Progranulin: a growth factor, a novel TNFR ligand and a drug target.

Abstract:

:Progranulin (PGRN) is abundantly expressed in epithelial cells, immune cells, neurons, and chondrocytes, and reportedly contributes to tumorigenesis. PGRN is a crucial mediator of wound healing and tissue repair. PGRN also functions as a neurotrophic factor and mutations in the PGRN gene resulting in partial loss of the PGRN protein cause frontotemporal dementia. PGRN has been found to be a novel chondrogenic growth factor and to play an important role in cartilage development and inflammatory arthritis. Although research has shown that PGRN exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, the details about the exact molecular pathway of such effects, and, in particular, the PGRN binding receptor, have not been identified so far. Recently, researchers have shown that PGRN binds to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptors (TNFR), interfering with the interaction between TNFα and TNFR. They further demonstrated that mice deficient in PGRN are susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis, an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis, and that administration of PGRN reversed the arthritic process. An engineered protein made of three PGRN fragments (Atsttrin), displayed selective TNFR binding and was more active than natural PGRN. Both PGRN and Atsttrin prevented inflammation in various arthritis mouse models and inhibited TNFα-induced intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, PGRN is a key regulator of inflammation and it may mediate its anti-inflammatory effects, at least in part, by blocking TNF binding to its receptors. As we discuss here, TNFR-based interventions may both stimulate and suppress the growth of cancer cells, and the same may be true in analogy for Atsttrin as a new player.

journal_name

Pharmacol Ther

authors

Liu CJ,Bosch X

doi

10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.10.003

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2012-01-01 00:00:00

pages

124-32

issue

1

eissn

0163-7258

issn

1879-016X

pii

S0163-7258(11)00188-4

journal_volume

133

pub_type

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