Inflammatory Response and Phenotyping in Severe Acute Respiratory Infection From the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Other Etiologies.


OBJECTIVES:In this study, we evaluated the inflammatory response in patients with severe acute respiratory infection due to the Middle East respiratory syndrome and non-Middle East respiratory syndrome and assessed the presence of distinct inflammatory subphenotypes using latent class analysis. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:A tertiary care ICU in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS:Consecutive critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection and non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection. INTERVENTION:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:We measured cytokines on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 of ICU stay. We included 116 patients (40 with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection and 76 with non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection). On ICU day 1, both patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection and non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection had higher levels of interleukin-3, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-17A, eotaxin, and epidermal growth factor compared with healthy controls. There were no differences in cytokines over time between patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection and non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection. Using day 1 cytokine levels, latent class analysis categorized patients into two subphenotypes: subphenotype 1 (n = 74 [64%]) and subphenotype 2 (n = 42 [36%]); the latter had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-1ra, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-7, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-12p70, interleukin-15, interleukin-17A, inducible protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interferon-α, and interferon-γ. Although baseline characteristics were not different between the two subphenotypes, patients in the subphenotype 2 had higher ICU mortality compared with the subphenotype 1 (18/42 [43%] vs 17/74 [23%]; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:One third of critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection and non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection demonstrated a subphenotype characterized by increased proinflammatory cytokines, consistent with cytokine storm. Further research is needed to examine whether immunomodulators have differential effects based on inflammatory subphenotypes.


Crit Care Med


Critical care medicine


Arabi YM,Jawdat D,Hajeer AH,Sadat M,Jose J,Vishwakarma RK,Almashaqbeh W,Al-Dawood A




Has Abstract


2021-02-01 00:00:00














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