Repeated Testing With the Hypertonic Saline Assay in Mice for Screening of Analgesic Activity.


BACKGROUND:In vivo animal assays are a cornerstone of preclinical pain research. An optimal stimulus for determining the activity of potential analgesics would produce responses of a consistent magnitude on repeated testing. Intraplantar ( injection of hypertonic saline (HS) in mice produces robust nociceptive responses to different analgesics, without evidence of tissue damage. Here, we investigated whether the nociceptive response is changed by repeating the injection at different times and sites in a mouse and whether it is attenuated by morphine. METHODS:We conducted randomized and blinded experiments to assess responses to repeated 10% HS in female CD-1 mice. An injection of HS was followed by a second injection into the same hind paw at 4 hours, 24 hours, or 7 days. A separate group of mice each received injections at 5, 10, and 15 days. In 2 independent experiments, 30 minutes after initial HS injections in the ipsilateral hind paw, mice received HS injection into the contralateral hind paw or ipsilateral forepaw. The ability of morphine to block the nociceptive responses was examined by injecting morphine at 5-day intervals. RESULTS:Repeated injection of HS did not alter the responses at 4 hours (84 vs 75 seconds; mean difference [95% CI], -9 [-40 to 23]; P = .6), 24 hours (122 vs 113 seconds; -6 [-24 to 12]; P = .5), or 7 days (112 vs 113 seconds; -0.3 [-12 to 11]; P = .95) or at multiple injections (day 0, 122 seconds vs day 5, 121 seconds; -0.3 [-28 to 27], P > .99; day 10, 118 seconds; 2.5 [-36 to 41], P = .99; day 15, 119 seconds; 2 [-36 to 38], P = .99). A previous hind paw injection did not change the responses of the contralateral hind paw (right, 93 seconds versus left, 96 seconds; -3 [-20 to 13], P = .7) or of the ipsilateral forepaw (forepaw after HS, 146 seconds versus forepaw after 0.9% saline, 149 seconds; -3 [-28 to 22], P = .8). Morphine dose-dependently attenuated HS responses (control, 94 seconds vs 4 mg/kg, 66 seconds; 29 [-7 to 64], P = .12; vs 10 mg/kg, 27 seconds; 67 [44-90], P < .0001; 4 vs 10 mg/kg, 67 [44-90], P = .03). CONCLUSIONS:The repetition of HS produces consistent reproducible responses without tissue damage. This results in efficient, rapid detection of analgesic activity, reducing the number of animals required.


Anesth Analg


Anesthesia and analgesia


Asiri YI,Fung T,Schwarz SKW,Barr AM,Puil E,MacLeod BA




Has Abstract


2019-07-01 00:00:00












  • Changes in respiratory mechanics during cardiac surgery.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:We investigated the role of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in compromised lung function associated with cardiac surgery. Low-frequency respiratory impedance (Zrs) was measured in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with (n = 30; CPB group) or without (n = 29; off-pump coronary artery bypass [OPCAB] group) CPB....

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Babik B,Asztalos T,Peták F,Deák ZI,Hantos Z

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between bispectral index and propofol during target-controlled infusion anesthesia: a comparative study between children and young adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In this prospective study, we compared the relationship between propofol concentrations and bispectral index (BIS) in children versus young adults anesthetized with target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol. METHODS:Forty-five prepubertal subjects (children) and 45 postpubertal subjects (adults) were stu...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rigouzzo A,Girault L,Louvet N,Servin F,De-Smet T,Piat V,Seeman R,Murat I,Constant I

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • The analgesic effect of tramadol after intravenous injection in healthy volunteers in relation to CYP2D6.

    abstract::Tramadol analgesia results from a monoaminergic effect by tramadol itself and an opioid effect of its metabolite (+)-M1 formed by O-demethylation of tramadol by CYP2D6. In this study we sought to determine the impact of (+)-M1 on the analgesic effect of tramadol evaluated by experimental pain models. The effect of an ...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Enggaard TP,Poulsen L,Arendt-Nielsen L,Brøsen K,Ossig J,Sindrup SH

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thermal damage of the humidified ventilator circuit in the operating room: an analysis of plausible causes.

    abstract::Fire in the operating room is a rare but potentially devastating event. In this case report, we describe 2 separate fires of a Westmed heated humidification circuit. We conducted a detailed analysis of potential causes of the fires, including a simulation and series of experiments. Our conclusions were (1) a combinati...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laudanski K,Schwab WK,Bakuzonis CW,Paulus DA

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Neuraxial and Combined Neuraxial/General Anesthesia Compared to General Anesthesia for Major Truncal and Lower Limb Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    abstract::Neuraxial anesthesia may improve perioperative outcomes when compared to general anesthesia; however, this is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using randomized controlled trials and population-based observational studies identified in MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE from 2010 to May 31, 20...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Smith LM,Cozowicz C,Uda Y,Memtsoudis SG,Barrington MJ

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Case report: continuous interscalene block associated with neck hematoma and postoperative sepsis.

    abstract::Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is often used for the management of postoperative pain, even in ambulatory patients. The reported incidence of infectious complications after continuous nerve blockade is low. We report a case of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis after total shoulder arthroplasty in a patient who presen...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clendenen SR,Robards CB,Wang RD,Greengrass RA

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Safety and Efficacy of Volatile Anesthetic Agents Compared With Standard Intravenous Midazolam/Propofol Sedation in Ventilated Critical Care Patients: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Trials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Inhalation agents are being used in place of intravenous agents to provide sedation in some intensive care units. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials, which compared the use of volatile agents versus intravenous midazolam or propofol in critical care...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Jerath A,Panckhurst J,Parotto M,Lightfoot N,Wasowicz M,Ferguson ND,Steel A,Beattie WS

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Indirect versus direct measurement of brachial plexus depth.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Supraclavicular nerve blocks are effective but may be complicated by pneumothorax. We hypothesized that, to avoid this complication, the depths of the brachial plexus and the lung could be estimated to guide needle placement. In 17 patients undergoing surgical relief of thoracic outlet syndrome, we designate...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornish PB,Greenfield LJ,O'Reilly M,Allan L

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Reactive oxygen species as mediators of cardiac injury and protection: the relevance to anesthesia practice.

    abstract::Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are central to cardiac ischemic and reperfusion injury. They contribute to myocardial stunning, infarction and apoptosis, and possibly to the genesis of arrhythmias. Multiple laboratory studies and clinical trials have evaluated the use of scavengers of ROS to protect the heart from the e...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kevin LG,Novalija E,Stowe DF

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary edema induced by calcium-channel blockade for tocolysis.

    abstract::Nicardipine is used in the treatment of premature labor. There are no previous reports in the anesthesia literature of serious side effects associated with this drug. We report a case of pulmonary edema induced by nicardipine therapy for tocolysis in a pregnant 27-yr-old patient admitted to our hospital for preterm la...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bal L,Thierry S,Brocas E,Adam M,Van de Louw A,Tenaillon A

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Altered response to formalin by L5 spinal nerve ligation in rats: a behavioral and molecular study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The status of neuropathic pain alters the responsiveness to formalin injection in rats. However, the mechanism by which this alteration occurs is unknown. METHODS:We used immunocytochemistry to examine the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in t...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaku R,Yokoyama M,Kobayashi H,Matsuoka Y,Sato T,Mizobuchi S,Itano Y,Morita K

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which ...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muffly MK,Chen MI,Claure RE,Drover DR,Efron B,Fitch WL,Hammer GB

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ketamine and intraocular pressure in children.

    abstract::The effect of ketamine on intraocular pressure (IOP) was studied in 10 children. Control IOP values were determined prior to induction of anesthesia, following premedication with atropine alone or in combination with pentobarbital and meperidine. After the IM injection of 8 mg/kg of ketamine, the IOP was determined at...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ausinsch B,Rayburn RL,Munson ES,Levy NS

    更新日期:1976-11-01 00:00:00

  • Does Lactate Affect the Association of Early Hyperglycemia and Multiple Organ Failure in Severely Injured Blunt Trauma Patients?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Early hyperglycemia is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) after traumatic injury; however, few studies have considered the contribution of depth of clinical shock. We hypothesize that when considered simultaneously, glucose and lactate are associated with MOF in severely injured blunt trauma patien...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richards JE,Scalea TM,Mazzeffi MA,Rock P,Galvagno SM Jr

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of changes in operating pressure during high-frequency jet ventilation.

    abstract::Fifteen critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure were ventilated with high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV; frequency 100 breaths/min; I/E ratio 0.43; 1.8-mm internal diameter injector cannula). The patients were divided into two groups according to their initial PaO2 during intermittent positive pressur...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Benhamou D,Ecoffey C,Rouby JJ,Fusciardi J,Viars P

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bupivacaine for intercostal nerve blocks in children: blood concentrations and pharmacokinetics.

    abstract::A pharmacokinetic evaluation of bupivacaine was carried out after intercostal nerve blocks performed on 28 occasions in 27 children varying in age from 3 months to 16 yr. Bupivacaine HCl, 0.5%, with epinephrine 1:200,000 was employed. Doses of 2 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg resulted in peak whole blood arterial bupivac...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rothstein P,Arthur GR,Feldman HS,Kopf GS,Covino BG

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Distal nerve blocks at the wrist for outpatient carpal tunnel surgery offer intraoperative cardiovascular stability and reduce discharge time.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Carpal tunnel release is often performed as an outpatient procedure. We designed this retrospective study to assess the effect of different anesthesia techniques on intraoperative cardiovascular stability and discharge time. According to the anesthesia technique received, 62 consecutive patients were categor...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gebhard RE,Al-Samsam T,Greger J,Khan A,Chelly JE

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • The Mechanism of Mitral Regurgitation Influences the Temporal Dynamics of the Vena Contracta Area as Measured with Color Flow Doppler.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In patients with mitral regurgitation (MR), the effective regurgitant orifice area can be estimated by measuring the vena contracta area (VCA). We hypothesize that the VCA has characteristic temporal dynamics related to the underlying mechanism of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) versus degenerative mit...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cobey FC,Ashihkmina E,Edrich T,Fox J,Shook D,Bollen B,Breeze JL,Ursprung WW,Shernan SK

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic-dynamic relationship between rapacuronium (Org 9487) and its 3-desacetyl metabolite (Org 9488).

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Rapacuronium (Org 9487) is a rapid-onset and short- to intermediate-acting muscle relaxant. Its 3-desacetyl metabolite, Org 9488, also exerts neuromuscular-blocking activity that may become apparent after prolonged maintenance of relaxation with rapacuronium. In this study, the pharmacokinetic behavior (n = ...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schiere S,Proost JH,Schuringa M,Wierda JM

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Bilateral Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks Compared to Thoracic Epidural Analgesia After Midline Laparotomy: A Pragmatic Noninferiority Clinical Trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bilateral paravertebral block (PVB) is a suitable alternative to thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) for abdominal surgeries. This randomized clinical trial aims to determine if PVB is noninferior to TEA in terms of analgesia after midline laparotomy. METHODS:Seventy American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sondekoppam RV,Uppal V,Brookes J,Ganapathy S

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antithrombin III during cardiac surgery: effect on response of activated clotting time to heparin and relationship to markers of hemostatic activation.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent, antithrombin III (AT) levels affect the response of the activated clotting time (ACT) to heparin in concentrations used during cardiac surgery, and to characterize the relationship between AT levels and markers of activation of coagulation during c...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Despotis GJ,Levine V,Joist JH,Joiner-Maier D,Spitznagel E

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Thiopental and epinephrine-induced dysrhythmias in dogs anesthetized with enflurane or isoflurane.

    abstract::Epinephrine-induced dysrhythmias were studied in 19 dogs anesthetized with 1.25 MAC enflurane or isoflurane, or the same preceded by thiopental (20 mg/kg). In 11 (group 1) dogs, thiopental reduced the dose of epinephrine required for production of ventricular ectopy, bigeminy and tachycardia with enflurane, and only v...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Atlee JL 3rd,Roberts FL

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00

  • The division of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa: anatomical implications for popliteal nerve blockade.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:The sciatic nerve (SN) originates from the L4-S3 roots in the form of two nerve trunks: the tibial nerve (TN) and the common peroneal nerve (CPN). The TN and CPN are encompassed by a single epineural sheath and eventually separate (divide) in the popliteal fossa. This division of the SN occurs at a variable ...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vloka JD,Hadzić A,April E,Thys DM

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative life cycle assessment of disposable and reusable laryngeal mask airways.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Growing awareness of the negative impacts from the practice of health care on the environment and public health calls for the routine inclusion of life cycle criteria into the decision-making process of device selection. Here we present a life cycle assessment of 2 laryngeal mask airways (LMAs), a one-time-u...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eckelman M,Mosher M,Gonzalez A,Sherman J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Manual versus target-controlled infusion remifentanil administration in spontaneously breathing patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The combination of propofol-remifentanil for procedural deep sedation in spontaneously breathing patients is characterized by the frequent incidence of side effects, especially respiratory depression. These side effects may be due to either the drug combination or the drug delivery technique. Target-controll...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Moerman AT,Herregods LL,De Vos MM,Mortier EP,Struys MM

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of the effective therapeutic dose of intrathecal sufentanil for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Intrathecal (IT) sufentanil provides effective analgesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. However, the optimal dose of sufentanil has not been established. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study to determine the optimal dose of IT sufentanil. Sixty men were randomized to receiv...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lau WC,Green CR,Faerber GJ,Tait AR,Golembiewski JA

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with unanticipated day of surgery deaths in Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients of ASA physical status 1, 2, and 3 undergoing elective surgery do not have underlying conditions that are a constant threat to life, and hence should not be expected to be at significant risk for death on the day of surgery. METHODS:We analyzed 815,077 ASA physical status 1, 2, and 3 elective surge...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bishop MJ,Souders JE,Peterson CM,Henderson WG,Domino KB

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anatomical landmarks for femoral nerve block: a comparison of four needle insertion sites.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:The site for needle insertion in femoral nerve block varies significantly among various descriptions of the technique. To determine the site with the highest likelihood of needle-femoral nerve contact, femoral nerve block was simulated in a human cadaver model (17 femoral triangles from 9 adult cadavers). Fo...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vloka JD,Hadzić A,Drobnik L,Ernest A,Reiss W,Thys DM

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Possible overestimation of indocyanine green-derived plasma volume early after induction of anesthesia with propofol/fentanyl.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Apparently large plasma volumes derived by indocyanine green (PV-ICG) have been determined in the initial period after induction of anesthesia. We tested the hypothesis that possible overestimation of PV-ICG occurs shortly after anesthetic induction. Anesthesia was induced in 13 patients with fentanyl bolus ...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Mi WD,Ishihara H,Sakai T,Matsuki A

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Central nervous system effects of intrathecal muscle relaxants in rats.

    abstract::When given for a sufficient time and dose intravenously, neuromuscular blocking drugs eventually can enter the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To study the potential pharmacologic consequences of neuromuscular blocking drugs in the CSF, a model was developed in the rat by using an intrathecal infusion of these drugs. A can...

    journal_title:Anesthesia and analgesia

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Szenohradszky J,Trevor AJ,Bickler P,Caldwell JE,Sharma ML,Rampil IJ,Miller RD

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00