Engaging young adult clients of community pharmacies for HIV screening in Coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study.


BACKGROUND:Adults in developing countries frequently use community pharmacies as the first and often only source of care. The objective of this study was to assess the success of pharmacy referrals and uptake of HIV testing by young adult clients of community pharmacies in the context of a screening programme for acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). METHODS:We requested five pharmacies to refer clients meeting predefined criteria (ie, 18-29 years of age and requesting treatment for fever, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms or body pains) for HIV-1 testing and AHI screening at selected clinics. Using multivariable logistical regression, we determined client characteristics associated with HIV-1 test uptake. RESULTS:From February through July 2013, 1490 pharmacy clients met targeting criteria (range of weekly averages across pharmacies: 4-35). Of these, 1074 (72%) accepted a referral coupon, 377 (25%) reported at a study clinic, 353 (24%) were HIV-1 tested and 127 (9%) met criteria for the AHI study. Of those tested, 14 (4.0%) were HIV-1 infected. Test uptake varied significantly by referring pharmacy and was higher for clients who presented at the pharmacy without a prescription versus those with a prescription, and for clients who sought care for STI symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:About a quarter of targeted pharmacy clients took up HIV-1 testing. Clients seeking care directly at the pharmacy (ie, without a prescription) and those with STI symptoms were more likely to take up HIV-1 testing. Engagement of adult pharmacy clients for HIV-1 screening may identify undiagnosed individuals and offers opportunities for HIV-1 prevention research.


Sex Transm Infect


Mugo PM,Prins HA,Wahome EW,Mwashigadi GM,Thiong'o AN,Gichuru E,Omar A,Graham SM,Sanders EJ




Has Abstract


2015-06-01 00:00:00














  • Antibodies to Trichomonas vaginalis surface glycolipid.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Human trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease, yet immune responses are not well studied. METHODS:Since the Trichomonas vaginalis lipophosphoglycan (TvLPG) is an important virulence factor, a bank of eight monoclonal antibodies was generated to define the antigen in clinical...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bastida-Corcuera FD,Singh BN,Gray GC,Stamper PD,Davuluri M,Schlangen K,Corbeil RR,Corbeil LB

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Homosexual men's HIV related sexual risk behaviour in Scotland.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To date, the epidemic of HIV infection in Scotland has been primarily associated with injecting drug use. However, the epidemiology of HIV in Scotland changed in the late 1980s, with homosexual men becoming the largest group at risk of HIV infection and AIDS. Our aim was to describe homosexual men's sexual ri...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hart GJ,Flowers P,Der GJ,Frankis JS

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Donovanosis.

    abstract::Donovanosis, a chronic cause of genital ulceration, has recently been the subject of renewed interest after a long period of relative obscurity. The causative organism, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, has been cultured for the first time in many years and a polymerase chain reaction diagnostic using a colorimetric de...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: O'Farrell N

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Acute hepatitis A infection after hepatitis A immunity in a HIV-positive individual.

    abstract::Hepatitis A is a self-limiting infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), transmitted predominantly by the faecal-oral route including some sexual practices. Outbreaks are commonly reported in the men who have sex with men (population. Previous exposure is thought to provide life-long immunity against subsequent...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee MJ,Douthwaite S,Kulasegaram R

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hopes interrupted: accessing and experiences of antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Using the example of South Africa, this study aimed to examine and obtain a better understanding of the experiences and challenges of urban and rural patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in accessing this complex treatment in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:Following a narrative approach, in-depth i...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fried J,Harris B,Eyles J

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Rates of condom and non-condom-based anal intercourse practices among homosexually active men in Australia: deliberate HIV risk reduction?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Three decades into the HIV epidemic and with the advancement of HIV treatments, condom and non-condom-based anal intercourse among gay men in resource-rich countries needs to be re-assessed. METHODS:The proportions of men engaging in a range of anal intercourse practices were estimated from the ongoing cross...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mao L,Kippax SC,Holt M,Prestage GP,Zablotska IB,de Wit JB

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Escalation in the relative prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant gonorrhoea among men with urethral discharge in two South African cities: association with HIV seropositivity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant gonorrhoea in two South African cities and to investigate the association between the isolation of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the HIV serostatus of patients. METHODS:Gonococci were cultured from endo...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Lewis DA,Scott L,Slabbert M,Mhlongo S,van Zijl A,Sello M,du Plessis N,Radebe F,Wasserman E

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Relative prevalence of different sexually transmitted infections in HIV-discordant sexual partnerships: data from a risk network study in a high-risk New York neighbourhood.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To determine infection patterns of sexually transmitted infections that facilitate HIV transmission among HIV-discordant couples. METHODS:112 initial respondents were recruited in an impoverished neighbourhood of Brooklyn, New York. Their sexual (and injection) partners were recruited in up to four addition...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedman SR,Bolyard M,Sandoval M,Mateu-Gelabert P,Maslow C,Zenilman J

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Enhancing help-seeking behaviour among men who have sex with men at risk for sexually transmitted infections: the syn.bas.in randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for STIs and mental disorders. Syndemic theory holds that psychosocial issues co-occur and interact, and thus increase sexual risk behaviour. Psychosocial issue identification, referral and management might reduce risk behaviour. METHODS:In the syndemic-...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Achterbergh RCA,van Rooijen MS,van den Brink W,Boyd A,de Vries HJC

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis in men.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in a large number of male patients attending a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic and to determine if there is an association with objective non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in patients with and without clinical symptoms. METHODS:Patients were test...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moi H,Reinton N,Moghaddam A

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • The first case record of a female patient with bubonic lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), serovariant L2b.

    abstract::Since 2003, a lymphogranuloma venereum epidemic has been reported in The Netherlands and other European countries. This epidemic is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovariant L2b and has only been seen in men having sex with men. The authors investigated a woman presenting with a bubo in her right groin. The authors ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verweij SP,Ouburg S,de Vries H,Morré SA,van Ginkel CJ,Bos H,Sebens FW

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • High-risk sexual behaviours among gay and bisexual men: comparing event-level casual sex encounters among seroconverters and non-seroconverters.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:With increasing use of non-condom-based HIV risk reduction strategies by gay and bisexual men (GBM), we compared occasions of condomless anal intercourse with casual partners (CLAIC) that resulted in HIV transmission and similar occasions when HIV transmission did not occur. METHODS:We compared two demograp...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Down I,Ellard J,Triffitt K,Zablotska I,Hurley M,Brown G,Bradley J,Prestage G

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Genitourinary medicine clinic and general practitioner contact: what do patients want?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:While genitourinary medicine (GUM) records have historically been kept separate from other medical data, patient information is increasingly shared across the NHS. There are advantages to this in GUM: GPs are increasingly involved in delivering targets for STI screening and sexual health services. We ascerta...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernando I,Clutterbuck D

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • The application of qualitative research methods to the study of sexually transmitted infections.

    abstract::Qualitative methods have gained support in health sciences research and have a role to play in STI studies. This article reviews the main techniques used by qualitative researchers, with illustrations taken from the field of STIs. ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Power R

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • The superiority of polymerase chain reaction over an amplified enzyme immunoassay for the detection of genital chlamydial infections.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:The polymer conjugate enhanced enzyme immunoassay (IDEIA) and Cobas Amplicor polymerase chain reaction Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (Amplicor PCR) are two commonly used assays for the diagnosis of CT infection. The performance of these assays was compared for the diagnosis of genital CT infection am...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jalal H,Stephen H,Al-Suwaine A,Sonnex C,Carne C

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of HIV on adult (15-54) mortality in London: 1979-96.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the impact of HIV on mortality in men and women aged 15-54 in London. DESIGN:Combination of routine mortality statistics with reports of AIDS deaths adjusted for underreporting and change in address from time of report to time of death. Calculation of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for male...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hickman M,Bardsley M,De Angelis D,Ward H

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Risky business: health and safety in the sex industry over a 9 year period.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess whether a previously established low sexually transmitted infection/HIV risk in prostitutes in London has been sustained, and to measure other occupational risks, including mortality. DESIGN:9 year prospective study in west London. SUBJECTS:402 prostitutes recruited from 1985 to 1991, 320 were fo...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ward H,Day S,Weber J

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To describe the epidemiology of type specific recurrent genital herpes, and to compare the duration of recurrent genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. METHODS:Participants were enrolled at clinics across the United States. Adults suspected of having active genital herpes were e...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solomon L,Cannon MJ,Reyes M,Graber JM,Wetherall NT,Reeves WC,Task Force on Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance.

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis: results from the first national population-based survey in France.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Few studies have estimated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) prevalence in the general population, most prevalence studies being based on people already attending healthcare settings. OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence of CT in France, assess the feasibility of home sampling without any face-to-face interventio...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Goulet V,de Barbeyrac B,Raherison S,Prudhomme M,Semaille C,Warszawski J,CSF group.

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Maximising the potential of voluntary counselling and testing for HIV: sexually transmitted infections and HIV epidemiology in a population testing for HIV and its implications for practice.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among persons who attended voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service for HIV and to assess whether the VCT programme reached the right population at risk in Taiwan. METHODS:From 2006 to 2010, ques...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu H,Wu PY,Li SY,Chang SY,Liu WC,Wu CH,Lo YC,Hsieh CY,Sun HY,Hung CC

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Condom deserts: geographical disparities in condom availability and their relationship with rates of sexually transmitted infections.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Identifying predictors that contribute to geographical disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is necessary. This study assesses the spatial relationship between condom availability to locations of STIs in order to better understand these geographical disparities. OBJECTIVES:We conducted a con...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shacham E,Nelson EJ,Schulte L,Bloomfield M,Murphy R

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Meeting sexual partners online: associated sexual behaviour and prevalent chlamydia infection among adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Evidence is mixed as to whether meeting sexual partners online ('internet-partners') is associated with risky sexual behaviour and/or sexually transmitted infection transmission. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of reporting various online romantic and sexual activities among Norwegian adole...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gravningen K,Aicken CR,Schirmer H,Mercer CH

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • To pool or not to pool? Screening of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female sex workers: pooled versus single-site testing.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:As Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most commonly reported STIs in Belgium and the majority of women infected are asymptomatic, targeted screening of patients in specified risk groups is indicated. To prevent long-term complications and interrupt transmission, extragenital sa...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verougstraete N,Verbeke V,De Cannière AS,Simons C,Padalko E,Coorevits L

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • A survey of the use of text messaging for communication with partners in the process of provider-led partner notification.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Partner notification (PN) is important for sexually transmitted infection (STI) control. With developments in technology, such as text messaging, contacting partners is now easier. This study investigates the frequency and acceptability of text messaging in UK sexual health clinics for STI provider-led PN. ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gilbart VL,Town K,Lowndes CM

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Application of cumulative odds logistic model on risk factors analysis for sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan province, China.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among female sex workers (FSW) in Kaiyuan city, Yunnan province, China, and to identify risk factors associated with STI. METHODS:A cross-sectional study of 737 FSW was carried out from March to May 2006, with confidential interviews a...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Wang N,Bi A,Wang G,Ding G,Jia M,Lu L,Smith K

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Syndromic approach to STD case management: where do we go from here?

    abstract::In the absence of aetiological tests for the diagnosis of individual sexually transmitted diseases (STD), the syndromic approach has been developed as an effective and appropriate case management strategy. Algorithms provide guidance to healthcare workers and ensure standardised approaches to case management. The synd...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Dam CJ,Becker KM,Ndowa F,Islam MQ

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • DNA detection and seroprevalence of human papillomavirus in a cohort of adolescent women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in adolescent women, while the rare cancerous sequelae of HPV infections do not generally occur until the 4th or 5th decades of life. This prospective study of a cohort of adolescent women was performed to further our knowledge of the natural history of incide...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ermel AC,Shew ML,Weaver BA,Qadadri B,Denski C,Tu W,Tong Y,Fortenberry JD,Brown DR

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • What men who have sex with men think about the human papillomavirus vaccine.

    abstract::This study aimed to ascertain the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and to determine the age at which MSM would be willing to ask for the HPV vaccine in relation to their age of sexual debut. Of 205 MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between December 2...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simatherai D,Bradshaw CS,Fairley CK,Bush M,Heley S,Chen MY

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of syphilis seroreactivity and prevalence of HIV among street recruited injection drug users in Los Angeles County, 1994-6.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To describe HIV prevalence and the association between syphilis incidence and sexual and drug injection risk behaviours in a cohort of street recruited injecting drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles County, between 1994 and 1996. METHODS:During the study period, 513 street recruited African-American and Latino ...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: López-Zetina J,Ford W,Weber M,Barna S,Woerhle T,Kerndt P,Monterroso E

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Symptomatic HPV-related neovaginal lesions in transgender women: case series and review of literature.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Worldwide, transgender women are an at-risk population for contracting sexually transmitted infections. Little information exists on symptoms and characteristics of neovaginal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and associated diseases. We describe a case series of transgender women with symptomatic HPV-rel...

    journal_title:Sexually transmitted infections

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Sluis WB,Buncamper ME,Bouman MB,Neefjes-Borst EA,Heideman DAM,Steenbergen RDM,Mullender MG

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00