NorM, a putative multidrug efflux protein, of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its homolog in Escherichia coli.


:We found that cells of Vibrio parahaemolyticus possess an energy-dependent efflux system for norfloxacin. We cloned a gene for a putative norfloxacin efflux protein from the chromosomal DNA of V. parahaemolyticus by using an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the major multidrug efflux system AcrAB as the host and sequenced the gene (norM). Cells of E. coli transformed with a plasmid carrying the norM gene showed elevated energy-dependent efflux of norfloxacin. The transformants showed elevated resistance not only to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin but also to the structurally unrelated compounds ethidium, kanamycin, and streptomycin. These results suggest that this is a multidrug efflux system. The hydropathy pattern of the deduced amino acid sequence of NorM suggested the presence of 12 transmembrane domains. The deduced primary structure of NorM showed 57% identity and 88% similarity with that of a hypothetical E. coli membrane protein, YdhE. No reported drug efflux protein in the sequence databases showed significant sequence similarity with NorM. Thus, NorM seems to be a novel type of multidrug efflux protein. We cloned the ydhE gene from E. coli. Cells of E. coli transformed with the cloned ydhE gene showed elevated resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, acriflavine, and tetraphenylphosphonium ion, but not to ethidium, when MICs were measured. Thus, it seems that NorM and YdhE differ somehow in substrate specificity.


Morita Y,Kodama K,Shiota S,Mine T,Kataoka A,Mizushima T,Tsuchiya T




Has Abstract


1998-07-01 00:00:00












  • Determinants of Antibacterial Spectrum and Resistance Potential of the Elongation Factor G Inhibitor Argyrin B in Key Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    abstract::Argyrins are natural products with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia multivorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia We previously showed that argyrin B targets elongation factor G (FusA). Here, we show that argyrin B activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones AK,Woods AL,Takeoka KT,Shen X,Wei JR,Caughlan RE,Dean CR

    更新日期:2017-03-24 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of zidovudine and its glucuronidated metabolite in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and hepatic disease (AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 062).

    abstract::The pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) are established in patients with various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. This study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of ZDV in patients with asymptomatic HIV infection and liver disease. HIV-infected volunteers with normal renal fu...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Moore KH,Raasch RH,Brouwer KL,Opheim K,Cheeseman SH,Eyster E,Lemon SM,van der Horst CM

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • blaVIM-7, an evolutionarily distinct metallo-beta-lactamase gene in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from the United States.

    abstract::As part of the CANCER Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate, strain 07-406, was shown to possess a metallo-beta-lactamase, designated VIM-7. bla(VIM-7) is located on a 24-kb plasmid which can be readily transferred into Enterobacteriaceae and other pseudomonads. This is ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toleman MA,Rolston K,Jones RN,Walsh TR

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus type 2 that induces a thymidine kinase with altered substrate specificity.

    abstract::In vitro and in vivo studies were done on a herpes simplex virus type 2 strain recovered from a patient on acyclovir (ACV) which was ACV resistant but expressed thymidine (dThd) kinase (EC activity. Plaque-purified clones derived from the original clinical sample were heterogeneous with respect to plaque siz...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellis MN,Keller PM,Fyfe JA,Martin JL,Rooney JF,Straus SE,Lehrman SN,Barry DW

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline on morphology of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    abstract::Antibiotic therapy with penicillin, doxycycline, and ceftriaxone has proven to be effective for the treatment of Lyme borreliosis. In some patients, however, it was noticed that borreliae can survival in the tissues in spite of seemingly adequate therapy. For a better understanding of this phenomenon, we investigated ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kersten A,Poitschek C,Rauch S,Aberer E

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of antiviral activities of cloned and native human interferons against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and human cytomegalovirus.

    abstract::Five recombinant alpha interferons and two recombinant beta interferons have been tested for their ability to inhibit yields of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and human cytomegalovirus in human embryonic lung cells. All of the alpha species and both of the beta forms (cysteine and serine) were active against the h...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rasmussen LE,Chen PT,Merigan TC

    更新日期:1984-10-01 00:00:00

  • 4,4'-isopropylidine-bis(2-isopropyl)phenol, a new inhibitor for cell wall formation of Bacillus subtilis.

    abstract::4,4'-Isopropylidine-bis[2-isopropyl]phenol was found to possess antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and some fungi, whereas it had no effect on gram-negative organisms. The drug has a potent inhibitory action on the synthesis of cell wall mucopeptides of Bacillus subtilis by inhibiting the enzyme d-g...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimi IR,Shoukry S,Zaki Z

    更新日期:1976-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of antiviral agents on replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain cultures.

    abstract::An in vitro tissue culture system consisting of reaggregated embryonic brain cells was used to evaluate the inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) by several antiviral compounds. The efficacy of acyclovir, vidarabine, bromovinyldeoxyuridine, and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) guanine in HSV-1-infected Vero cel...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pulliam L,Panitch HS,Baringer JR,Dix RD

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • 8-aminoquinolines effective against Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and in vivo.

    abstract::The activities of 25 8-aminoquinolines were compared in tests assessing the ability of the compounds to inhibit the growth of Pneumocystis carinii in culture. Six compounds were effective at or below 0.03 microM: CDRI 80/53, NSC19894, NSC305805, NSC305812, WR182234, and primaquine. Four others were effective at betwee...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Queener SF,Bartlett MS,Nasr M,Smith JW

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of the Citrobacter freundii group I beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli is not dependent on entry of beta-lactam into the cytoplasm.

    abstract::Induction of the cloned ampC Citrobacter freundii beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli by 6-aminopenicillanic acid was prevented by periplasmic TEM beta-lactamase in the same cell. In contrast, cytoplasmic TEM beta-lactamase did not prevent induction. This result implies that entry of the beta-lactam into the cytoplasm ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Everett MJ,Chopra I,Bennett PM

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Randomized prospective controlled trial of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as adjunctive therapy for limb-threatening diabetic foot infection.

    abstract::Adult diabetic patients admitted to our Diabetes Center from September 1996 to January 1998 for severe, limb-threatening foot infection were consecutively enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating fact...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: de Lalla F,Pellizzer G,Strazzabosco M,Martini Z,Du Jardin G,Lora L,Fabris P,Benedetti P,Erle G

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Ceftaroline-heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    abstract::Heteroresistance refers to the presence, within a large population of antimicrobial-susceptible microorganisms, of subpopulations with lesser susceptibilities. Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to detect the prevalen...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saravolatz SN,Martin H,Pawlak J,Johnson LB,Saravolatz LD

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Inducement and reversal of tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli K-12 and expression of proton gradient-dependent multidrug efflux pump genes.

    abstract::Expression of eight transporter genes of Escherichia coli K-12 and its DeltaacrAB mutant prior to and after induction of both strains to tetracycline resistance and after reversal of induced resistance were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. All transporter genes were overexpressed after induced resis...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Viveiros M,Jesus A,Brito M,Leandro C,Martins M,Ordway D,Molnar AM,Molnar J,Amaral L

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of telithromycin (HMR 3647) on polymorphonuclear neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus in comparison with roxithromycin.

    abstract::HMR 3647 (telithromycin), a new ketolide, is active on intracellular pathogens. It was previously demonstrated that it inhibits superoxide anion production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, at concentrations which inhibit 50% of the control response of about 55 microg/ml (5 min) to 30 microg/ml (30 min); ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vazifeh D,Abdelghaffar H,Labro MT

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Insusceptibility of members of the class Mollicutes to rifampin: studies of the Spiroplasma citri RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene.

    abstract::In order to study the mechanism of insusceptibility of Spiroplasma citri to rifampin, we have cloned and sequenced its rpoB gene, which encodes the beta subunit of RNA polymerase. By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with sequences of beta subunits from susceptible and resistant bacteria, it was possible t...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaurivaud P,Laigret F,Bove JM

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Interplay of Amino Acid Residues at Positions 28 and 31 in NS5A Defines Resistance Pathways in HCV GT2.

    abstract::Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 2 represents approximately 9% of all viral infections globally. While treatment outcomes for GT2-infected patients have improved substantially with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) compared to interferon-α, the presence of polymorphisms in NS5A can impact efficacy of NS5A inh...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asante-Appiah E,Ingravallo P,McMonagle P,Bystol K,Xia E,Curry S,Qiu P,Black S,Chase R,Liu R,Lahser F

    更新日期:2019-09-16 00:00:00

  • Pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with rifampin, against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro infection model.

    abstract::The pharmacodynamic properties of levofloxacin (an optically active isomer of ofloxacin), ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with rifampin, were evaluated over 24 to 48 h against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA 1199 and MRSA 494, respectively)...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang SL,Rybak MJ,McGrath BJ,Kaatz GW,Seo SM

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro activities of DX-619 and four comparator agents against 376 anaerobic bacterial isolates.

    abstract::The activity of DX-619 was evaluated against 376 anaerobic isolates using the reference CLSI agar dilution method. Overall, 90% of the strains were susceptible to DX-619 at < or =1 microg/ml. It was more active than the other four compounds tested except for meropenem, which showed virtually identical overall activity...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Molitoris D,Väisänen ML,Bolaños M,Finegold SM

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interactions between penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and two novel classes of PBP inhibitors, arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones.

    abstract::Several non-beta-lactam compounds were active against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. The MICs of arylalkylidene rhodanines and arylalkylidene iminothiazolidin-4-ones were lower than those of ampicillin and cefotaxime for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MI339 and vancomycin-resis...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zervosen A,Lu WP,Chen Z,White RE,Demuth TP Jr,Frère JM

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • No Dose Adjustment for Isavuconazole Based on Age or Sex.

    abstract::This phase 1, open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isavuconazole after a single oral dose of the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate in healthy nonelderly (age, 18 to 45 years) and elderly (age, ≥65 years) males and females. Overall, 48 subjects were enrolled in the study (n...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desai AV,Han D,Kowalski DL,Lademacher C,Pearlman H,Yamazaki T

    更新日期:2019-05-24 00:00:00

  • Penicillin therapy of experimental endocarditis induced by tolerant Streptococcus sanguis and nontolerant Streptococcus mitis.

    abstract::The response of tolerant Streptococcus sanguis and nontolerant Streptococcus mitis infections to penicillin therapy was compared in the rabbit model of endocarditis. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of penicillin were 0.1 and 0.1 mug/ml, respectively, for S. mitis and 0.05 and 6.2 mug/ml, respect...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lowy FD,Neuhaus EG,Chang DS,Steigbigel NH

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • bla(IMP-9) and its association with large plasmids carried by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the People's Republic of China.

    abstract::A novel plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase (IMP-9) is described in seven isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Guangzhou, China, isolated in 2000. The gene was carried on a large (approximately 450-kb) IncP-2 conjugative plasmid. This is the first report of carriage of bla(IMP) genes on such large plasmids. ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiong J,Hynes MF,Ye H,Chen H,Yang Y,M'zali F,Hawkey PM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Quaternary ammonium compounds efficiently inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro by impairment of choline transport.

    abstract::Hemicholinium 3, decamethonium, and decyltrimethylammonium previously have been demonstrated to be efficient inhibitors, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 4 X 10(-6), 10(-6), and 7 X 10(-7) M, respectively. We show that lengthening of the alkyl chain of decyltrimethylammonium by successive additions of two carbon ...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ancelin ML,Vial HJ

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00

  • Chemical diversity of polyene macrolides produced by Streptomyces noursei ATCC 11455 and recombinant strain ERD44 with genetically altered polyketide synthase NysC.

    abstract::The gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces noursei ATCC 11455 produces a complex mixture of polyene macrolides generally termed nystatins. Although the structures for nystatins A(1) and A(3) have been reported, the identities of other components of the nystatin complex remain obscure. Analyses of the culture extract fro...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruheim P,Borgos SE,Tsan P,Sletta H,Ellingsen TE,Lancelin JM,Zotchev SB

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of flavophospholipol and vancomycin on conjugational transfer of vancomycin resistance plasmids.

    abstract::The influence of vancomycin and flavophospholipol (FPL) on the transfer rate of conjugative plasmids harboring the vancomycin resistance operon vanA was determined in several clinical and animal isolates of Enterococcus faecium. FPL significantly inhibited the frequency of transfer of conjugative VanA plasmids up to 7...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Riedl S,Ohlsen K,Werner G,Witte W,Hacker J

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Isoniazid induces expression of the antigen 85 complex in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    abstract::Exposure to isoniazid induced the expression of several secreted proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses indicated that two of the prominent isonicotinic acid hydrazide-inducible polypeptides were members of the antigen 85 complex, recently demonstrated...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garbe TR,Hibler NS,Deretic V

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro evolution of itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus involves multiple mechanisms of resistance.

    abstract::We investigated the evolution of resistance to the antifungal drug itraconazole in replicate populations of Aspergillus fumigatus that were founded from a strain with a genotype of sensitivity to a single drug and then propagated under uniform conditions. For each population, conidia were serially transferred 10 times...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: da Silva Ferreira ME,Capellaro JL,dos Reis Marques E,Malavazi I,Perlin D,Park S,Anderson JB,Colombo AL,Arthington-Skaggs BA,Goldman MH,Goldman GH

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic approach for comparing two therapeutic regimens using amikacin.

    abstract::The efficiencies of two dosage schedules of amikacin (2 x 10 mg/kg of body weight per 24 h and 1 x 20 mg/kg/24 h intramuscularly for 5 days) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis in rabbits were compared. Blood samples were drawn at various times after the first application, and amikacin concentrations in serum were a...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staneva M,Markova B,Atanasova I,Terziivanov D

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Ribosomal alterations contribute to bacterial resistance against the dipeptide antibiotic TAN 1057.

    abstract::TAN 1057-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were selected to elucidate the mechanism of resistance and the mode of action of this dipeptide antibiotic. Cell-free translation with isolated ribosomes and S150 fractions from sensitive and resistant S. aureus strains demonstrated that alterations...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Limburg E,Gahlmann R,Kroll HP,Beyer D

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Oral and Intravenous Administration of Omadacycline to Healthy Subjects.

    abstract::Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with microbiological activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacteria that is being developed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneu...

    journal_title:Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sun H,Ting L,Machineni S,Praestgaard J,Kuemmell A,Stein DS,Sunkara G,Kovacs SJ,Villano S,Tanaka SK

    更新日期:2016-11-21 00:00:00