Advance directives and living wills.


:Under certain circumstances, living wills or advance directives may carry legal force in the UK. This paper traces the development of advance directives, clarifies their current legal position and discusses potential problems with their use. Case histories are used to illustrate some of the common dilemmas which doctors may face.


Postgrad Med J


Stewart K,Bowker L




Has Abstract


1998-03-01 00:00:00












  • Management of leg ulcers.

    abstract::Leg ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity among older subjects, especially women in the Western world. About 400 years BC, Hippocrates wrote, "In case of an ulcer, it is not expedient to stand, especially if the ulcer be situated on the leg". Hippocrates himself had a leg ulcer. The best treatment of any leg ulcer dep...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sarkar PK,Ballantyne S

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pitfalls in the interpretation of common biochemical tests.

    abstract::This review considers some of the more common problems in the interpretation of the results of biochemical tests and, where possible, highlights ways in which errors can be identified or avoided. ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ayling RM

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • A model for rational introduction of new and expensive medicines.

    abstract::The reported impact of human monoclonal IgM antibody (HA1A) on the mortality rate from Gram-negative bacteraemia aroused considerable interest in its use in Glasgow Royal Infirmary. However, the commercial preparation of HA1A was extremely expensive. With this in mind, the Infirmary's Drugs and Therapeutics Committee ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bell E,McCartney C

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the media.

    abstract::There is an increasing awareness on the part both of the media and the profession of the need to co-operate in providing information and education on medical matters. This co-operation should be strongly encouraged. Where children are concerned the opportunities for education are great. ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jolly H

    更新日期:1978-03-01 00:00:00

  • Variable use of endoscopic haemostasis in the management of bleeding peptic ulcers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that endoscopic haemostasis is beneficial for patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The relevance of such data to management outside of RCTs is unclear. Therefore we examined management of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer in a UK teaching hospital. METHOD...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahadeva S,Linch M,Hull MA

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Florid granulomatous reaction in a seminoma.

    abstract::A case of seminoma of the testis complicated by an extensive granulomatous reaction is reported. This reaction was so florid that a benign condition was initially considered until further material for histology was examined and the correct diagnosis made. ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pickard WR,Clark AH,Abel BJ

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • The clinical value of Haemoccult and Fecatwin in the detection of colorectal neoplasia in hospital and general practice patients.

    abstract::Four hundred and fifty asymptomatic general practice patients and 330 hospital inpatients had their stools tested for occult blood with the Haemoccult and Fecatwin methods. In general practice, 9/64 (14%) of patients with a positive result had a colonic neoplasm (three carcinomas, one Dukes' Stage A, two Dukes' Stage ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Barrison IG,Parkins RA

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • Successful control of Cushing's disease in the elderly with long term metyrapone.

    abstract::A 77-year old woman with pituitary-driven Cushing's disease is described. The condition was completely controlled on long-term treatment with metyrapone. ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donckier J,Burrin JM,Ramsay ID,Joplin GF

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Significance of idiopathic deep venous thrombosis.

    abstract::The risk of developing an overt malignancy after an isolated deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is poorly documented. We therefore reviewed a series of patients in whom a solitary idiopathic DVT had been proven by venography at least 12 months earlier. No patient had developed a malignancy at follow-up. However, decreased f...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Connor NT,Cederholm-Williams SA,Fletcher EW,Allington M,Sharp AA

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • FAST-TIA: a prospective evaluation of a nurse-led anterior circulation TIA clinic.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) carry a significant early risk of stroke. New national guidelines state patients should be seen within 7 days of the incident, with higher-risk patients being seen within 24 h. Meeting these targets across the NHS poses a significant challenge. A novel approach to TIA asses...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Banerjee S,Natarajan I,Biram R,Sutton K,Ekeng G,Ames D,Chataway J

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: an overview and comparison of three consensus guidelines.

    abstract::Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remains one of the most debilitating toxicities associated with cancer treatment. In recent decades, significant strides have been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of CINV, making way to more effective targeted pharmacotherapies, especially 5-hydroxytrypt...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tageja N,Groninger H

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Oedema and vasodilatation in inflammation: the relevance of prostaglandins.

    abstract::The role of prostaglandins in inflammation is still disputed. Some workers have attempted to fit prostaglandins into a simple model, i.e. inflammatory leads to chemical mediator leads to vascular response. Recent work has shown that this approach may be misleading. An alternative model is proposed, involving the inter...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams TJ

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • Optimising clinical performance during resuscitation using video evaluation.

    abstract::Video evaluation of resuscitation is becoming increasingly integrated into practice in a number of clinical settings. The purpose of this review article is to examine how video may enhance clinical care during resuscitation. As healthcare and available therapeutic interventions evolve, re-evaluation of accepted paradi...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lowe DJ,Dewar A,Lloyd A,Edgar S,Clegg GR

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • A gene-based risk score for lung cancer susceptibility in smokers and ex-smokers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological and family studies suggest that lung cancer results from the combined effects of age, smoking and genetic factors. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also an independent risk factor for lung cancer and coexists in 40-60% of lung cancer cases. METHODS:In a two-stage case-control ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Young RP,Hopkins RJ,Hay BA,Epton MJ,Mills GD,Black PN,Gardner HD,Sullivan R,Gamble GD

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • The antemortem diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess due to perforation of the gut by a foreign body.

    abstract::Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract by ingested foreign bodies is rare; the diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess resulting from such perforations is usually made at post-mortem. We present a case of perforation of the gut, due to an ingested dental plate, with a resultant pyogenic liver abscess, which presented a...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shaw PJ,Freeman JG

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Early prediction of the outcome of a paracetamol overdose based on an analysis of 163 patients.

    abstract::Clinical and biochemical data obtained from 163 patients who had taken an overdose of paracetamol were examined to determine which factors or measurements were of value in predicting the severity of ensuing liver damage early after ingestion of tablets. Although the overall severity of hepatic necrosis was found to in...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gazzard BG,Widdop B,Davis M,Hughes RD,Goulding R,Williams R

    更新日期:1977-05-01 00:00:00

  • Shear wave elastography and microvascular ultrasound in response evaluation to calcipotriol+betamethasone foam in plaque psoriasis.

    abstract::Psoriasis (PsO) is a chronic skin disease. This study aims to evaluate clinical and subclinical response to calcipotriol+betamethasone foam, in patients with PsO, comparing, for the first time, data from microvascular ultrasound (MicroV) and shear wave elastography (SWE) with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guazzaroni M,Ferrari D,Lamacchia F,Marisi V,Tatulli D,Marsico S,Orlacchio A,Floris R,Bianchi L,Dattola A

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Profiles of calcium antagonists in cardiovascular disease with special reference to second-generation agents and amlodipine.

    abstract::The majority of second-generation calcium antagonists are dihydropyridines, some of which show vascular selectivity. Several new dihydropyridines have been developed with comparable pharmacodynamic properties to existing calcium antagonists in this class and greatly improved kinetic half-lives. Of these agents, amlodi...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Opie LH

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mondor's disease associated with metastatic lung cancer in the breast.

    abstract::We report what we believe is the first recorded case of Mondor's disease associated with metastatic lung cancer presenting in the breast. An association between Mondor's disease and primary breast cancer has been described previously. In patients with Mondor's disease and primary breast cancer has been described previ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Courtney SP,Polacarz S,Raftery AT

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Extreme metabolic alkalosis with fludrocortisone therapy.

    abstract::We present an unusual case of extreme metabolic alkalosis resulting from severe hypokalaemia caused by unmonitored fludrocortisone therapy. Biochemical aspects of the disorder are discussed, as is the successful treatment with diuretics and potassium replacement. Some dangers of this therapy and necessary precautions ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burns A,Brown TM,Semple P

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco modalities used and outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an observational report.

    abstract:AIM:The authors evaluated the prevalence and effect of the various tobacco use modalities among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compared them with non-tobacco and ex-tobacco users. METHODS:An analysis of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events conducted between October 2008 and June 2...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Al Suwaidi J,Al Habib K,Singh R,Hersi A,Al Nemer K,Asaad N,Al Saif S,Al-Motarreb A,Almahmeed W,Sulaiman K,Amin H,Al-Lawati J,Al Bustani N,Al-Sagheer NQ,Ali WM

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acanthosis nigricans: relation with type 2 diabetes mellitus, anthropometric variables, and body mass in Indians.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its correlation with various anthropometric measurements in Indians. METHODS:One hundred and fifty consecutive subjects with T2DM attending the diabetes clinic at a tertiary referral centre in North India were con...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grandhe NP,Bhansali A,Dogra S,Kumar B

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Transient ischaemic attacks related to carotid stenosis precipitated by straining, bending, and sneezing.

    abstract::Three patients are described in whom one or more carotid territory transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) were preceded by sneezing, straining, or bending over. It is argued that the mechanism involved dislodgment of embolic material from the site of carotid atheroma. This mechanism should be considered as an alternative ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrison MJ

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Alcoholic liver disease.

    abstract::Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirr...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Walsh K,Alexander G

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • The changing pattern of toxicity of digoxin.

    abstract::Toxicity to digoxin was monitored in 437 consecutive recipients in a comprehensive drug surveillance programme, Adverse reactions developed in 19.5% and, in contrast to previous reports, were generally of a relatively benign nature. There were no drug-related deaths, but patients with adverse reactions spent longer in...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henry DA,Lowe JM,Lawson DA,Whiting B

    更新日期:1981-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of acetazolamide on cerebral blood flow and brain tissue oxygenation.

    abstract::Oral administration of 1 g of acetazolamide to 8 normal subjects studied at sea level and in normoxia caused an acute increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). During the subsequent prolonged oral treatment with 1 g of acetazolamide daily, CBF returned to normal within 2 days. The alveolar CO2 tension decreased gradually...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lassen NA,Friberg L,Kastrup J,Rizzi D,Jensen JJ

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of ultrasound guidance for lumbar punctures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    abstract::Ultrasound guidance has been reported to facilitate the performance of lumbar punctures (LPs). However, the use of ultrasound guidance has not yet received consistent conclusions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of ultrasound-guided LPs. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Libr...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shu L,Huang J,Liu JC

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Approach to the patient with epilepsy in the outpatient department.

    abstract::Epilepsy is common and serious (prevalence 750 per 100 000) and has an impact upon employment, education, and driving. The diagnosis requires a detailed history including witness account. Clinicians must distinguish seizures particularly from syncope and psychogenic attacks. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonan...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hadjikoutis S,Smith PE

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Widespread cutaneous vasculitis associated with diltiazem.

    abstract::Two cases of widespread cutaneous vasculitis are described in association with diltiazem, a recently introduced calcium antagonist. In both cases, spontaneous resolution occurred over several weeks following withdrawal of the drug. ...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sheehan-Dare RA,Goodfield MJ

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Parasites in fine needle breast aspirates--assessment of host tissue response.

    abstract::Parasites in the human breast are uncommon but not rare. Cysticercus and filariasis in fine needle breast aspirates have been documented and their cytomorphology is well characterised. However, the host tissue response to these parasites and the factors responsible for their initiation are not clear. Over a 21 year pe...

    journal_title:Postgraduate medical journal

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sahai K,Kapila K,Verma K

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00