Radiocesium contamination at a steel plant in Ireland.

Abstract:

:Radioactive sources have been inadvertently incorporated into consignments of scrap metal in various locations throughout the world. In 1990, a 3.7 GBq 137 Cs source, due for transfer from a Scottish industrial establishment to one in England, was mistakenly included in a scrap consignment destined for Irish Steel, a metal recycling plant in County Cork in the Republic of Ireland. Unaware of the presence of the source, Irish Steel smelted this consignment in the usual manner. This involved separation of some non-ferrous materials which were then exported, in pellet form, To Pasminco Europe (now Britannia Zinc Ltd.) in Avonmouth, U.K. The presence of 137 Cs contamination in these pellets was detected by the U.K. company in the course of a routine radiation survey. Irish Steel carried out extensive decontamination of its plant, placing the contaminated dust in secure storage. The company has equipped itself with radiation detection devices which monitor incoming scrap. Outgoing products and furnace dust are also monitored on a routine basis. While this incident was of negligible radiological significance as far as personnel were concerned, the financial cost to Irish Steel have been substantial. It highlights the need for surveillance, by national competent authorities, of the movement of radioactive sources from production through use to final disposal.

journal_name

Health Phys

journal_title

Health physics

authors

O'Grady JO,Hone C,Turvey FJ

doi

10.1097/00004032-199604000-00017

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1996-04-01 00:00:00

pages

568-72

issue

4

eissn

0017-9078

issn

1538-5159

journal_volume

70

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Twelve years of follow up of cases with old 241Am internal contamination.

    abstract::A group of workers internally contaminated with Am have been followed for about 12 years. The source of contamination was AmO2 powder used for production of AmBe neutron sources and other applications. The production of some radionuclide sources included chemical treatment of the original material, which transformed t...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e3181d18e2e

    authors: Malátová I,Vrba T,Becková V,Pospísilová H

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm aerosols in beagles: effect of aerosol chemical form.

    abstract::This study was designed to provide tissue distribution data of 244Cm that was inhaled by beagle dogs. Two chemical forms that were presumed to bracket the solubility of pure Cm compounds in vivo were used: 244Cm2O3 (oxide) and 244Cm(NO3)3 (nitrate). Adult dogs of both sexes received a single brief pernasal exposure to...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198812000-00007

    authors: Guilmette RA,Kanapilly GM

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Retention and dosimetry of 106Ru inhaled along with inert particles by Fischer-344 rats.

    abstract::This study was done to provide data useful for predicting the deposition, retention and radiation dose patterns for humans who might be exposed to an aerosol containing 106RuO4 and respirable particles. Ruthenium-106 tetroxide was introduced into air containing inert particles. The inert particles were monodisperse. 0...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198304000-00003

    authors: Snipes MB,Kanapilly GM

    更新日期:1983-04-01 00:00:00

  • A proposed method to minimize waste from institutional radiation safety surveillance programs through the application of expected value statistics.

    abstract::Institutional radiation safety programs routinely use wipe test sampling and liquid scintillation counting analysis to indicate the presence of removable radioactive contamination. Significant volumes of liquid waste can be generated by such surveillance activities, and the subsequent disposal of these materials can s...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199703000-00016

    authors: Emery RJ

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Trends in radiation protection of medical workers.

    abstract::Medical workers constitute the largest group of individuals occupationally exposed to radiation, and their collective dose equivalent is exceeded only by persons employed in the nuclear fuel cycle. Although medical workers have increased in number by about 50% over the past two decades, their collective dose has stead...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199003000-00002

    authors: Hendee WR,Edwards FM

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison between gross and net count methods when searching for orphan radioactive sources.

    abstract::Different numerical strategies in searching for orphan radioactive sources in the environment by means of a mobile detector system have been evaluated. A carborne 3- by 3-inch NaI(Tl) spectrometric system was used with an unshielded 2 GBq 137Cs source as a test source. In this paper, a previous method (MB method), bas...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200302000-00008

    authors: Hjerpe T,Samuelsson C

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnosis of acute localized irradiation lesions: review of the French experimental experience.

    abstract::In the last 50 years several radiation accidents occurred in which industrial radiographers and others suffered severe radiation injuries from inadvertent contact with radiation sources. Such accidents involving acute localized injuries are characterized by a severe initial reaction progressing through erythema to ski...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199810000-00003

    authors: Lefaix JL,Daburon F

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in heather honey and its dependence on deposition patterns.

    abstract::Gamma-ray spectra were measured from Scottish heather honey samples gathered from hive locations with associated airborne gamma-ray survey data. The honeys all contained radiocesium, with activity concentrations ranging from 43-680 Bq kg(-1) 137Cs, and 134Cs/137Cs ratios consistent with Chernobyl deposition. Activity ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199910000-00011

    authors: Fisk S,Sanderson DC

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Kinetic model of the distribution of 239Pu in the beagle skeleton.

    abstract::A model is presented to analyze the retention of Pu in the major deposition organs of the beagle dog and predict the dynamic behavior of skeletal labels. The kinetic part describing the gross organ distribution was represented by a compartment model. A fit to empirical retention equations of liver and skeleton yielded...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198909000-00011

    authors: Polig E

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of four aqueous-miscible liquid scintillation cocktails with an alpha/beta discriminating Wallac 1415 liquid scintillation counter.

    abstract::This work was directed towards an assessment of alpha/beta separation, alpha detection efficiency, energy resolution, quench sensitivity, and background count rate for four commercially available liquid scintillation cocktails using a Wallac 1415 liquid scintillation counter. The four cocktails were Wallac Oy OptiPhas...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199601000-00007

    authors: DeVol TA,Brown DD,Leyba JD,Fjeld RA

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro dissolution of respirable aerosols of industrial uranium and plutonium mixed-oxide nuclear fuels.

    abstract::Dissolution characteristics of mixed-oxide nuclear fuels are important considerations for prediction of biological behavior of inhaled particles. Four representative industrial mixed-oxide powders were obtained from fuel fabrication enclosures. Studies of the dissolution of Pu, Am and U from aerosol particles of these...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198312000-00001

    authors: Eidson AF,Mewhinney JA

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Chernobyl and Goiânia lessons for responding to radiological terrorism.

    abstract::The deployment of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is likely to result in relatively low radiation exposure of the targeted population, insufficient to cause a severe radiation detriment. Nevertheless, due to atmospheric dispersion of the radioactive material, an urban area equaling several city blocks could be a...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/01.hp.0000178545.02726.21

    authors: Steinhausler F

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Assuring the safety of medical diagnostic ultrasound.

    abstract::In 1980, the NCRP formed Scientific Committee 66 with an assignment to address the subject of "biological effects of ultrasound and exposure criteria." It was recognized that the primary source of exposure to ultrasound was through medical applications and, especially, through procedures employing diagnostic ultrasoun...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type:

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200205000-00004

    authors: Nyborg WL

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Non-linear radionuclide transfer from the aquatic environment to fish.

    abstract::Uptake of 226Ra, 232Th, 230Th, and 228Th from water, sediment, and diet sources to bone and muscle of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) was studied in sixteen lakes in the uranium-mining district of Ontario, Canada. Fish tissues did not increase linearly with environmental concentrations. The best relationship app...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199709000-00007

    authors: Pyle GG,Clulow FV

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Retinal damage from intense visible light.

    abstract::Studies of laboratory animal retinal exposure to green monochromatic laser radiation show an increasing stability of tissue with increasing pulse duration up to 10(-1) s. This mechanism of biological response of the eye to light damage is fundamental to living systems. It does not manifest itself in animals under deep...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198905000-00004

    authors: Zheltov G,Glazkov V,Podol'tzef A,Linnik L,Privalov A

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • An experimental and mathematical analysis of lymphopoiesis dynamics under continuous irradiation.

    abstract::A mathematical model describing the dynamics of lymphopoiesis in mammals continuously exposed to ionizing radiation has been developed. It is based on the theory of chalone regulation of hematopoiesis. The model comprises a system of nine differential equations. Results from the model were compared with our experiment...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199107000-00009

    authors: Zukhbaya TM,Smirnova OA

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • An updated radiation protection program prospectus based on 20 years of data describing program drivers and activities.

    abstract::In 1992, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSCH) Radiation Safety Program began assembling data on a monthly basis that described various program drivers and associated activities. At the end of calendar year 2002, a decade of data had been collected, so the information was summarized into a ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000130

    authors: Emery RJ,Gutierrez JM

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • A Radon Background-subtraction Algorithm for Electronic Personal Dosimeters.

    abstract::Many first responders are outfitted with electronic personal dosimeters to recognize and be alerted to radiological hazards during their response operations. These dosimeters provide invaluable measurement data for force protection, allowing the first responder to assess a response situation and take protective measur...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000001178

    authors: Fabian R,Bell J,Brandl A

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Considerations related to the decontamination of houses in Goiânia: limitations and implications.

    abstract::We are considering some aspects related to the decontamination activities of about 50 houses affected by 137Cs in Goiânia. We describe the way these contaminations occurred, the instruments used, and the procedures. We also discuss the dose limits established for decontamination and the consequences resulting from thi...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199101000-00014

    authors: da Silva CJ,Delgado JU,Luiz MT,Cunha PG,Barros PD

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modeling the outdoor environment--new perspectives and challenges.

    abstract::Assessing risk from manmade and naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment has long been of primary interest in radiation protection. Early investigations and decisions relied on direct measurements of radiation in environmental media; however, these techniques were inadequate for determining exposure to hum...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198808000-00027

    authors: Till JE

    更新日期:1988-08-01 00:00:00

  • Application of optically stimulated luminescence to the dosimetry of recent radiation events involving low total absorbed doses.

    abstract::We determined the suitability of optically stimulated recombination luminescence in quartz for low-level dosimetry of recent events such as radiation accidents. Minimum detectable doses were determined for both fired and unfired quartz. Using a single aliquot technique, good detection of doses on the order of 0.01 Gy ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199310000-00007

    authors: Godfrey-Smith DI,Haskell EH

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Preconceptional paternal exposure to depleted uranium: transmission of genetic damage to offspring.

    abstract::Depleted uranium (DU) is an alpha particle emitter and radioactive heavy metal used in military applications. Due to internalization of DU during military operations and the ensuing chronic internal exposure to DU, there are concerns regarding its potential health effects. Preconceptional paternal irradiation has been...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e3181cfe0dd

    authors: Miller AC,Stewart M,Rivas R

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports.

    abstract::This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199907000-00008

    authors: Waller EJ,Cole D

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Iodine-129 in mule deer thyroids in the Rocky Mountain West.

    abstract::Thyroids from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were collected in New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and Idaho and 129I/127I atom ratios were determined. Iodine-129/127 atom ratios were significantly (P less than 0.005) different among states. Ratios in Wyoming and Idaho control thyroids were significantly (P less than 0.05)...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198307000-00004

    authors: Markham OD,Hakonson TE,Whicker FW,Morton JS

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Radon entry into houses: the importance of scale-dependent permeability.

    abstract::Soil permeability to air can increase substantially with measurement length scale. We tested the hypothesis that the scale effect could resolve large model underpredictions of radon and soil-gas entry into two experimental basement structures located in natural sandy-loam soil at a field site in Ben Lomond, CA. Previo...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-199908000-00008

    authors: Garbesi K,Robinson AL,Sextro RG,Nazaroff WW

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis.

    abstract::Improved health effects models have been developed for assessing the early effects, late somatic effects and genetic effects that might result from low-LET radiation exposures to populations following a major accident in a nuclear power plant. All the models have been developed in such a way that the dynamics of popul...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-198904000-00001

    authors: Evans JS,Moeller DW

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • A new approach to a site radiological control manual.

    abstract::The Pantex Plant significantly revised its Radiological Control Manual to improve its usability, streamline plant procedures, and clarify conflicting guidance. This article overviews the process used to develop the new Radiological Control Manual. ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200202001-00007

    authors: Farrell LM

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • An approach to radiation safety department benchmarking in academic and medical facilities.

    abstract::Based on anecdotal evidence and networking with colleagues at other facilities, it has become evident that some radiation safety departments are not adequately staffed and radiation safety professionals need to increase their staffing levels. Discussions with management regarding radiation safety department staffing o...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000212

    authors: Harvey RP

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Lung counting: summing techniques to reduce the MDA.

    abstract::The new dose limits recently adopted in Canada (and elsewhere in the world) have made it more difficult to detect some radionuclides by in vivo counting at the average dose limit of 20 mSv. This is particularly true for natural uranium. Two techniques have been developed by the Human Monitoring Laboratory to reduce th...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/00004032-200308000-00012

    authors: Kramer GH,Hauck BM,Allen SA,Dantas BM,Dantas AL,Azeredo AM

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • WNA's worldwide overview on front-end nuclear fuel cycle growth and health, safety and environmental issues.

    abstract::This paper presents the WNA's worldwide nuclear industry overview on the anticipated growth of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to conversion and enrichment, and on the related key health, safety, and environmental (HSE) issues and challenges. It also puts an emphasis on uranium mining in new produ...

    journal_title:Health physics

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1097/HP.0b013e3181f5abcc

    authors: Saint-Pierre S,Kidd S

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00