The level of endothelin-like immunoreactivity in seminal fluid correlates positively with semen volume and negatively with plasma gonadotrophin levels.


OBJECTIVE:The newly discovered vasoactive peptides, endothelin 1, 2 and 3, and their receptors are widely distributed in various non-vascular tissues. Recent studies have suggested the presence, as well as possible regulatory roles, of endothelins at several levels of the pituitary-gonadal axis. We determined the level of endothelin-like immunoreactivity in the seminal fluid and examined its possible correlation with routine semen parameters or plasma levels of FSH, LH or testosterone. DESIGN:Prospective study in a tertiary care centre. PATIENTS:Ninety-one men attending infertility clinics for male factor, female factor or both. MEASUREMENTS:Endothelin-like immunoreactivity was determined in seminal fluid using two radioimunoassays, ET1-21 that measures endothelin and ET-1,2 that measures both endothelin and big endothelin. In addition, the levels of FSH, LH and testosterone as well as routine semen parameters were determined. RESULTS:Sperm density ranged from 0 to 315 x 10(6) with a mean (+/- SD) of 28.5 x 10(6) (+/- 48 x 10(6)) sperm/ml and the percentage of motile sperm ranged from 0 to 85% with a mean of 16% (+/- 20.5%). Mean levels of FSH (n = 33), LH (n = 35) and testosterone (n = 35) were 6.4 +/- 4.9 IU/l, 3.5 +/- 2.8 IU/l and 21 +/- 9.4 nmol/l, respectively. Mean ET1-21 level (n = 91) was 81 +/- 16.5 pmol/l, and mean ET-1,2 level (n = 33) was 630.5 +/- 143 pmol/l. There were significant correlations between the levels of ET1-21 and ET-1,2 (r = 0.37, P = 0.04), ET1-21 and FSH (r = -0.5, P = 0.006), ET1-21 and LH (r = -0.46, P = 0.01), and ET1-21 level and semen volume (r = 0.23, P = 0.03). Mean level of ET1-21 or ET-1,2 was significantly lower in patients treated empirically with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophins (n = 34) compared to untreated (n = 52) patients (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that in human seminal fluid (1) endothelin-like immunoreactivity that is specific for active endothelin (ET1-21) represents about 13% of the total immunoreactivity; (2) inactive big endothelin or its N-terminal derivative(s) may account for most of the immunoreactivity; (3) the production/secretion of endothelin may be inhibited by LH and/or FSH; and (4) endothelin level correlates positively with seminal fluid volume.


Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)


Clinical endocrinology


Hammami MM,Haq A,AlSedairy S




Has Abstract


1994-03-01 00:00:00












  • Screening for multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (type 1) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    abstract::In 63 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) a prospective screening study was undertaken for coexistent multiple endocrine neoplasma-(MEN)-syndrome type 1. The screening consisted of a clinical examination, a radiological examination of the sella turcica with skeletal tomography (and in equivocal...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muhr C,Ljunghall S,Akerstrom G,Palmér M,Bergström K,Enoksson P,Lundqvist G,Wide L

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of oestrogen exposure on bone mass in male to female transsexuals.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The importance of oestrogen on bone mineral density (BMD) in males was suggested by reports of patients with oestrogen resistance and aromatase deficiency who demonstrated osteoporosis and epiphyseal plate maturation defect despite high testosterone levels. In the present study, we examined the effects of oes...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reutrakul S,Ongphiphadhanakul B,Piaseu N,Krittiyawong S,Chanprasertyothin S,Bunnag P,Rajatanavin R

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Is testicular endocrine function abnormal in young men with spinal cord injuries?

    abstract::Plasma concentrations of FSH, LH, testosterone and prolactin have been studied in seventeen men, aged 19 to 38 years, with traumatic paraplegia. Plasma testosterone, FSH and LH values were normal in all patients. The median LH concentration in patients was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than in controls but t...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young RJ,Strachan RK,Seth J,Nicol K,Frier BM,Corrall RJ

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma glucagon response to arginine infusion in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Plasma glucagon response to an arginine infusion was studied in children and adolescents belonging to the following groups: (I) twenty-two controls; (II) six subjects with delayed insulin peak during oral GTT; (III) ten diabetics on diet and/or oral therapy; (IV) six newly diagnosed uncompensated diabetics; and (V) ei...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Josefsberg Z,Laron Z,Doron M,Keret R,Belinski Y,Weismann I

    更新日期:1975-09-01 00:00:00

  • Co-expression of ghrelin and its receptor in pancreatic endocrine tumours.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Expression of ghrelin has been reported in pancreatic endocrine tumours, but data on ghrelin receptor protein expression are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the ghrelin receptor, as well as ghrelin, in a selected series of these tumours, including multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1) associated...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ekeblad S,Lejonklou MH,Grimfjärd P,Johansson T,Eriksson B,Grimelius L,Stridsberg M,Stålberg P,Skogseid B

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal thyroid hormone levels in pregnancy and the subsequent cognitive and motor performance of the children.

    abstract::Serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine during pregnancy were measured in women from a severely iodine deficient region in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Subsequently the children born to these women were examined when aged 10-12 years and measures made of intellectual ability and motor competence. A signif...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pharoah PO,Connolly KJ,Ekins RP,Harding AG

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Low prevalence of hypothyroidism among black and Mulatto people in a population-based study of Brazilian women.

    abstract::Objective African-Americans have been shown to have low prevalence of hypothyroidism. Brazil has a high ethnic admixture allowing further exploration into whether environmental factors can explain the ethnic differences. Design A survey, representative of the population of Rio de Janeiro, a large metropolitan city in ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sichieri R,Baima J,Marante T,de Vasconcellos MT,Moura AS,Vaisman M

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and the vaginal microbiome: A case-control study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Some evidence suggests that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota could be associated with PCOS clinical parameters, but little is known for the association between vaginal microbiome and PCOS. OBJECTIVE:To determine ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hong X,Qin P,Huang K,Ding X,Ma J,Xuan Y,Zhu X,Peng D,Wang B

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Low serum potassium level is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related metabolic disorders.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low serum potassium concentration or low dietary potassium intake can result in metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to evaluate the association between low serum potas...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun K,Lu J,Jiang Y,Xu M,Xu Y,Zhang J,Xu B,Sun J,Sun W,Ren C,Liu J,Wang W,Bi Y,Ning G

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatotoxicity and cutaneous reactions after antithyroid drug administration.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Use of the antithyroid drugs (ATDs) thiamazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) is associated with a high frequency of side effects. When patients experience side effects with one (the 1st) ATD, it is usually discontinued and another is administered (the 2nd ATD). We investigated side effects associated with ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Otsuka F,Noh JY,Chino T,Shimizu T,Mukasa K,Ito K,Ito K,Taniyama M

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Basal metabolic rate in women with PCOS compared to eumenorrheic controls.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:PCOS is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Efforts have focused on whether an abnormal energy homeostasis contributes to the development of obesity in these patients. There are conflicting results in the literature regarding whether women with PCOS have an altered basal metabolic rate (BMR), ther...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Churchill SJ,Wang ET,Bhasin G,Alexander C,Bresee C,Pall M,Azziz R,Mathur R,Pisarska MD

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • The cardiovascular effect of vasopressin in relation to its plasma concentration in man and its relevance to high blood pressure.

    abstract::The cardiovascular response and the changes of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration following graded doses of AVP infused intravenously have been defined in six normal young men. The same measurements were also made during fluid deprivation in a patient with both nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and systemic ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khokhar AM,Slater JD,Ma J,Ramage CM

    更新日期:1980-09-01 00:00:00

  • Aldosterone in sustained essential hypertension.

    abstract::Plasma aldosterone (PA), plasma renin activity (PRA), extracellular fluid volume (EFV) and hepatic blood flow were measured in forty-four patients with sustained essential hypertension and compared with forty-two normotensive controls of same age and sex. All patient had inulin clearances within the normal range and b...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Safar ME,Simon AC,Dard SA,Parlier HR,Pauleau NE,Vincent ML,Sassard JE

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Normal prolactin response following thyrotrophin releasing hormone in patients with autonomously functioning euthyroid multinodular goitre.

    abstract::Twelve female patients (mean age 60 years, range 41--74) with euthyroid multinodular goitre and a flat TRH test (median delta TSH 0.9 muIU/ml, range 0--3.5) had normal prolactin responses to TRH (median data prolactin 48 ng/ml, range 6--115). The results are comparable with those in euthyroid patients receiving full s...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elte JW,Wiarda KS,Frölich M,Haak A

    更新日期:1978-11-01 00:00:00

  • Outcomes of the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology: Real-life experience.

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    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Avior G,Dagan O,Shochat I,Frenkel Y,Tessler I,Meir A,Jaffe A,Cohen O

    更新日期:2020-09-27 00:00:00

  • Does growth hormone treatment increase chromosomal abnormalities?

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    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bozzola M,Tettoni K,Severi F,Capra E,Danesino C,Scappaticci S

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Gonadal-pituitary hormone levels in gynaecomastia.

    abstract::Plasma levels of LH, FSH, oestradiol 17 beta and testosterone were measured in twenty-two men with gynaecomastia. The group was divided by age into those under and those over 50-years-old and the mean hormone levels of the two groups were compared with two groups of age-matched normal men. In the young men with gynaec...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McFadyen IJ,Bolton AE,Cameron EH,Hunter WM,Raab G,Forrest AP

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • Does hypopituitarism recover when macroprolactinomas are treated with cabergoline?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The frequency and the degree of recovery of anterior pituitary hormone deficits in patients with macroprolactinoma responsive to cabergoline are not clear. Our aim was to evaluate pituitary function in these patients with particular reference to an assessment of the possible restoration of pituitary deficits....

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Karavitaki N,Dobrescu R,Byrne JV,Grossman AB,Wass JA

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Identification and functional characterization of three novel human melanocortin-4 receptor gene variants in an obese Chinese population.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) are the most common monogenic form of human obesity. However, the contribution of MC4R mutations to obesity in Chinese has not been investigated. We studied the frequency of MC4R mutations in an obese southern Chinese population and the functional consequen...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rong R,Tao YX,Cheung BM,Xu A,Cheung GC,Lam KS

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Associations between visceral adipose tissue, inflammation and sex steroid concentrations in men.

    abstract:CONTEXT:In men, obesity and the metabolic syndrome are accompanied by decreased testosterone levels, but little is known about the associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT-related inflammation and sex steroids. OBJECTIVE:To examine the relative impact of VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gautier A,Bonnet F,Dubois S,Massart C,Grosheny C,Bachelot A,Aubé C,Balkau B,Ducluzeau PH

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • High expression of metadherin correlates with malignant pathological features and poor prognostic significance in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

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    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li WF,Wang G,Zhao ZB,Liu CA

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Calcium and parathyroid hormone behaviour after exogenous secretin infusion in man.

    abstract::The response of serum calcium, PTH, CT and gastrin to an infusion of secretin (3 CU/kg/h) over a period of 90 min was studied in ten healthy males and two female patients with hypoparathyroidism. In the healthy males serum calcium, after a transient fall, significantly increased at 45 min after the onset of the infusi...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lo Cascio V,Piubello W,Cominacini L,Vantini I,Galvanini G,Ederle A,Cavallini G,Scuro LA

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reference ranges of serum TSH, FT4 and thyroid autoantibodies in the Thai population: the national health examination survey.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Data on reference intervals of thyroid functions in Southeast Asia are limited. The aim of this study was to provide reference ranges of thyroid functions and thyroid autoantibodies in Thais. DESIGN AND METHODS:Serum samples from 2545 apparently healthy non-pregnant subjects, aged ≥14 years, from the fourth ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sriphrapradang C,Pavarangkoon S,Jongjaroenprasert W,Chailurkit LO,Ongphiphadhanakul B,Aekplakorn W

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rathke's cleft cysts.

    abstract::Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign, sellar and/or suprasellar lesions originating from the remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although a common finding in routine autopsies (12-33% of normal pituitary glands), symptomatic cases are rare and comprise 5-15% of all surgically resected sellar lesions. Small, asymptomatic RCC...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Trifanescu R,Ansorge O,Wass JA,Grossman AB,Karavitaki N

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • The significance of thyroid blood flow at the inferior thyroid artery as a predictor for early Graves' disease relapse.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the clinical usefulness of thyroid blood-flow measurement in predicting relapse of Graves' disease (GD) in comparison with known risk factors for GD relapse. MEASUREMENT:Thyroid blood flow was measured in pulsed Doppler mode at the inferior thyroid artery (ITA), and the peak systolic velocity...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ueda M,Inaba M,Kumeda Y,Nagasaki T,Hiura Y,Tahara H,Onoda N,Ishikawa T,Nishizawa Y

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Abnormalities of thyrotrophin (TSH) evening rise and pulsatile release in haemodialysis patients: evidence for hypothalamic-pituitary changes in chronic renal failure.

    abstract::Using a sensitive enzyme amplified immunoassay for TSH, the evening rise and pulsatile release of TSH were studied in 10 men with chronic renal failure treated by haemodialysis. Compared to euthyroid male controls the evening rise of TSH was attenuated (median 0.066 vs 0.195 mU/l/h, P less than 0.01) and the rate of r...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wheatley T,Clark PM,Clark JD,Holder R,Raggatt PR,Evans DB

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • A case of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (Type 1) with nesidioblastosis, terminating with an exocrine pancreatic carcinoma.

    abstract::We describe a patient with multiple endocrine adenomatosis Type I, characterized by pituitary-dependent Cushing's Syndrome, marked hyperprolactinaemia, primary hyperparathyroidism and hyperinsulinism leading to hypoglycaemia. The patient subsequently developed an exocrine pancreatic carcinoma at the age of 32 years fr...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliver MH,Drury PL,Van't Hoff W

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue, on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in acromegaly.

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    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ho KK,Jenkins AB,Furler SM,Borkman M,Chisholm DJ

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • The response of prolactin to chlorpromazine stimulation in men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and early pubertal boys: relationship to sex steroid exposure.

    abstract::The effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on prolactin (PRL) secretion was studied in fourteen sexually immature males; nine with idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and five who proved to be normal early pubertal boys. Initially, clinical features and basal levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in serum collected in the ...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winters SJ,Johnsonbaugh RE,Sherins RJ

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • Binding of immunoglobulin-G from patients with thyroid autoimmune disease to normal T lymphocytes.

    abstract::Sera from patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis were reacted with normal T lymphocyte preparations in an attempt to detect binding of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to T cells. Sera from normal subjects and patients with toxic adenomas served as controls. Each serum was reacted with at least three differen...

    journal_title:Clinical endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pacini F,Sridama V,Pressendo J,DeGroot LJ,Medof ME

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00