Sex workers in Kenya, numbers of clients and associated risks: an exploratory survey.

Abstract:

:In Kenya in 1999, an estimated 6.9% of women nationally said they had exchanged sex for money, gifts or favours in the previous year. In 2000 and 2001, in collaboration with sex workers who had formed a network of self-help groups, we conducted an exploratory survey among 475 sex workers in four rural towns and three Nairobi townships, regarding where they worked, the number of clients they had and the risks they were exposed to. Participants were identified by a network of social contacts in the seven centres. Most of the women (88%) worked from bars, hotels, bus stages and discos; 57% lived with a stable partner and almost 90% had dependent children. In the previous month, 17% had been assaulted and 35% raped by clients. Unwanted pregnancy was common; 86% had had at least one abortion. Compared with women in rural towns, township sex workers were younger (median age 22 vs. 26), saw more clients (median 9 vs. 4 per week) and earned more from sex work (up to 63-90 euros vs. 12 euros per week). Issues of alternative sources of income, safety for sex workers and the conditions which create the necessity for sex work are vital to address. The question of number of clients and the nature of sex work have obvious implications for HIV/STI prevention policy.

journal_name

Reprod Health Matters

authors

Elmore-Meegan M,Conroy RM,Agala CB

doi

10.1016/s0968-8080(04)23125-1

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2004-05-01 00:00:00

pages

50-7

issue

23

eissn

0968-8080

issn

1460-9576

journal_volume

12

pub_type

杂志文章
  • "I wouldn't even know where to start": unwanted pregnancy and abortion decision-making in Central Appalachia.

    abstract::How rurality relates to women's abortion decision-making in the United States remains largely unexplored in existing literature. The present study relies on qualitative methods to analyze rural women's experiences related to pregnancy decision-making and pathways to abortion services in Central Appalachia. This analys...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1080/09688080.2018.1513270

    authors: O'Donnell J,Goldberg A,Lieberman E,Betancourt T

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • The business of desire: "Russian" bars in Amman, Jordan.

    abstract::This paper discusses the type of work migrant women from the former Eastern European countries perform in nightclubs in Amman, Jordan. The fieldwork for this qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and is based on in-depth interviews with 13 women. The topic is approached from the perspective of describing women's cho...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1080/09688080.2017.1378063

    authors: Beňová L

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Abortion: the Portuguese case.

    abstract::Abortion was completely illegal in Portugal until 1984. Illegal abortion provision was a matter of silence until then and treated as a "black market" issue rather than as a health issue. The first attempts to change the abortion law began in 1982 after two trials and a national campaign for legal abortion and contrace...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(02)00025-3

    authors: Vilar D

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Where are we now with hormone replacement therapy?

    abstract::Menopausal symptoms can be grim, and the desire to replace the hormonal "deficit" with exogenous hormones remains strong. Since the 1950s, hormone replacement therapy has been used increasingly, while evidence on the risks of unwanted side effects has accumulated. What have we learned over these decades? Firstly, curr...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(04)24144-1

    authors: Mcpherson K

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Abortion law reform in Nepal: women's right to life and health.

    abstract::In Nepal, the effects of the low social status of women and lack of access to health care and family planning have resulted in a maternal mortality ratio that is among the highest in South Asia. By the mid-1990s, the contribution of unsafe abortions to maternal deaths and morbidity was acknowledged by key individuals ...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(04)24007-1

    authors: Shakya G,Kishore S,Bird C,Barak J

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • The right to love: the desire for parenthood among men living with HIV.

    abstract::Drug regimens and procedures now exist that will prevent parents from transmitting HIV to infants, and the ethical and legal obligation to promote and protect the reproductive rights of those living with HIV should form part of training for HIV/AIDS care and prevention. This paper reports a study that investigated iss...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(03)02293-6

    authors: Paiva V,Filipe EV,Santos N,Lima TN,Segurado A

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Misoprostol preferable to ethacridine lactate for abortions at 13-20 weeks of pregnancy: Cuban experience.

    abstract::Outdated second trimester abortion methods are still being used in some countries, and very few studies have compared them to currently recommended methods. To this end, we studied the efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol used alone for abortions in 189 women at 13-20 weeks gestation, in 2004-2006. We also retro...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(08)31392-5

    authors: Boza AV,de León RG,Castillo LS,Mariño DR,Mitchell EM

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • To be young, unmarried, rural, and female: intersections of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the Maldives.

    abstract::This paper explores sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) among young people, identifying intersecting factors that create inequities in access to services, health-seeking behaviour, and ultimately health outcomes. Based on qualitative interviews with young people in the Maldives, it demonstrates how these ...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1080/09688080.2018.1542910

    authors: Hameed S

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • The Copper-T 380A IUD: a ten-year alternative to female sterilisation in India.

    abstract::High unmet need for limiting contraception persists in most states of India despite wide access to sterilisation. Qualitative evidence from a rural community in which child mortality is high and women's autonomy is low suggests that women may seek reversibility in a contraceptive even if they have finished childbearin...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(00)90194-0

    authors: Iyengar K,Iyengar SD

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Meeting targets or saving lives: maternal health policy and Millennium Development Goal 5 in Nicaragua.

    abstract::In support of maternal health, disease-specific and target-oriented global policy initiatives, such as in Millennium Development Goal 5, have led to a prioritisation of narrow indicators at the expense of more comprehensive approaches. In line with global policy, Nicaragua has made skilled attendants and institutional...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(13)42728-3

    authors: Kvernflaten B

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Educating skilled birth attendants in Mexico: do the curricula meet international confederation of midwives standards?

    abstract::Although the majority of births in Mexico are attended by skilled birth attendants, maternal mortality remains moderately high, raising questions about the quality of training and delivery care. We conducted an exhaustive review of the curricula of three representative schools for the education and clinical preparatio...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(07)30332-7

    authors: Cragin L,DeMaria LM,Campero L,Walker DM

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Unsafe sexual behaviour among schoolgirls in Mozambique: a matter of gender and class.

    abstract::This study seeks to examine the reasons why young women aged 14-20 in Maputo, Mozambique were engaging in risky sexual behaviour, and to ascertain whether the spread of HIV is due to socioeconomic factors and/or patriarchal beliefs and mores, or both. It is based on in-depth interviews and questionnaires among 182 gir...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(01)90011-4

    authors: Machel JZ

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • A, B and C in Uganda: the roles of abstinence, monogamy and condom use in HIV decline.

    abstract::Uganda is often cited as a role model in the fight against HIV/AIDS because of its success in reducing both prevalence and incidence of HIV infection since the late 1980s. Although an increase in sexual abstinence has been highlighted as a primary cause of the declines, large increases have also been recorded in monog...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(04)23118-4

    authors: Singh S,Darroch JE,Bankole A

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Female genital mutilation as sexual disability: perceptions of women and their spouses in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

    abstract::Disability encompasses the limitations on an individual's basic physical activities, and the consequent social oppressions such individual faces in society. In this regard, the limitation on the use of some parts of the genitals in a patriarchal system is considered a form of disability. This paper describes the perce...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1080/09688080.2017.1331685

    authors: Owojuyigbe M,Bolorunduro ME,Busari D

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Implementation of emergency obstetric care training in Bangladesh: lessons learned.

    abstract::The Women's Right to Life and Health project aimed to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh through provision of comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in the country's district and sub-district hospitals. Human resources development was one of the project's major activities. This paper describe...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(06)27229-X

    authors: Islam MT,Haque YA,Waxman R,Bhuiyan AB

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    abstract::In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of ma...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(12)39616-X

    authors: Diniz S

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Increasing access to safe menstrual regulation services in Bangladesh by offering medical menstrual regulation.

    abstract::In spite of wide availability of menstrual regulation services, women often resort to a variety of medicines for inducing abortion. The Bangladeshi Government is now supporting attempts to investigate the introduction of medical menstrual regulation in the public sector. This study examined the acceptability of medica...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(14)43795-9

    authors: Yasmin R,Rob U,Hena IA,Das TR,Ahmed FU

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Between intent and achievement in sector-wide approaches: staking a claim for reproductive health.

    abstract::Since 1995, sector-wide approaches (SWAps) to health development have significantly influenced health aid to developing countries. SWAps offer guidelines for new partnerships with international donors led by government, new relationships between donors and shared financing, development and implementation of agreed pac...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(02)00082-4

    authors: Hill PS

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Targeting access to reproductive health: giving contraception more prominence and using indicators to monitor progress.

    abstract::Unmet need for contraception represents a major failure in the provision of reproductive health services and reflects the extent of access to services for spacing and limiting births, which are also affected by personal, partner, community and health system factors. In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, ...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(07)29284-5

    authors: Bernstein S,Edouard L

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Abortion: the legal right has been won, but not the moral right.

    abstract::In 1978 the abortion law was liberalised in Norway. It permits abortion on request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy, and after that with the agreement of a medical commission, taking the woman's own views into consideration. In 2003, 96% of abortions took place before 12 weeks of pregnancy. There is considerable support am...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(04)24016-2

    authors: Løkeland M

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Short-changing reproductive health.

    abstract::Health sector reformers, particularly the economists among them, are prone to reject calls for more financial support for reproductive health as "special pleading" even when the argument is made that reproductive health is a basic human right. Reproductive health is not alone in this. Up to now, however, the idea that...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(02)00079-4

    authors: Merrick T

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    abstract::On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "An...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(02)00023-x

    authors: Girard F,Nowicka W

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Community-based survey on female genital excision in Faranah District, Guinea.

    abstract::This paper reports on a community-based study in 1999 of the beliefs and practices of people in Faranah District, Guinea regarding female genital excision (FGE). Semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions were carried out with women of reproductive age, older women, married men, community and re...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(01)90100-4

    authors: Keita D,Blankhart D

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Use of injectable hormonal contraceptives: diverging perspectives of women and men, service providers and policymakers in Uganda.

    abstract::The unmet need for family planning in Uganda is among the world's highest. Injectable contraceptives, the most available method, were used by only 14.1% of married women in 2011. Recent data suggest that the main reason for unmet need is not lack of access, but fear of and unacceptability of side effects. In this qual...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(12)40654-1

    authors: Hyttel M,Rasanathan JJ,Tellier M,Taremwa W

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Embodied experiences of prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormality and pregnancy termination.

    abstract::Pregnant women routinely undergo prenatal screening in Australia and this has become a common experience of motherhood. When prenatal screening or prenatal testing results in diagnosis of a serious fetal abnormality, women are presented with a decision to continue or terminate their pregnancy. Few recent studies have ...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.rhm.2016.04.003

    authors: Pitt P,McClaren BJ,Hodgson J

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • The Global Commission on HIV and the Law: recommendations for legal reform to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    abstract::The Global Commission on HIV and the Law was established in 2010 to identify and analyse the complex framework of international, national, religious and customary law shaping national responses to HIV and the well-being of people living with HIV and key populations. Two years of deliberation, based on an exhaustive re...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(14)44807-9

    authors: El Feki S,Avafia T,Fidalgo TM,Divan V,Chauvel C,Dhaliwal M,Cortez C

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • A project to improve the quality of abortion services in Moldova.

    abstract::Abortion has been available legally in Moldova since 1955, and since then the abortion rate has gradually declined. The quality of abortion care remains low, however, and there is a high level of maternal mortality related to unsafe abortion. The goals of the 2005-2015 National Reproductive Health Strategy are to redu...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(05)26206-7

    authors: Comendant R

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Expanding safer sex options: introducing the female condom into national programmes.

    abstract::Although the female condom has been introduced into over 90 countries since 1997, it has only been accepted in sexual and reproductive health programmes as a mainstream method in a few. This paper describes introductory strategies developed by Ministries of Health and non-governmental organisations in Brazil, Ghana, Z...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(03)02178-5

    authors: Warren M,Philpott A

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Viet Nam.

    abstract::Viet Nam has high modern contraceptive prevalence (68%), with most services received through the public sector. As the country transitions to middle-income status, Viet Nam's donors have ceased donations of contraceptive supplies, causing a large projected shortfall in the family planning budget. In response, the Mini...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(10)36529-3

    authors: Drake JK,Thi Thanh LH,Suraratdecha C,Thi Thu HP,Vail JG

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescent pregnancy in Argentina: evidence-based recommendations for public policies.

    abstract::In Argentina adolescent pregnancy is still regarded as a public health problem or a "social epidemic". However, it is necessary to ask from which perspective and for whom it is a problem, and what type of problem. This article presents the findings of a large quantitative and qualitative study conducted in five Northe...

    journal_title:Reproductive health matters

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(08)31358-5

    authors: Gogna M,Binstock G,Fernández S,Ibarlucía I,Zamberlin N

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00