The Expanding Field of Secondary Antibody Deficiency: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management.


:Antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia can have primary or secondary etiologies. Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the result of intrinsic genetic defects, whereas secondary antibody deficiency may arise as a consequence of underlying conditions or medication use. On a global level, malnutrition, HIV, and malaria are major causes of secondary immunodeficiency. In this review we consider secondary antibody deficiency, for which common causes include hematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia or multiple myeloma, and their treatment, protein-losing states, and side effects of a number of immunosuppressive agents and procedures involved in solid organ transplantation. Secondary antibody deficiency is not only much more common than PAD, but is also being increasingly recognized with the wider and more prolonged use of a growing list of agents targeting B cells. SAD may thus present to a broad range of specialties and is associated with an increased risk of infection. Early diagnosis and intervention is key to avoiding morbidity and mortality. Optimizing treatment requires careful clinical and laboratory assessment and may involve close monitoring of risk parameters, vaccination, antibiotic strategies, and in some patients, immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). This review discusses the rapidly evolving list of underlying causes of secondary antibody deficiency, specifically focusing on therapies targeting B cells, alongside recent advances in screening, biomarkers of risk for the development of secondary antibody deficiency, diagnosis, monitoring, and management.


Front Immunol


Frontiers in immunology


Patel SY,Carbone J,Jolles S




Has Abstract


2019-02-08 00:00:00








  • Expanding TREC and KREC Utility in Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Diagnosis.

    abstract::Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) area heterogeneous group of disorders caused by genetic defects of the immune system, which manifest clinically as recurrent infections, autoimmune diseases or malignancies. Early detection of PID remains a challenge, particularly in older children with milder and less specific ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korsunskiy I,Blyuss O,Gordukova M,Davydova N,Zaikin A,Zinovieva N,Zimin S,Molchanov R,Salpagarova A,Eremeeva A,Filipenko M,Prodeus A,Korsunskiy A,Hsu P,Munblit D

    更新日期:2020-03-03 00:00:00

  • MicroRNA124-IL6R Mediates the Effect of Nicotine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease by Shifting Th1/Th2 Balance Toward Th1.

    abstract::Epidemiological investigations have shown that smoking ameliorates ulcerative colitis (UC) but exacerbates Crohn's disease (CD), diseases that feature a Th2-mediated and Th1-mediated response, respectively. Cigarette extracts, especially nicotine, affect the Th1/Th2 balance. We previously reported that nicotine protec...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin Z,Wang PY,Wan JJ,Zhang Y,Wei J,Sun Y,Liu X

    更新日期:2020-02-21 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Leishmanization Using Iranian Lizard Leishmania Mixed With CpG-ODN as a Candidate Vaccine Against Experimental Murine Leishmaniasis.

    abstract::Background and Objectives: The live non-pathogenic Leishmania tarantolae has recently provided a promising approach as an effective vaccine candidate against experimental leishmaniasis (ILL). Here, we evaluated the immunoprotective potential of the live Iranian Lizard Leishmania mixed with CpG adjuvant against L. majo...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keshavarzian N,Noroozbeygi M,Haji Molla Hoseini M,Yeganeh F

    更新日期:2020-10-23 00:00:00

  • Allergen and Epitope Targets of Mouse-Specific T Cell Responses in Allergy and Asthma.

    abstract::Mouse allergy has become increasingly common, mainly affecting laboratory workers and inner-city households. To date, only one major allergen, namely Mus m 1, has been described. We sought to identify T cell targets in mouse allergic patients. PBMC from allergic donors were expanded with either murine urine or epithel...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schulten V,Westernberg L,Birrueta G,Sidney J,Paul S,Busse P,Peters B,Sette A

    更新日期:2018-02-13 00:00:00

  • Natural killer cells and neuroblastoma: tumor recognition, escape mechanisms, and possible novel immunotherapeutic approaches.

    abstract::Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood and arises from developing sympathetic nervous system. Most primary tumors localize in the abdomen, the adrenal gland, or lumbar sympathetic ganglia. Amplification in tumor cells of MYCN, the major oncogenic driver, patients' age over 18 mont...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bottino C,Dondero A,Bellora F,Moretta L,Locatelli F,Pistoia V,Moretta A,Castriconi R

    更新日期:2014-02-12 00:00:00

  • Pertussis Prevention: Reasons for Resurgence, and Differences in the Current Acellular Pertussis Vaccines.

    abstract::Pertussis is an acute respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Due to its frequency and severity, prevention of pertussis has been considered an important public health issue for many years. The development of the whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wPV) and its introduction into the pediatric immunization schedu...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Esposito S,Stefanelli P,Fry NK,Fedele G,He Q,Paterson P,Tan T,Knuf M,Rodrigo C,Weil Olivier C,Flanagan KL,Hung I,Lutsar I,Edwards K,O'Ryan M,Principi N,World Association of Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders

    更新日期:2019-07-03 00:00:00

  • Maturation of Gut Microbiota and Circulating Regulatory T Cells and Development of IgE Sensitization in Early Life.

    abstract::Recent studies suggest that the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and human immune system during the first year of life is an important regulator of the later development of atopic diseases. We explored the changes in the gut microbiota, blood regulatory T cells, and atopic sensitization in a birth-cohort of Eston...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruohtula T,de Goffau MC,Nieminen JK,Honkanen J,Siljander H,Hämäläinen AM,Peet A,Tillmann V,Ilonen J,Niemelä O,Welling GW,Knip M,Harmsen HJ,Vaarala O

    更新日期:2019-10-23 00:00:00

  • Activation of M1 Macrophages in Response to Recombinant TB Vaccines With Enhanced Antimycobacterial Activity.

    abstract::Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a difficult-to-eliminate disease. Although the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been available for decades, its efficacy is variable and has lessened over time. Furthermore, the BCG vaccine no longer protects against newly emerged Beijing...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang SJ,Chen YY,Hsu CH,Hsu CW,Chang CY,Chang JR,Dou HY

    更新日期:2020-06-23 00:00:00

  • The Role of CD1d and MR1 Restricted T Cells in the Liver.

    abstract::The liver is one of the most important immunological organs that remains tolerogenic in homeostasis yet promotes rapid responses to pathogens in the presence of a systemic infection. The composition of leucocytes in the liver is highly distinct from that of the blood and other lymphoid organs, particularly with respec...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Huang W,He W,Shi X,He X,Dou L,Gao Y

    更新日期:2018-10-30 00:00:00

  • Atherosclerosis Linked to Aberrant Amino Acid Metabolism and Immunosuppressive Amino Acid Catabolizing Enzymes.

    abstract::Cardiovascular disease is the leading global health concern and responsible for more deaths worldwide than any other type of disorder. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the arterial wall, which underpins several types of cardiovascular disease. It has emerged that a strong relationship exists betwee...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zaric BL,Radovanovic JN,Gluvic Z,Stewart AJ,Essack M,Motwalli O,Gojobori T,Isenovic ER

    更新日期:2020-09-28 00:00:00

  • Transcription Factor KLF10 Constrains IL-17-Committed Vγ4+ γδ T Cells.

    abstract::γδ T cells, known to be an important source of innate IL-17 in mice, provide critical contributions to host immune responses. Development and function of γδ T cells are directed by networks of diverse transcription factors (TFs). Here, we examine the role of the zinc finger TFs, Kruppel-like factor 10 (KLF10), in the ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim G,Gu MJ,Kim SJ,Ko KH,Kye YC,Kim CG,Cho JH,Lee WK,Song KD,Chu H,Park YM,Han SH,Yun CH

    更新日期:2018-02-28 00:00:00

  • Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Alters Melanoma Microenvironment Favoring Antitumor T Cell Responses and Improving M2 Macrophage Function.

    abstract::Intralesional Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has long been a relatively inexpensive therapy for inoperable cutaneous metastatic melanoma (CMM), although intralesional BCG skin mechanisms remain understudied. We analyzed intralesional BCG-treated CMM lesions combined with in vitro studies to further...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lardone RD,Chan AA,Lee AF,Foshag LJ,Faries MB,Sieling PA,Lee DJ

    更新日期:2017-08-11 00:00:00

  • Reverse translation in tuberculosis: neutrophils provide clues for understanding development of active disease.

    abstract::Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health issue globally. Although typically the disease can be cured by chemotherapy in all age groups, and prevented in part in newborn by vaccination, general consensus exists that development of novel intervention measures requires better understanding of disease mechanisms. Human TB is c...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dorhoi A,Iannaccone M,Maertzdorf J,Nouailles G,Weiner J 3rd,Kaufmann SH

    更新日期:2014-02-05 00:00:00

  • Single or Combined Dietary Supply of Psidium guajava and Phyllanthus amarus Extracts Differentially Modulate Immune Responses and Liver Proteome in Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hyphophthalmus).

    abstract::Guava Psidium guajava L (Pg) and bhumi amla Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn (Pa) are well-known plants in traditional medicine. However, the capacity of these plants for improving the immune system of aquatic species has received less attention so far. This study aimed to investigate the effects of single supply or...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nhu TQ,Bich Hang BT,Cornet V,Oger M,Bach LT,Anh Dao NL,Thanh Huong DT,Quetin-Leclercq J,Scippo ML,Phuong NT,Kestemont P

    更新日期:2020-05-05 00:00:00

  • Regulatory multitasking of tolerogenic dendritic cells - lessons taken from vitamin d3-treated tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    abstract::Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) work through silencing of differentiated antigen-specific T cells, activation and expansion of naturally occurring T regulatory cells (Tregs), transfer of regulatory properties to T cells, and the differentiation of naïve T cells into Tregs. Due to an operational definition based on T...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nikolic T,Roep BO

    更新日期:2013-05-14 00:00:00

  • Isolation and Selection of Duck Primary Cells as Pathogenic and Innate Immunologic Cell Models for Duck Plague Virus.

    abstract::Duck plague virus (DPV) is a representative pathogen transmitted among aquatic animals that causes gross lesions and immune inhibition in geese and ducks. The mechanism of organ tropism and innate immune evasion of DPV has not been completely deciphered due to a lack of cell models to study the innate immune manipulat...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tian B,Cai D,He T,Deng L,Wu L,Wang M,Jia R,Zhu D,Liu M,Yang Q,Wu Y,Zhao X,Chen S,Zhang S,Huang J,Ou X,Mao S,Yu Y,Zhang L,Liu Y,Cheng A

    更新日期:2020-01-28 00:00:00

  • Increased Frequency of Peripheral B and T Cells Expressing Granulocyte Monocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    abstract:Objectives:Granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is currently considered a crucial inflammatory mediator and a novel therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), despite the fact that its precise cellular sources remain uncertain. We studied the expression of GM-CSF in peripheral lymphocytes from ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Makris A,Adamidi S,Koutsianas C,Tsalapaki C,Hadziyannis E,Vassilopoulos D

    更新日期:2018-01-10 00:00:00

  • Functionally Convergent B Cell Receptor Sequences in Transgenic Rats Expressing a Human B Cell Repertoire in Response to Tetanus Toxoid and Measles Antigens.

    abstract::The identification and tracking of antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) sequences within total Ig repertoires is central to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies of infections or vaccinations. In this context, public Ig sequences shared by different individuals exposed to the same antigen could be valuable markers ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bürckert JP,Dubois ARSX,Faison WJ,Farinelle S,Charpentier E,Sinner R,Wienecke-Baldacchino A,Muller CP

    更新日期:2017-12-22 00:00:00

  • Identification of a Newly Conserved SLA-II Epitope in a Structural Protein of Swine Influenza Virus.

    abstract::Despite the role of pigs as a source of new Influenza A Virus viruses (IAV) potentially capable of initiating human pandemics, immune responses to swine influenza virus (SwIV) in pigs are not fully understood. Several SwIV epitopes presented by swine MHC (SLA) class I have been identified using different approaches ei...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baratelli M,Morgan S,Hemmink JD,Reid E,Carr BV,Lefevre E,Montaner-Tarbes S,Charleston B,Fraile L,Tchilian E,Montoya M

    更新日期:2020-09-16 00:00:00

  • Evolutionary Regression and Species-Specific Codon Usage of TLR15.

    abstract::Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an ancient family of innate immune receptors that detect microbial structures and activate the host immune response. Most subfamilies of TLRs (including TLR3, TLR5, and TLR7) are highly conserved among vertebrate species. In contrast, TLR15, a member of the TLR1 subfamily, appears to be...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Voogdt CGP,Merchant ME,Wagenaar JA,van Putten JPM

    更新日期:2018-11-13 00:00:00

  • Autophagy and Autophagy-Related Proteins in CNS Autoimmunity.

    abstract::Autophagy comprises a heterogeneous group of cellular pathways that enables eukaryotic cells to deliver cytoplasmic constituents for lysosomal degradation, to recycle nutrients, and to survive during starvation. In addition to these primordial functions, autophagy has emerged as a key mechanism in orchestrating innate...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Keller CW,Lünemann JD

    更新日期:2017-02-27 00:00:00

  • How the Interplay Between the Commensal Microbiota, Gut Barrier Integrity, and Mucosal Immunity Regulates Brain Autoimmunity.

    abstract::The intestinal barrier provides the host with a strong defense line against the external environment playing also a pivotal role in the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the immune system. Notably, increasing lines of evidence concerning autoimmune disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) report an imbalance i...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Antonini M,Lo Conte M,Sorini C,Falcone M

    更新日期:2019-08-16 00:00:00

  • The Expression Pattern and Clinical Significance of the Immune Checkpoint Regulator VISTA in Human Breast Cancer.

    abstract:Background:Immunotherapies targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1 have elicited promising responses in a variety of cancers. However, the relatively low response rates warrant the identification of additional immunosuppressive pathways. V domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) plays a critical role in antitum...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xie X,Zhang J,Shi Z,Liu W,Hu X,Qie C,Chen W,Wang Y,Wang L,Jiang J,Liu J

    更新日期:2020-10-29 00:00:00

  • Role of Tumor-Mediated Dendritic Cell Tolerization in Immune Evasion.

    abstract::The vast majority of cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis, a process that requires evasion of the host immune system. In addition, a significant percentage of cancer patients do not benefit from our current immunotherapy arsenal due to either primary or secondary immunotherapy resistance. Importantly, select su...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: DeVito NC,Plebanek MP,Theivanthiran B,Hanks BA

    更新日期:2019-12-10 00:00:00

  • Diet-Induced Obesity Elicits Macrophage Infiltration and Reduction in Spine Density in the Hypothalami of Male but Not Female Mice.

    abstract::Increasing prevalence in obesity has become a significant public concern. C57BL/6J mice are prone to diet-induced obesity (DIO) when fed high-fat diet (HFD), and develop chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome, making them a good model to analyze mechanisms whereby obesity elicits pathologies. DIO mice demonstrate...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lainez NM,Jonak CR,Nair MG,Ethell IM,Wilson EH,Carson MJ,Coss D

    更新日期:2018-09-11 00:00:00

  • Molecular Characterization of Monocyte Subsets Reveals Specific and Distinctive Molecular Signatures Associated With Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    abstract::Objectives: This study, developed within the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking project PRECISESADS framework, aimed at functionally characterize the monocyte subsets in RA patients, and analyze their involvement in the increased CV risk associated with RA. Methods: The frequencies of monocyte subpopula...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruiz-Limon P,Ortega-Castro R,Barbarroja N,Perez-Sanchez C,Jamin C,Patiño-Trives AM,Luque-Tevar M,Ibáñez-Costa A,Perez-Sanchez L,de la Rosa IA,Abalos-Aguilera M,Jimenez-Gomez Y,Calvo-Gutierrez J,Font P,Escudero-Contreras A,A

    更新日期:2019-05-21 00:00:00

  • Pattern Recognition Receptors in HIV Transmission.

    abstract::Dendritic cells (DCs), Langerhans cells (LCs), and macrophages are innate immune cells that reside in genital and intestinal mucosal tissues susceptible to HIV-1 infection. These innate cells play distinct roles in initiation of HIV-1 infection and induction of anti-viral immunity. DCs are potent migratory cells that ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mesman AW,Geijtenbeek TB

    更新日期:2012-03-26 00:00:00

  • Intestinal Dysbiosis in Autoimmune Diabetes Is Correlated With Poor Glycemic Control and Increased Interleukin-6: A Pilot Study.

    abstract::Intestinal dysbiosis associated with immunological deregulation, leaky gut, bacterial translocation, and systemic inflammation has been associated with autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal dysbiosis in T1D patients and correlate these results with ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Higuchi BS,Rodrigues N,Gonzaga MI,Paiolo JCC,Stefanutto N,Omori WP,Pinheiro DG,Brisotti JL,Matheucci E Jr,Mariano VS,de Oliveira GLV

    更新日期:2018-07-25 00:00:00

  • Diversity, function, and transcriptional regulation of gut innate lymphocytes.

    abstract::The innate immune system plays a critical early role in host defense against viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells. Until recently, natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells were the primary members of the innate lymphocyte family: NK cells form the front-line interface between the external enviro...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rankin L,Groom J,Mielke LA,Seillet C,Belz GT

    更新日期:2013-03-04 00:00:00

  • Uncovering Low-Level Maternal Gonosomal Mosaicism in X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia: Implications for Genetic Counseling.

    abstract::X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a clinically and genetically well-defined immunodeficiency and the most common form of agammaglobulinemia. It is characterized by susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and few or no circulating B cells. XLA is caused by mutations in the B...

    journal_title:Frontiers in immunology



    authors: Rivière JG,Franco-Jarava C,Martínez-Gallo M,Aguiló-Cucurull A,Blasco-Pérez L,Paramonov I,Antolín M,Martín-Nalda A,Soler-Palacín P,Colobran R

    更新日期:2020-02-12 00:00:00