Simultaneous quantification of commonly prescribed antiretroviral drugs and their selected metabolites in aqueous environmental samples by direct injection and solid phase extraction liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.


:The widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy medication has made antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) a significant pharmaceutical class in regions of high HIV infection rates. However, relatively little is known regarding the environmental occurrence of these emerging contaminants, and this is especially true for their metabolites. In this work, we report analytical methods to study the simultaneous occurrence of a range of common ARVDs and some of their known metabolites in surface water and wastewater. A novel direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is reported for the analysis of ARVDs of different therapeutic classes and their selected metabolites in wastewater samples. In addition, a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was developed for pre-concentration of ARVs and metabolites from surface water samples. The respective methods proved suitable for the quantitative analysis of six parent ARVDs from three ARV classes, as well as three metabolites. Method validation showed average recoveries of 86% for the direct injection method, and 64% for the SPE method. With the exception of Zidovudine and the metabolites of Zidovudine and Ritonavir, all target ARVDs were detected in wastewater samples from two wastewater treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Higher concentrations were generally measured in influent compared to effluent samples, in the dry compared to the wet season as well as in chlorinated compared to uv-irradiated effluents. This study contributes for the first time quantitative data on the environmental occurrence of the known metabolites of Nevirapine (12-hydroxy-Nevirapine) and Efavirenz (8,14-dihydroxy-Efavirenz).






Mosekiemang TT,Stander MA,de Villiers A




Has Abstract


2019-04-01 00:00:00












  • Concentrations of trace elements in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida, USA.

    abstract::Concentrations of 28 trace elements (Li, Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl, Hg, Pb, and Bi) in the livers of juvenile and adult American alligators inhabiting two central Florida lakes, Lake Apopka (LA), and Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (LW) and one lag...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horai S,Itai T,Noguchi T,Yasuda Y,Adachi H,Hyobu Y,Riyadi AS,Boggs AS,Lowers R,Guillette LJ Jr,Tanabe S

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Photodegradation of brominated flame retardants in polystyrene: Quantum yields, products and influencing factors.

    abstract::Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used as additives in plastics, textiles and electronics materials. Here, we investigated the photodegradation of four BFRs including decabromobiphenylether (BDE-209), tetrabromobipsphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A-bis(2,3-dibromopropylether) (TBBPA-DBPE) and tetrabr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khaled A,Richard C,Rivaton A,Jaber F,Sleiman M

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • The role of metals in dioxin formation from combustion of newspapers and polyvinyl chloride in an incinerator.

    abstract::Newspapers impregnated with NaCl mixed with various chloride metals (CuCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl3, NiCl2, and CoCl2) and electric wire coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were combusted in a well-controlled incinerator. Exhaust gas samples collected at the outlet of the incinerator were analyzed for dioxins (PCDDs, PCD...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yasuhara A,Tanaka Y,Katami T,Shibamoto T

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • PCDD/F, PAH and heavy metals in the sewage sludge from six wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China.

    abstract::In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals, PCDD/F and PAHs in sewage sludge was investigated from six different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Beijing City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Zn in Wujiacun (WJC) sewage sludge, and Cd...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai J,Xu M,Chen J,Yang X,Ke Z

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of organic loading rate on the removal of DMF, MC and IPA by a pilot-scale AnMBR for treating chemical synthesis-based antibiotic solvent wastewater.

    abstract::This study focuses on the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on the removal of N,N-Dimethylformamide(DMF), m-Cresol (MC) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) by a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for treating chemical synthesis-based antibiotic solvent wastewater at period of improved influent COD concentra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen Z,Su H,Hu D,Jia F,Li Z,Cui Y,Ran C,Wang X,Xu J,Xiao T,Li X,Wang H

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Glutathione biosynthesis and regeneration play an important role in the metabolism of chlorothalonil in tomato.

    abstract::Glutathione is one of the major endogenous antioxidants produced by cells. In plants, glutathione is crucial for both abiotic and biotic stress resistance, and also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics in many organisms. However, as in vivo evidences of glutathione function are still lacking so far, its roles...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu GB,Zhang Y,Ahammed GJ,Xia XJ,Mao WH,Shi K,Zhou YH,Yu JQ

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Nanomaterials application for heavy metals recovery from polluted water: The combination of nano zero-valent iron and carbon nanotubes. Competitive adsorption non-linear modeling.

    abstract::Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vilardi G,Mpouras T,Dermatas D,Verdone N,Polydera A,Di Palma L

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Combined fluorescent measurements, parallel factor analysis and GC-mass spectrometry in evaluating the photodegradation of PAHS in freshwater systems.

    abstract::To better understand the transformation and photochemical fate of PAHs in aquatic environments, a custom-designed closed-circuit recirculation photodegradation system, combined with inline semi-continuous fluorescence and absorbance measurements, as well as modelling of excitation-emission (EEM) measurements with para...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seopela MP,Powers LC,Clark C,Heyes A,Gonsior M

    更新日期:2020-12-21 00:00:00

  • Soil temperature and moisture effects on the persistence of synthetic androgen 17alpha-trenbolone, 17beta-trenbolone and trendione.

    abstract::Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic androgenic steroid hormone administered as a subcutaneous implant for growth promotion in beef cattle. The primary metabolite excreted in manure from implanted cattle is 17alpha-trenbolone with lesser amounts of 17beta-trenbolone and trendione also present. At 22 degrees C and f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khan B,Lee LS

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Passive samplers versus surfactant extraction for the evaluation of PAH availability in sediments with variable levels of contamination.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barthe M,Pelletier E,Breedveld GD,Cornelissen G

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Development of rearing and testing protocols for a new freshwater sediment test species: the gastropod Valvata piscinalis.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ducrot V,Cognat C,Mons R,Mouthon J,Garric J

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Air and soil dioxin levels at three sites in Italy in proximity to MSW incineration plants.

    abstract::Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) in both air and soil samples were measured at three different sites in Italy, in proximity to three municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) to determine baseline contamination and the contributory role of incinerator emissio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caserini S,Cernuschi S,Giugliano M,Grosso M,Lonati G,Mattaini P

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Organophosphate esters in total suspended particulates of an urban city in East China.

    abstract::Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment, but little is known on the occurrence and distribution of OPEs in the background atmosphere of urban environments. In this study, air samples were collected from two sites in the city of Shanghai, a typical fast developing metropolitan of Ea...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ren G,Chen Z,Feng J,Ji W,Zhang J,Zheng K,Yu Z,Zeng X

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Enhanced removal of Cr(VI) via in-situ synergistic reduction and fixation by polypyrrole/sugarcane bagasse composites.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen Z,Pan K

    更新日期:2021-01-11 00:00:00

  • A novel method based on 220Rn (thoron) exhalation rate of indoor surfaces for robust estimates of 220Rn concentration and equilibrium factor to compute inhalation dose.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanse SD,Sahoo BK,Gaware JJ,Sapra BK

    更新日期:2021-03-01 00:00:00

  • Application of a behavioural and biochemical endpoint in ecotoxicity testing with Exaiptasia pallida.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ianna ML,Reichelt-Brushett A,Howe PL,Brushett D

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Overabundance of endocrine disruptors (EDs), such as steroid estrogens, in the natural environment disrupts hormone synthesis in aquatic organisms. Livestock and wastewater outflows contribute measurable quantities of steroid estrogens into the environment where they are picked up and transported via surface runoff an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhao X,Grimes KL,Colosi LM,Lung WS

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaurin A,Cernilogar Z,Lestan D

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Narra MR

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Francisco AP,Harner T,Eng A

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Harnessing oil sands microbial communities for use in ex situ naphthenic acid bioremediation.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Demeter MA,Lemire J,George I,Yue G,Ceri H,Turner RJ

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of seasonal climate differences on the pharmaceutical, hormone and personal care product removal efficiency of a drinking water treatment plant.

    abstract::The potential presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones and personal care products in drinking water supplies has raised concerned over the efficiency with which these substances are removed by water treatment processes. In this work, we analyzed samples of raw, unprocessed water collected in different periods and found t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Azzouz A,Ballesteros E

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Screening study of four environmentally relevant microplastic pollutants: Uptake and effects on Daphnia magna and Artemia franciscana.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kokalj AJ,Kunej U,Skalar T

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Advanced nitrogen removal of low C/N ratio sewage in an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic process through enhanced post-endogenous denitrification.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao X,Zhang T,Wang B,Xu Z,Zhang L,Peng Y

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu X,Jin X,Su R,Li Z

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tea saponin enhanced biodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether by Brevibacillus brevis.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tang S,Bai J,Yin H,Ye J,Peng H,Liu Z,Dang Z

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang Y,Lohwacharin J,Takizawa S,Hou LA

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li H,Wan Y,Chen X,Cheng L,Yang X,Xia W,Xu S,Zhang H

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical industry reduces emissions--from production to the consumer.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hugl H,Gürtler C

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oyama TM,Saito M,Yonezawa T,Okano Y,Oyama Y

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00