210Po and 210Pb inhalation by cigarette smoking in Italy.


:210Po and its precursor 210Pb in cigarette smoke contribute a significant radiation dose to the lungs of smokers. In this work, the concentration of 210Po was determined in 17 of the most frequently smoked cigarette brands in Italy. Samples of tobacco, fresh filters, ash, and post-smoking filters were analyzed; 210Po was determined by alpha spectrometry after its spontaneous deposition on a silver disk. To verify the radioactive equilibrium between 210Po and 210Pb, lead was determined in one tobacco sample by counting the beta activity of its decay product 210Bi with a gas flow proportional detector after separation. The results of the present study show 210Po concentrations ranged from 6.84 to 17.49 mBq per cigarette. Based on these results, smokers who smoke 20 cigarettes per day inhale, on average, 79.53 +/- 28.65 mBq d(-1) of 210Po and 210Pb each. The mean value of the annual committed effective dose for Italian smokers, calculated by applying the dose conversion factor for adults of 4.3 microSv Bq(-1) for 210Po and 5.6 microSv Bq(-1) for 210Pb, was estimated to be 124.8 and 162.6 microSv y(-1) for 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. The lung dose from inhalation of cigarette smoke is much higher than the lung dose from inhalation of atmospheric 210Po and 210Pb.


Health Phys


Health physics


Desideri D,Meli MA,Feduzi L,Roselli C




Has Abstract


2007-01-01 00:00:00














  • Rapid radiation dose assessment for radiological public health emergencies: roles of NIAID and BARDA.

    abstract::A large-scale radiological incident would result in an immediate critical need to assess the radiation doses received by thousands of individuals to allow for prompt triage and appropriate medical treatment. Measuring absorbed doses of ionizing radiation will require a system architecture or a system of platforms that...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grace MB,Moyer BR,Prasher J,Cliffer KD,Ramakrishnan N,Kaminski J,Coleman CN,Manning RG,Maidment BW,Hatchett R

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    abstract::The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by prov...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson DA,Mohr LC,Frey GD,Lackland D,Hoel DG

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    abstract::The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generate...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Napier BA,Schmieman EA,Voitsekovitch O

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • A Monte Carlo approach to assessing 147Pm in the liver of the adult phantom.

    abstract::A low-background phoswich detector is used to detect small amounts of 147Pm--a pure beta-emitting nuclide--present in the liver of an occupational worker. The assessment was based on the measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation produced by the beta particles in the tissue. Computer programs based on Monte Carlo techniq...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhati S

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • On the reduction of error in alpha track detector measurements of indoor 222Rn.

    abstract::Small plastic chambers containing alpha track detectors are often used for measuring indoor concentrations of 222Rn. This paper reports an experimental assessment of sources of error in measurements made with alpha track detector-containing chambers. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a nondestructive test for...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dudney CS,Wilson DL,Bertini H,Gammage RB,Otten JA

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    abstract::RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contamina...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng JJ,Kassas B,Yu C,Amish J,LePoire D,Chen SY,Williams WA,Wallo A,Peterson H

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Light water reactor health physics.

    abstract::In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexit...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Prince RJ,Bradley SE

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Medical preparedness for Radiation Emergency for the Olympic Games, Beijing 2008.

    abstract::Facing the challenge from terrorism, separatism, and extremism, China spared no effort to be prepared for every possible threat in order to host a safe Olympic Games. According to its statutory role, the Ministry of Health (MOH) is in charge of medical preparedness and response for radiological and nuclear emergencies...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu Y,Lei C,Qin B,Chen H,Su X

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fallout 239/240Pu and 238Pu in human tissues from the Federal Republic of Germany.

    abstract::To determine the present level of plutonium in human tissues of people in the F.R.G., due solely to fallout from weapons testing, 30 sets of tissues and bones from Munich residents were obtained at autopsy. Each set of tissues consisted of the entire lung, the entire liver, 300 g vertebrae, 300 g ribs and the lymph no...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bunzl K,Kracke W

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • The beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans.

    abstract::The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singh NP,Zimmerman CJ,Taylor GN,Wrenn ME

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of the natural radioactivity in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte.

    abstract::Fifty-one soil samples were collected to a depth of 30 cm in the central and eastern region of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte. Concentrations of background radionuclides in soil samples were determined by gamma ray spectrometry with an HPGe detector. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in t...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malanca A,Pessina V,Dallara G

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Modeling the Optimum Prussian Blue Treatment for Acute Radiation Syndrome Following 137Cs Ingestion.

    abstract::Accidents or radiological attacks may lead to ingestion of Cs by large numbers of the public. This work models the efficacy of Prussian blue, the medical countermeasure for internal contamination with Cs, to prevent acute radiation syndrome as a function of the duration of treatment and the time that treatment starts ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adams TG,Casagrande R

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preliminary lung cancer risk assessment of exposure to radon progeny for Transylvania, Romania.

    abstract::The objective of the present study was to assess the lung cancer risk induced by exposures to radon progeny of people living in some areas of Transylvania, Romania. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 667 dwellings of Stei area, Cluj, Bistrita-Nasaud, Sibiu, and Alba counties. Measurements were performed usin...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Truta-Popa LA,Dinu A,Dicu T,Szacsvai K,Cosma C,Hofmann W

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of 99Tc: can it represent a risk to man?

    abstract::The movement through the environment and the toxicity to plants of 99Tc have been studied. However, information is scanty on 99Tc toxicity to mammals even though this is the decisive criterion for assessing the consequences of releases of Tc. A critical tissue could be the thyroid because of its preferential accumulat...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerber GB,Hegela M,Vankerkom J,Kirchmann R,Maisin JR,Lambiet-Collier M

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • A new approach to a site radiological control manual.

    abstract::The Pantex Plant significantly revised its Radiological Control Manual to improve its usability, streamline plant procedures, and clarify conflicting guidance. This article overviews the process used to develop the new Radiological Control Manual. ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farrell LM

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Power-frequency magnetic fields from electric blankets.

    abstract::Power-frequency (50/60 Hz) magnetic fields produced by electric blankets are estimated from data on blanket design using a three-dimensional computer model. Maximum, minimum, and volume-average fields within human forms are presented as a function of blanket type and a number of geometric factors including body size, ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Florig HK,Hoburg JF

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Decay Chain Deduction of Uranium Fission Products.

    abstract::Delayed gamma spectrum is the fingerprint of uranium materials in arms control verification technology. The decay chain is simplified into basic state linear chain and excitation state linear chain to calculate and analyze the delayed gamma spectra of fission products. Formulas of the changing rule for nuclide number ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo H,Tian C,Wang X,Lv N,Ma M,Wei Y

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium.

    abstract::This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational worke...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hill RL,Johnson JR

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • One-dimensional Spatial Distributions of Gamma-ray Emitting Contaminants in Field Lysimeters Using a Collimated Gamma-ray Spectroscopy System.

    abstract::One-dimensional scans of gamma-ray emitting contaminants were conducted on lysimeters from the RadFLEX facility at the Savannah River Nationals Laboratory (SRNL). The lysimeters each contained a contamination source that was buried in SRNL soil. A source consisted of Cs, Co, Ba, and Eu incorporated either into a solid...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erdmann BJ,Powell BA,Kaplan DI,DeVol TA

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system.

    abstract::A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stinson MC,Green BL,Marquardt CJ,Ducatman AM

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • Radon release from building materials in Hong Kong.

    abstract::Indoor 222Rn in high-rise buildings originates inside the building materials, then diffuses gradually through the intergranular spaces of the material into the room atmosphere. Therefore, the radionuclide contents and the physical properties of the building materials are important for indoor 222Rn levels in Hong Kong....

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tso MY,Ng CY,Leung JK

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Radiation safety considerations for the use of ²²³RaCl₂ DE in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    abstract::The majority of patients with late stage castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) develop bone metastases that often result in significant bone pain. Therapeutic palliation strategies can delay or prevent skeletal complications and may prolong survival. An alpha-particle based therapy, radium-223 dichloride (²²³RaC...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dauer LT,Williamson MJ,Humm J,O'Donoghue J,Ghani R,Awadallah R,Carrasquillo J,Pandit-Taskar N,Aksnes AK,Biggin C,Reinton V,Morris M,St Germain J

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Fractional absorption of ingested uranium in humans.

    abstract::This paper provides a review and reanalysis of data relating to gastrointestinal (GI) uptake of uranium in humans. Estimates of GI uptake of uranium in adult humans have been derived from results of three controlled experimental studies involving short-term oral intake of an elevated quantity of uranium in fluids, fro...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Leggett RW,Harrison JD

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • BOMAB phantom variability: do small dimensional changes matter?

    abstract::The Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) has had a number of BOMAB phantoms built over the years. Upon characterization, it has been found that the dimensions of the phantoms are always slightly different. This study has looked at the effect of these small variances in dimensions of the phantoms and compared the results ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kramer GH,Hauck BM,Dang S,Capello K

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Projected Cancer Risks to Residents of New Mexico from Exposure to Trinity Radioactive Fallout.

    abstract::The Trinity nuclear test, conducted in 1945, exposed residents of New Mexico to varying degrees of radioactive fallout. Companion papers in this issue have detailed the results of a dose reconstruction that has estimated tissue-specific radiation absorbed doses to residents of New Mexico from internal and external exp...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cahoon EK,Zhang R,Simon SL,Bouville A,Pfeiffer RM

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a technique for separating organic material from mineral bone in individuals occupationally exposed to Pu.

    abstract::The shaft portion of the left femur from an individual occupationally exposed to Pu was used to investigate the suitability of an ethylenediamine extraction technique to separate mineral bone from organic material. Marrow in the lumen was removed before the extraction technique was used and was analyzed separately for...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miglio JJ,Willis LC

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Incineration and monitoring of low-level 3H and 14C wastes at a biological research institution.

    abstract::Low-level radioactive waste containing liquid scintillation fluid and known amounts of 14C and 3H has been incinerated in a modified pathological incinerator with the incinerator effluent, refractory surface and ash being monitored. The study relates the activity monitored to that incinerated and discusses how this re...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamrick PE,Knapp SJ,Parker MG,Watson JE Jr

    更新日期:1986-10-01 00:00:00

  • Development of an improved dosimetry system for the workers at the Mayak Production Association.

    abstract::Databases are being created that contain verified and updated dosimetry and worker history information for workers at the Mayak Production Association. Many workers had significant external and internal exposures, particularly during the early years (1948-1952) of operation. These dosimetric and worker history data ar...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khokhryakov V,Suslova K,Aladova E,Vasilenko E,Miller SC,Slaughter DM,Krahenbuhl MP

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Non-invasive measurement of water content in lung phantom by neutrons: latest improvements to the technique.

    abstract::The novel technique for measuring the water content in lungs based on the slowing down of fast neutrons has been improved making possible its clinical use on patients. This goal has been reached by performing computer simulations that closely mimic the experimental setup and by acquiring a new set of measurements obta...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campi F,Dionigi F

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Microdosimetric-based risk factors for radiation received in space activities during a trip to Mars.

    abstract::A system for evaluating quality factors, Q, based on the microdosimetric distribution of the radiation field of interest has been set up; it makes use of a specific quality function (SQF) to obtain--given microdosimetric spectra--values for Q. The advantages of a system based on lineal energy are well recognized. Furt...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaider M

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00