Salience of emotional displays of danger and contagion in faces is enhanced when progesterone levels are raised.


:Findings from previous studies of hormone-mediated behavior in women suggest that raised progesterone level increases the probability of behaviors that will reduce the likelihood of disruption to fetal development during pregnancy (e.g. increased avoidance of sources of contagion). Here, we tested women's (N=52) sensitivity to potential cues to nearby sources of contagion (disgusted facial expressions with averted gaze) and nearby physical threat (fearful facial expressions with averted gaze) at two points in the menstrual cycle differing in progesterone level. Women demonstrated a greater tendency to perceive fearful and disgusted expressions with averted gaze as more intense than those with direct gaze when their progesterone level was relatively high. By contrast, change in progesterone level was not associated with any change in perceptions of happy expressions with direct and averted gaze, indicating that our findings for disgusted and fearful expressions were not due to a general response bias. Collectively, our findings suggest women are more sensitive to facial cues signalling nearby contagion and physical threat when raised progesterone level prepares the body for pregnancy.


Horm Behav


Hormones and behavior


Conway CA,Jones BC,DeBruine LM,Welling LL,Law Smith MJ,Perrett DI,Sharp MA,Al-Dujaili EA




Has Abstract


2007-02-01 00:00:00














  • Specificity and neural sites of action of anisomycin in the reduction or facilitation of female sexual behavior in rats.

    abstract::These experiments were designed to investigate the role of neuronal protein synthesis in the hormonal activation of female sexual behavior using intracranial implants of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. In the first experiment, female rats receiving bilateral cannulae implants in the medial preoptic area (...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meisel RL,Pfaff DW

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • A clinical/translational perspective: can a developmental hormone play a role in the treatment of traumatic brain injury?

    abstract::Despite decades of laboratory research and clinical trials, a safe and effective treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) has yet to be put into successful clinical use. I suggest that much of the problem can be attributed to a reductionist perspective and attendant research strategy directed to finding or designing...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stein DG

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cryptic sexual dimorphism in spatial memory and hippocampal oxytocin receptors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    abstract::Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed)...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rice MA,Hobbs LE,Wallace KJ,Ophir AG

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Digit ratio (2D:4D) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): Systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::The ratio of length between the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) is commonly used as an indicator of prenatal sex hormone exposure. Several approaches have been used to try to validate the measure, including examining 2D:4D in people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a suite of conditions characterised by el...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Richards G,Browne WV,Aydin E,Constantinescu M,Nave G,Kim MS,Watson SJ

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Central ghrelin receptor stimulation modulates sex motivation in male rats in a site dependent manner.

    abstract::Ghrelin, a hormone produced primarily by the stomach, has been associated with motivational processes that include reward-seeking behaviors. In male laboratory mice, elevation of ghrelin levels enhances some aspects of sexual motivation and behavior, whereas in other experiments with male mice, rats, and other species...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hyland L,Rosenbaum S,Edwards A,Palacios D,Graham MD,Pfaus JG,Woodside B,Abizaid A

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of estradiol and progesterone on pain sensitivity and brain opioid receptors in ovariectomized rats.

    abstract::Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that estradiol and progesterone affect beta-endorphin and Met-enkephalin levels in specific brain regions and that these effects are diurnally controlled. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of estradiol and progesterone on pain latency and brai...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gordon FT,Soliman MR

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Gonadal hormones in female rats protect against dehydration-induced memory impairments in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    abstract::Dehydration impairs cognitive performance in humans and rodents, although studies in animal models are limited. Estrogens have both protective effects on fluid regulation and improve performance in certain cognitive tasks. We, therefore, tested whether sex and gonadal hormones influence object recognition memory durin...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santollo J,Myers KE,Rainer IL,Edwards AA

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Female sexual attractiveness and sex recognition in leopard gecko: Males are indiscriminate courters.

    abstract::The nature and hormonal control of cues used for recognition of sex and reproductive status of conspecifics remain largely unstudied in reptiles. It has been proposed that production of a female attractiveness pheromone controlled by female ovarian hormones (and which is suppressed by male gonadal androgens) is necess...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schořálková T,Kratochvíl L,Kubička L

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of pregnancy on spatial cognition in female Hooded Long-Evans rats.

    abstract::Studies examining the roles of estrogens and progestins on spatial cognition have been highly contradictory. To determine if the hormonal environment of pregnancy affects spatial cognition, pregnant (n = 7) and virgin (n = 7) Hooded Long-Evans rats were tested in a Morris water maze throughout the 3 weeks of pregnancy...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bodensteiner KJ,Cain P,Ray AS,Hamula LA

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sex steroid hormones and cognitive functioning in healthy, older men.

    abstract::The precise impact of age-related changes in hormone levels on cognition in men is still unclear due to differing study designs and contradictory findings. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between endogenous sex hormone levels and cognitive functioning in healthy older men using a comprehensive ba...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matousek RH,Sherwin BB

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Systemic ICI 182,780 alters the display of sexual behaviors in the female rat.

    abstract::The present study investigates the effects of the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the display of sexual behaviors in female rats. ICI 182,780 is a pure anti-estrogen and when given systemically, ICI is thought to act only in the periphery, and is not believed to cross the blood brain barrier. The present study exami...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gardener HE,Clark AS

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • The newborn rat's stress system readily habituates to repeated and prolonged maternal separation, while continuing to respond to stressors in context dependent fashion.

    abstract::Adrenal corticosterone secretion of newborn mice rapidly desensitizes to repeated maternal absence. The present study investigated the effects of novelty exposure, maternal care and genotype on this phenomenon. Maternal separation (MS) took place on postnatal days (pnd) 3-5. In Wistar rats, the degree of novelty in th...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Daskalakis NP,Claessens SE,Laboyrie JJ,Enthoven L,Oitzl MS,Champagne DL,de Kloet ER

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pheromone-induced spawning of Pacific herring. II. Plasma steroids distinctive to fish responsive to spawning pheromone.

    abstract::A spawning pheromone in the milt (semen) and testes of the Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, is thought to facilitate school spawning of this species. We found that responsiveness to the spawning pheromone was variable among ripe fish (milt-producing or ovulated). Measurement of five principle reproductive ste...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carolsfeld J,Scott AP,Sherwood NM

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of gonadal steroid receptor activation in the restoration of sociosexual behavior in adult male rats.

    abstract::This work tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroid receptor activation was necessary for the restoration of several sociosexual behaviors (such as copulatory behavior, partner preference, 50-kHz vocalizations, and scent marking) in testosterone-treated gonadectomized male rats. Gonadal steroid receptors were blocked...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vagell ME,McGinnis MY

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Compatibility drives female preference and reproductive success in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) more strongly than male testosterone measures.

    abstract::Female assessment of male attractiveness and how preferred qualities impact reproductive success is central to the study of mate choice. Male attractiveness may depend on traits beneficial to the reproductive success (RS) of any female, termed 'universal quality', and/or on behavioral and biological interactions betwe...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gleason ED,Holschbach MA,Marler CA

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Progestins can have a membrane-mediated action in rat midbrain for facilitation of sexual receptivity.

    abstract::In rats, progesterone (P) facilitates sexual receptivity by interacting with intracellular progestin receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). This experiment concerns whether P can also facilitate receptivity in rats by acting extragenomically within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Ovariectomized rats (n = ...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frye CA,Gardiner SG

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal on hormones and brain in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    abstract::Fish present a wide variety of sex determination systems ranging from strict genetic control (genetic sex determination, GSD) to strict environmental control (environmental sex determination, ESD). Temperature is the most frequent environmental factor influencing sex determination. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dussenne M,Gennotte V,Rougeot C,Mélard C,Cornil CA

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of multiparity on recognition memory, monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    abstract::Recognition memory and anxiety were examined in nulliparous (NP: 0 litters) and multiparous (MP: 5-6 litters) middle-aged female rats (12 months old) to assess possible enduring effects of multiparity at least 3 months after the last litter was weaned. MP females performed significantly better than NP females on the n...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macbeth AH,Scharfman HE,Maclusky NJ,Gautreaux C,Luine VN

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Wnt-2b in the intermediate hyperpallium apicale of the telencephalon is critical for the thyroid hormone-mediated opening of the sensitive period for filial imprinting in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    abstract::Filial imprinting is the behavior observed in chicks during the sensitive or critical period of the first 2-3 days after hatching; however, after this period they cannot be imprinted when raised in darkness. Our previous study showed that temporal augmentation of the endogenous thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine ...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamaguchi S,Aoki N,Matsushima T,Homma KJ

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian hormones mediate running-induced changes in high fat diet choice patterns in female rats.

    abstract::Physical inactivity and increased consumption of energy dense, high fat (HF) foods often leads to a state of positive energy balance. Regular exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight and mediate changes in dietary selection. Past studies using a two-diet choice (chow vs. HF) and voluntary wheel...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang TY,Liang NC

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral, hormonal, and morphological responses of free-living male pied flycatchers to estradiol treatment of their mates.

    abstract::A field experiment was performed implanting female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) during the nest-building period with silastic tubes containing 17 beta-estradiol. Control females were given empty silastic tubes. The pied flycatcher is a polygamous and polyterritorial bird species. During two successive breedin...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silverin B

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Estrogenic contributions to sexual differentiation in the female guinea pig: influences of diethylstilbestrol and tamoxifen on neural, behavioral, and ovarian development.

    abstract::We administered the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), or the antiestrogen, tamoxifen, to pregnant guinea pigs and observed the consequences for sexual differentiation of their female offspring. Hormones were administered during the period when treatment of fetuses with testosterone influences the developme...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hines M,Alsum P,Roy M,Gorski RA,Goy RW

    更新日期:1987-09-01 00:00:00

  • The pituitary mediates production or release of an alarm chemosignal in rats.

    abstract::Rodent alarm chemosignals elicit various behavioral and physiological responses in conspecifics. This study employed a bioassay method, using a modification of the forced swim test, to demonstrate that the pituitary mediates production and/or secretion of an alarm chemosignal in rats subjected to stress. This was show...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abel EL

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental exposure to environmental estrogens alters anxiety and spatial memory in female mice.

    abstract::Humans and wildlife are exposed to numerous anthropogenic drugs and pollutants. Many of these compounds are hormonally active, and recent evidence suggests that the presence of these endocrine disruptors permanently alters normal development and physiology in a variety of vertebrate species. Here, we report on the eff...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ryan BC,Vandenbergh JG

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Estrogen therapy and brain muscarinic receptor density in healthy females: a SPET study.

    abstract::Estrogen Therapy (ET) may protect against age-related cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). The biological basis for this putative neuroprotective effect is not fully understood, but may include modulation of cholinergic systems. Cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated in age...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Norbury R,Travis MJ,Erlandsson K,Waddington W,Ell PJ,Murphy DG

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • The perfume of reproduction in birds: chemosignaling in avian social life.

    abstract::This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Chemical cues were probably the first cues ever used to communicate and are still ubiquitous among living organisms. Birds have long been considered an exception: it was believed that birds were anosmic and relied on their acute visual and acoust...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Caro SP,Balthazart J,Bonadonna F

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of ∆9-THC on memory in ovariectomized and intact female rats.

    abstract::The effects of marijuana's major psychoactive cannabinoid, ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (∆9-THC), were examined on memory in female rats by training subjects to respond under a repeated acquisition and delayed-performance procedure. During this task, subjects acquired a different 4-response sequence each session, which was...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeLarge AF,Winsauer PJ

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    abstract::It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g....

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morales M,Varlinskaya EI,Spear LP

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of androgens on behavioral and vomeronasal responses to chemosensory cues in male terrestrial salamanders (Plethodon shermani).

    abstract::Chemosensory stimuli and sex steroid hormones are both required for the full expression of social behaviors in many species. The terrestrial salamander, Plethodon shermani, is an emerging nonmammalian system for investigating the nature and evolution of pheromonal communication, yet little is known regarding the role ...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schubert SN,Houck LD,Feldhoff PW,Feldhoff RC,Woodley SK

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Testosterone and estradiol produce different effects on cognitive performance in male rats.

    abstract::The effects of castration and hormone treatment on cognitive performance were evaluated in male rats. Castrated animals received either testosterone or estradiol and were compared with gonadally intact animals and with castrated controls. Results revealed a dissociation between the effects of testosterone and estradio...

    journal_title:Hormones and behavior

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibbs RB

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00