A conceptual model for identifying, preventing, and managing secondary conditions in people with disabilities.


:Secondary conditions are considered a direct consequence of having a disability, and many are presumed to be preventable. Although a few researchers have noted that people with disabilities are exposed to several secondary conditions, including pain, fatigue, depression, and obesity, what is lacking in the literature is a conceptual framework for understanding the antecedents, risk factors, and consequences of secondary conditions. To move the rehabilitation and public health professions toward a more unified approach to understanding and managing secondary conditions as well as distinguishing them from chronic and associated conditions, this article proposes a set of criteria for defining secondary conditions and a conceptual model that considers the potential factors associated with their onset, impact, severity, and management.


Phys Ther


Physical therapy


Rimmer JH,Chen MD,Hsieh K




Has Abstract


2011-12-01 00:00:00














  • Development of a clinical prediction rule for guiding treatment of a subgroup of patients with neck pain: use of thoracic spine manipulation, exercise, and patient education.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:To date, no studies have investigated the predictive validity of variables from the initial examination to identify patients with neck pain who are likely to benefit from thoracic spine thrust manipulation. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical prediction rule (CPR) to identify pati...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Cleland JA,Childs JD,Fritz JM,Whitman JM,Eberhart SL

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Developing a clinical education program from the clinician's perspective.

    abstract::As the number of physical therapy programs increases, more physical therapy departments will be developing clinical education programs. A guide for clinicians who are developing clinical education programs is presented. Suggestions are made for developing a philosophy of clinical education and for structuring the prog...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Windom PA

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and the Mini-BESTest for Assessing Balance in Ambulatory People With Spinal Cord Injury: Validation Study.

    abstract:Background:The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) has several constraints-ceiling effect, low responsiveness, and uncertain predictability of falls-in neurological populations. The Mini-BESTest, which has not yet been validated in spinal cord injury (SCI) populations, has shown no ceiling effect, slightly better responsiveness, ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jørgensen V,Opheim A,Halvarsson A,Franzén E,Roaldsen KS

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical reliability of manual muscle testing. Middle trapezius and gluteus medius muscles.

    abstract::The purposes of this study were to develop a protocol to examine the reliability of manual muscle testing in a clinical setting and to use that protocol to assess the interrater reliability of manually testing the strength of the middle trapezius and gluteus medius muscles. One hundred ten patients with various diagno...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frese E,Brown M,Norton BJ

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00

  • Manual therapy and exercise to improve outcomes in patients with muscle tension dysphonia: a case series.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a common voice disorder that is not commonly referred for physical therapy intervention, is characterized by excessive muscle recruitment, resulting in incorrect vibratory patterns of vocal folds and an alteration in voice production. This case series was conducted...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomlinson CA,Archer KR

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reference values of physical performance in Thai elderly people who are functioning well and dwelling in the community.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Because the number of elderly people is rapidly increasing, reference values for the physical abilities necessary to independently conduct daily activities are crucial for promoting good health. Although a few studies have reported reference values for functional tests relating to these abilities, all of tho...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thaweewannakij T,Wilaichit S,Chuchot R,Yuenyong Y,Saengsuwan J,Siritaratiwat W,Amatachaya S

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Establishing activity and training levels for patients with ischemic heart disease.

    abstract::The paper presents guidelines for determining ideal training heart rates and recreational and occupational energy-cost levels for individual patients with ischemic heart disease. These guidelines were established by Karvonen, are based on results of progressive exercise testing, and have been applied to a broad spectr...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amundsen LR

    更新日期:1979-06-01 00:00:00

  • The meaning of occupation, occupational need, and occupational therapy in a military context.

    abstract::Despite occupational therapists having strong historical ties to the Canadian military, there are currently no uniformed occupational therapists and only a few permanent occupational therapists employed by Canadian Forces. Occupational therapy is provided, in the main, through civilian occupational therapists. Occupat...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown HV,Hollis V

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Opportunities for early intervention based on theory, basic neuroscience, and clinical science.

    abstract::Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the "goal" of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fa...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ulrich BD

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Neural Mobilization Attenuates Mechanical Allodynia and Decreases Proinflammatory Cytokine Concentrations in Rats With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    abstract:Background:Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication in patients with diabetes. It is related to ischemic nerve damage and the increase in the levels of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Neural mobilization may have the potential to alleviate...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu GC,Tsai KL,Chen YW,Hung CH

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Objective determinations of sensibility in the upper extremity. Part III. Application of cutaneous stimuli in patients with peripheral nerve lesions.

    abstract::Quantitative values for pressure, electrical, and two-point touch stimulation were examined in five patients with peripheral nerve injuries of the ulnar or median nerves. Analyses of profiles generated for each stimulus application in each patient participating in this preliminary study suggest that, following the rea...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolf SL,Nahai F,Brown DM,Jordan N,Kutner M

    更新日期:1977-10-01 00:00:00

  • The role of limb movements in maintaining upright stance: the "change-in-support" strategy.

    abstract::Change-in-support strategies, involving stepping or grasping movements of the limbs, are prevalent reactions to instability and appear to play a more important functional role in maintaining upright stance than has generally been appreciated. Contrary to traditional views, change-in-support reactions are not just stra...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maki BE,McIlroy WE

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of Downstream Health Care Utilization, Costs, and Long-Term Opioid Use: Physical Therapist Management Versus Opioid Therapy Management After Arthroscopic Hip Surgery.

    abstract:Background:Physical therapy and opioid prescriptions are common after hip surgery, but are sometimes delayed or not used. Objective:The objective of this study was to compare downstream health care utilization and opioid use following hip surgery for different patterns of physical therapy and prescription opioids. De...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rhon DI,Snodgrass SJ,Cleland JA,Greenlee TA,Sissel CD,Cook CE

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of age on dynamics of rising from a chair.

    abstract::This article describes the sit-to-stand movement in nine healthy elderly adults, ages 61 to 74 years, and compares peak joint angles, torques, and velocities of 11 body segments with data collected from nine young women, ages 25 to 36 years. The subjects in this study rose from a chair under a controlled protocol. An ...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ikeda ER,Schenkman ML,Riley PO,Hodge WA

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • After-effect of microneurography in humans. Part IV.

    abstract::Twenty subjects were followed up to three months after microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve fiber activity to determine the nature and incidence of sequelae to the invasive microneurographic procedure. Skin or muscle parethesias lasting two weeks on the average were reported by the majority of subjects. Ni...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Littell EH

    更新日期:1981-11-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of two outcome measures for infants with cerebral palsy and infants with motor delays.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scale (PDMS-GM) as measures of change in infants with cerebr-al palsy (CP) and infants with motor delays. We hypothesized that mean change scores would be greater for the GMF...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kolobe TH,Palisano RJ,Stratford PW

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Balance in relation to walking deterioration in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Balance function is central in walking, and impaired balance function may be related to walking deterioration in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). OBJECTIVES:The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare balance confidence, fear of falling, and balance ability in adults with spastic bilat...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Opheim A,Jahnsen R,Olsson E,Stanghelle JK

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Physical impairments and functional limitations: a comparison of individuals 1 year after total knee arthroplasty with control subjects.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to examine the physical impairments and functional limitations of individuals with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), as compared with individuals with no diagnosed knee disease (control subjects). SUBJECTS:Twenty-nine individuals 1 year following TKA (13 women, 16 men)...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walsh M,Woodhouse LJ,Thomas SG,Finch E

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Relative effectiveness of an extension program and a combined program of manipulation and flexion and extension exercises in patients with acute low back syndrome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The relative effectiveness of an extension program and a manipulation program with flexion and extension exercises was examined in patients with low back syndrome. SUBJECTS:Forty-nine patients with less than a 3-month history of low back pain were seen at physical therapy clinics in western Penn...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Erhard RE,Delitto A,Cibulka MT

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep enhances learning of a functional motor task in young adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sleep has been demonstrated to enhance simple motor skill learning "offline" in young adults. "Offline learning" refers to either the stabilization or the enhancement of a memory through the passage of time without additional practice. It remains unclear whether a functional motor task will benefit from slee...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Al-Sharman A,Siengsukon CF

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Client Perspectives on Reclaiming Participation After a Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in South Africa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The development of rehabilitation services promoting participation in people living with a traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is of major concern for physical therapists. What the client sees as effective participation, barriers, and facilitators might be different due to their particular context. This stud...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joseph C,Wahman K,Phillips J,Nilsson Wikmar L

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • The role of genetics and environment in lifting force and isometric trunk extensor endurance.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Our understanding of what different back performance tests are measuring is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of genetics and unique and common environmental factors for 3 tests of back muscle performance in a classic twin analysis. SUBJECTS:The sub...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Ropponen A,Levälahti E,Videman T,Kaprio J,Battié MC

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • High-Flow Oxygen Therapy During Exercise Training in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chronic Hypoxemia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The study aimed to evaluate whether high-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) during training was more effective than oxygen in improving exercise capacity in hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS:A total of 171 patients with COPD and chronic hypoxemia were consecutively recruited in 8 rehabi...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Vitacca M,Paneroni M,Zampogna E,Visca D,Carlucci A,Cirio S,Banfi P,Pappacoda G,Trianni L,Brogneri A,Belli S,Paracchini E,Aliani M,Spinelli V,Gigliotti F,Lanini B,Lazzeri M,Clini EM,Malovini A,Ambrosino N,Associazi

    更新日期:2020-08-12 00:00:00

  • Individual expectation: an overlooked, but pertinent, factor in the treatment of individuals experiencing musculoskeletal pain.

    abstract::Physical therapists consider many factors in the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal pain. The current literature suggests expectation is an influential component of clinical outcomes related to musculoskeletal pain for which physical therapists frequently do not account. The purpose of this clinical perspectiv...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bialosky JE,Bishop MD,Cleland JA

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • An exercise and education program improves well-being of new mothers: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physical therapy exercise and health care education program on the psychological well-being of new mothers. DESIGN:This was a randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS:Primiparous and multiparous English-speaking women ready for discharge from The An...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Norman E,Sherburn M,Osborne RH,Galea MP

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • The human movement system: our professional identity.

    abstract::The 2013 House of Delegates of the American Physical Therapy Association adopted a vision statement that addresses the role of physical therapy in transforming society through optimizing movement. The accompanying guidelines address the movement system as key to achieving this vision. The profession has incorporated m...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sahrmann SA

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of exercise on hip range of motion, trunk muscle performance, and gait economy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the effects of a passive hip extension stretching exercise program on hip extension range of motion (ROM), (2) to examine the effects of a trunk flexor exercise program on trunk flexor muscle performance, and (3) to examine the effects of passive hip...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Godges JJ,MacRae PG,Engelke KA

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Application of the locality rule and implications for malpractice actions against physical therapists.

    abstract::Physical therapists are becoming involved increasingly in malpractice actions. The number of such actions will likely increase as the profession moves towards specialized practice and practice without medical referral. This article is intended to clarify some of the major principles of negligence and malpractice law a...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fantaci ES

    更新日期:1982-05-01 00:00:00

  • Foot-pounds of torque of the normal knee and the rehabilitated postmeniscectomy knee.

    abstract::Foot-pounds of torque of the knee flexors and knee extensors of eight rehabilitated patients who had had meniscectomies were obtained isometrically and at 60 and 210 degrees per second by use of an isokinetic apparatus. Our purpose was to test the null hypothesis that no significant difference in torque would be manif...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campbell DE,Glenn W

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00

  • Postural Stability in Older Adults With Alzheimer Disease.

    abstract:Background:The prevalence of adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) aged >65 years is increasing and estimated to quadruple by 2051. Purpose:The aim of this study was to investigate postural stability in people with mild to moderate AD and factors contributing to postural instability compared with healthy peers (controls)...

    journal_title:Physical therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mesbah N,Perry M,Hill KD,Kaur M,Hale L

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00