Simultaneous quantification of commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs and their selected metabolites in aqueous environmental samples by direct injection and solid phase extraction liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.


:The widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy medication has made antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) a significant pharmaceutical class in regions of high HIV infection rates. However, relatively little is known regarding the environmental occurrence of these emerging contaminants, and this is especially true for their metabolites. In this work, we report analytical methods to study the simultaneous occurrence of a range of common ARVDs and some of their known metabolites in surface water and wastewater. A novel direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is reported for the analysis of ARVDs of different therapeutic classes and their selected metabolites in wastewater samples. In addition, a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for pre-concentration of ARVs and metabolites from surface water samples. The respective methods proved suitable for the quantitative analysis of six parent ARVDs from three ARV classes, as well as three metabolites. Method validation showed average recoveries of 86% for the direct injection method, and 64% for the SPE method. With the exception of Zidovudine and the metabolites of Zidovudine and Ritonavir, all target ARVDs were detected in wastewater samples from two wastewater treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Higher concentrations were generally measured in influent compared to effluent samples, in the dry compared to the wet season as well as in chlorinated compared to uv-irradiated effluents. This study contributes for the first time quantitative data on the environmental occurrence of the known metabolites of Nevirapine (12-hydroxy-Nevirapine) and Efavirenz (8,14-dihydroxy-Efavirenz).






Mosekiemang TT,Stander MA,de Villiers A




Has Abstract


2019-04-01 00:00:00












  • Organophosphate esters in total suspended particulates of an urban city in East China.

    abstract::Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment, but little is known on the occurrence and distribution of OPEs in the background atmosphere of urban environments. In this study, air samples were collected from two sites in the city of Shanghai, a typical fast developing metropolitan of Ea...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ren G,Chen Z,Feng J,Ji W,Zhang J,Zheng K,Yu Z,Zeng X

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Formation of metal-organic ligand complexes affects solubility of metals in airborne particles at an urban site in the Po valley.

    abstract::Metals in atmospheric aerosols play potentially an important role in human health and ocean primary productivity. However, the lack of knowledge about solubility and speciation of metal ions in the particles or after solubilisation in aqueous media (sea or surface waters, cloud or rain droplets, biological fluids) lim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tapparo A,Di Marco V,Badocco D,D'Aronco S,Soldà L,Pastore P,Mahon BM,Kalberer M,Giorio C

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Immunoquantitation of cytochromes P450 1A and P450 2B and comparison with chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in archived polar bear liver samples.

    abstract::The present study examined the utility of an immunoblot method for quantitation of cytochrome P450 isozymes in archived liver samples as a bioassay of exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons. Hepatic microsomes were prepared from 44 archived polar bear (Ursus maritimus) liver homogenates that had been stored at approxima...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bandiera SM,Torok SM,Letcher RJ,Norstrom RJ

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring potential contributors to endocrine disrupting activities in Taiwan's surface waters using yeast assays and chemical analysis.

    abstract::Surface waters serve as sinks for anthropogenic contaminants, including naturally occurring hormones and a variety of synthetic endocrine active substances. To investigate the presence of endocrine active contaminants in the aquatic environment in Taiwan, river water and suspended solids were analyzed by yeast assays ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chou PH,Lin YL,Liu TC,Chen KY

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mobility of rare earth elements in mine drainage: Influence of iron oxides, carbonates, and phosphates.

    abstract::The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) was investigated using weathering cells. The influence of sorption and precipitation on dissolved REE mobility and fractionation is evaluated using synthetic iron-oxides, carbonates, and phosphates. Sorption cell tests are conducted on the main lithologies of the e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edahbi M,Plante B,Benzaazoua M,Ward M,Pelletier M

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Degradation of sulfide linkages between isoprenes by lipid peroxidation catalyzed by manganese peroxidase.

    abstract::Scission of sulfide linkages in vulcanized rubber has been a major concern since the early 20th century, because devulcanization is a key process for recycling waste rubber products as polymer materials that pose low environmental risks. We herein demonstrate that lipid peroxidation (LPO) of linoleic acid by manganese...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sato S,Ohashi Y,Kojima M,Watanabe T,Honda Y,Watanabe T

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Reduction of the phenolic components in olive-mill wastewater by an enzymatic treatment and its impact on durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) germinability.

    abstract::Olive-mill wastewater (OMW), an effluent of olive oil extraction process, is annually produced in huge amounts in olive growing areas. An interesting option for its disposal is the spreading on agricultural land, provided that phytotoxic effects are neutralized. The objective of the present investigation was to evalua...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Casa R,D'Annibale A,Pieruccetti F,Stazi SR,Giovannozzi Sermanni G,Lo Cascio B

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mycelium growth and degradation of creosote-treated wood by basydiomycetes.

    abstract::Tolerance of wood decay fungi of the genera Agrocybe, Armillaria, Auricularia, Daedalea, Pleurotus, Trametes to the presence of various amounts of creosote-treated wood (CTW) in the growth medium was compared. In the case of the most tolerant strain, Pleurotus ostreatus SMR 684, extracellular laccase and peroxidase sp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galli E,Brancaleoni E,Di Mario F,Donati E,Frattoni M,Polcaro CM,Rapanà P

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic susceptibility to dioxin-like chemicals' induction of cytochrome P4501A2 in the human adult linked to specific AhRR polymorphism.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dioxin-like chemicals are known to exert their effect by binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), forming complexes with aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT), and binding to dioxin responsive elements (DREs) in promoter region to regulate the transcription of specific genes. In a previous study of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hung WT,Lambert GH,Huang PW,Patterson DG Jr,Guo YL

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Health risk assessment of trace elements of ambient PM2.5 under monsoon patterns.

    abstract::In order to identify the contribution to health risk derived from various emission sources, this study investigated monsoon variations in PM2.5 mass and concentrations of the associated trace elements in a region with complex pollution sources in central Taiwan. This study applied the Chemical Mass Balance model to an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen CR,Lai HC,Liao MI,Hsiao MC,Ma HW

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrolytic degradation of azimsulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide.

    abstract::The chemical degradation of the herbicide azimsulfuron was investigated in aqueous solutions at different pH values. The hydrolysis rate, determined by HPLC analyses, was pH dependent and was much faster in acidic than in neutral or weakly basic conditions. The metabolites formed at different pH values were compared w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boschin G,D'Agostina A,Antonioni C,Locati D,Arnoldi A

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Environmentally relevant concentrations of glibenclamide induce oxidative stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    abstract::The hypoglycemic pharmaceutical glibenclamide (GLB) is widely used around the world. This medication is released into the environment by municipal, hospital and industrial wastewater discharges. Although there are reports of its environmental occurrence in the scientific literature, toxicity studies on aquatic species...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guadalupe Martínez-Viveros EM,Islas-Flores H,Dublán-García O,Galar-Martínez M,SanJuan-Reyes N,García-Medina S,Hernández-Navarro MD,Gómez-Oliván LM

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of synthetic organic insecticides in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A comparative study of deltamethrin, acephate, and thiamethoxam.

    abstract::Synthetic organic insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, neonicotinoids and other types, have the potential to alter the ecosystems and many are harmful to humans. This study examines the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of three synthetic organic insecticides, including deltamethrin (DM), acep...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Zhang Q,Li S,Mi P,Chen D,Zhao X,Feng X

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Bioaccumulation and critical body residue of PAHs in the amphipod, Diporeia spp: additional evidence to support toxicity additivity for PAH mixtures.

    abstract::Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to act additively when exposed as congener mixtures. Additive internal concentrations at the site of toxic action is the basis for recent efforts to establish a sum PAH guideline for sediment-associated PAH toxicity. This study determined the toxicity of several P...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Landrum PF,Lotufo GR,Gossiaux DC,Gedeon ML,Lee JH

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    abstract::Lichens and mosses are considered good indicators of atmospheric pollution as they absorb contaminants directly from the air. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are man-made chemicals used as flame retardants in materials such as plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry and furnishing foam. Few studies have invest...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yogui GT,Sericano JL

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Kinetics of glucocorticoid exposure in developing zebrafish: A tracer study.

    abstract::In the current study the dynamics of glucocorticoid uptake by zebrafish chorionated embryos from the surrounding medium were studied, using 2.5 μM cortisol or dexamethasone solutions complemented with their tritiated variant. We measured the uptake of radioactive cortisol by embryos during a 1 h submersion. Interestin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steenbergen PJ,Bardine N,Sharif F

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • High time resolution observation of PM2.5 Brown carbon over Xi'an in northwestern China: Seasonal variation and source apportionment.

    abstract::There is growing evidence suggesting the enhancement of brown carbon (BrC) in severe haze episodes. In this study, hourly measurements of BrC in PM2.5 were conducted in Xi'an, a typical city in northwestern China during winter and summer. The absorption coefficient for methanol exacts at 365 nm (babs365, methanol, whi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lei Y,Shen Z,Zhang T,Lu D,Zeng Y,Zhang Q,Xu H,Bei N,Wang X,Cao J

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Fate of 4-nonylphenol in a biosolids amended soil.

    abstract::The fate of the endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) in an agricultural soil amended with biosolids was assessed in a greenhouse study. A biosolids with a total NP concentration of 900 mg kg(-1) was incorporated into the 4 cm surface layer of soil columns at an agronomic rate equivalent to 1.7 kg m(2). Hal...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown S,Devin-Clarke D,Doubrava M,O'Connor G

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • The metabolism of n-nonane in male Fischer 344 rats.

    abstract::The urinary metabolites of n-nonane in male Fischer 344 rats, after administering the hydrocarbon by gavage, included gamma-valerolactone, delta-hexanolactone, 2,5-hexanedione, delta-heptanolactone, 1-heptanol, 2-nonanol, 3-nonanol, 4-nonanol, 4-nonanone and 5-methyl-2-(3-oxobutyl)furan. Metabolism strongly favored th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Serve MP,Bombick DD,Baughman TM,Jarnot BM,Ketcha M,Mattie DR

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Rapid and sensitive on-line monitoring 6 different kinds of volatile organic compounds in aqueous samples by spray inlet proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (SI-PTR-MS).

    abstract::Rapid and sensitive monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aqueous samples is very important to human health and environmental protection. In this study, an on-line spray inlet proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (SI-PTR-MS) method was developed for the rapid and sensitive monitoring of 6 different ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zou X,Kang M,Wang H,Huang C,Shen C,Chu Y

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Aquatic toxicity of glyphosate-based formulations: comparison between different organisms and the effects of environmental factors.

    abstract::Glyphosate-based herbicides (e.g. Roundup) are extensively used in the aquatic environment, but there is a paucity of data on the toxicity of the formulated products and the influences by environmental factors. In this study, the acute toxicity of technical-grade glyphosate acid, isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsui MT,Chu LM

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of applying chemical fertilizers on forms of lead and cadmium in red soil.

    abstract::A three-month incubation study was undertaken to examine the influence of N, P and K on the various forms (soluble plus exchangeable (SE), weakly specifically adsorbed (WSA), Fe-Mn oxides bound (OX), organic matter complexed (OM) and residual fractions (RES)) of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in a red soil. Application of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tu C,Zheng CR,Chen HM

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • A multiregional survey of nickel in outdoor air particulate matter in China: Implication for human exposure.

    abstract::Nickel is a widespread environmental contaminant, and it is toxic to humans in certain forms at high doses. Despite this, nationwide data on nickel in outdoor air particulate matter and human exposure to nickel through inhalation in China are limited. In the present study, 662 outdoor air samples from seven representa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li H,Wan Y,Chen X,Cheng L,Yang X,Xia W,Xu S,Zhang H

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs on adrenocortical steroidogenesis in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    abstract::Some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment have been shown to exert their biological effects through interference with steroidogenesis. In this study, the potential effects of four selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB101, PCB110, PCB126 and PCB149) as well as several of their envir...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu Y,Yu RM,Zhang X,Murphy MB,Giesy JP,Lam MH,Lam PK,Wu RS,Yu H

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution pattern of ambient cadmium in wetland ponds distributed along an industrial complex.

    abstract::Water and sediment samples collected from 18 wetland ponds within and outside industrial areas were examined for cadmium concentration and water quality parameters during the period of January to July 1996. The Cd contents in gill, liver, mantle and shell of freshwater mussel (Lamellidens marginalis) as well as leaves...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Das S,Jana BB

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Developing polyetherimide/graphitic carbon nitride floating photocatalyst with good photodegradation performance of methyl orange under light irradiation.

    abstract::Polyetherimide-graphitic carbon nitride (PEI-g-C3N4) floating photocatalyst has been synthesized by using polyetherimide (PEI) as linker to bind graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) together. XRD and XPS analysis for PEI-g-C3N4 show that the interaction between PEI and g-C3N4 does not disturb the structure of g-C3N4. FTI...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guo Y,Wang R,Wang P,Li Y,Wang C

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Co-sintering MSWI fly ash with electrolytic manganese residue and coal fly ash for lightweight ceramisite.

    abstract::The MSWI fly ash (FA) is classified as hazardous waste and electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) as the harmful industrial waste. FA, water-washed FA (WFA), EMR and coal fly ash (CFA) were co-recycled to form lightweight MFCE ceramisites. The effects of FA, WFA and mixed MSWI fly ash on ceramisites were discussed. The ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhan X,Wang L,Wang L,Gong J,Wang X,Song X,Xu T

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of tissue-blood partition coefficients for a physiological model for humans, and estimation of dioxin concentration in tissues.

    abstract::The tissue-blood partition coefficients for a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model were determined, and the concentrations of 17 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in tissues in Japanese people were estimated using the model. According to the PBPK m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maruyama W,Yoshida K,Tanaka T,Nakanishi J

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of natural and anthropogenic influences on the Guadalquivir River (Spain) by dissolved heavy metals and nutrients.

    abstract::To evaluate both the natural and anthropogenic influences on surface waters of Guadalquivir River (SW-Spain), concentrations of dissolved trace metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb), inorganic nutrients (N-NH(4)(+), N-NO(3)(-), N-NO(2)(-), and P-PO(4)(3-)) and other variables as conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen (D...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mendiguchía C,Moreno C,García-Vargas M

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of DA-6 and EDTA alone or in combination on uptake, subcellular distribution and chemical form of Pb in Lolium perenne.

    abstract::The effects of growth-promoting hormone diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) and EDTA, either alone or in combination applied to original soil or lead (Pb) spiked soil on Pb phytoextraction, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in Lolium perenne were studied. EDTA addition alone significantly reduced plant bioma...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: He S,Wu Q,He Z

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00