr,Baron S

    更新日期:1982-07-15 00:00:00

  • Immortalization of oral keratinocytes by functional inactivation of the p53 and pRb pathways.

    abstract::A subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) contains high-risk human papillomavirus-type 16 (HPV16). The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins inactivate the p53 and pRb proteins, respectively. We examined the causative effect of HPV16 E6 and E7 expression on the immortalization of normal oral keratinocytes (...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smeets SJ,van der Plas M,Schaaij-Visser TB,van Veen EA,van Meerloo J,Braakhuis BJ,Steenbergen RD,Brakenhoff RH

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • The roles of PAD2- and PAD4-mediated protein citrullination catalysis in cancers.

    abstract::Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues on target proteins in the presence of calcium ions. This elaborate type of posttranslational modification is termed citrullination. PADs may regulate gene transcriptional activity via histone citrullination. There ha...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang Y,Chen R,Gan Y,Ying S

    更新日期:2021-01-15 00:00:00

  • Adolescent and mid-life diet and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    abstract::Although thyroid cancer is suspected to have a nutritional etiology, prospective studies examining the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer are lacking. During 1996-1997, NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study participants, ages 51-72 years, completed a 37-item food frequency questionnaire about diet at ages 12-13 yea...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Braganza MZ,Potischman N,Park Y,Thompson FE,Hollenbeck AR,Kitahara CM

    更新日期:2015-11-15 00:00:00

  • Evidence of enhancement of the ras oncogene protein product (p21) in a spectrum of human tumors.

    abstract::Using a direct binding liquid competition radioimmunoassay, the amount of the ras oncogene protein product, p21, was quantitated in a variety of human tumors and adjacent apparently normal tissues. In 48 of 50 matched tumor and normal tissue biopsy specimens from 50 patients, more ras p21 was detected in the tumor tha...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Biasi F,Del Sal G,Hand PH

    更新日期:1989-03-15 00:00:00

  • KLF5 promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis through gene regulation and the TSU-Pr1 human bladder cancer cell line.

    abstract::KLF5 is a transcription factor that plays important roles in multiple physical and pathological processes, including cell growth, cell cycle regulation, and angiogenesis. To better characterize KLF5 function in bladder carcinogenesis, we established stable TSU-Pr1 cell clones expressing different levels of KLF5. These...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen C,Benjamin MS,Sun X,Otto KB,Guo P,Dong XY,Bao Y,Zhou Z,Cheng X,Simons JW,Dong JT

    更新日期:2006-03-15 00:00:00

  • Proteasome inhibition with bortezomib suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma.

    abstract::Osteosarcomas are primary bone tumors of osteoblastic origin that mostly affect adolescent patients. These tumors are highly aggressive and metastatic. Previous reports indicate that gain of function of a key osteoblastic differentiation factor, Runx2, leads to growth inhibition in osteosarcoma. We have previously est...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shapovalov Y,Benavidez D,Zuch D,Eliseev RA

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Targeting FAK scaffold functions inhibits human renal cell carcinoma growth.

    abstract::Human conventional renal cell carcinoma (CCC) remains resistant to current therapies. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is upregulated in many epithelial tumors and clearly implicated in nearly all facets of cancer. However, only few reports have assessed whether FAK may be associated with renal tumorigenesis. In this study...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Béraud C,Dormoy V,Danilin S,Lindner V,Béthry A,Hochane M,Coquard C,Barthelmebs M,Jacqmin D,Lang H,Massfelder T

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of established human carcinoma cell lines for lymphoreticular-associated membrane receptors.

    abstract::Thirty-one different long-term established human carcinoma culture cell lines were examined for the presence or absence of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) ("Fc receptors"), the third component of complement (C3 receptors), sheep erythrocytes and mouse erythrocytes. Included in the catalogue of l...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kerbel RS,Pross HF,Leibovitz A

    更新日期:1977-11-15 00:00:00

  • Paracrine regulation of glioma cells invasion by astrocytes is mediated by glial-derived neurotrophic factor.

    abstract::It was suggested that the brain microenvironment plays a role in glioma progression. Here we investigate the mechanism by which astrocytes which are abundant in glioma tumors, promote cancer cell invasion. In this study, we evaluated the effects of astrocytes on glioma biology both in vitro and in vivo and determined ...

    journal_title:International journal of cancer

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shabtay-Orbach A,Amit M,Binenbaum Y,Na'ara S,Gil Z

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00