The novel psychoactive substance 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC or metaphedrone): A review.


:3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC or metaphedrone) is a synthetic cathinone, recently introduced in the market of the new psychoactive substances (NPS), initially to replace mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone or 4-MMC), and rapidly widespread among drug users. 3-Methylmethcathinone is legally controlled in many countries, but is still easily available for purchase from websites, and frequently found in recreational settings. Most toxicological data on this drug come from human case reports of intoxications. Thus, further investigation on their pharmacological and toxicological properties is necessary to evaluate its potential harmful effects. The present work provides a review on the available data about 3-MMC legal status, chemistry, patterns of use, prevalence, biological effects, toxicokinetics, toxicity and factors affecting stimulant/toxicological effects.


Forensic Sci Int


Ferreira B,Dias da Silva D,Carvalho F,de Lourdes Bastos M,Carmo H




Has Abstract


2019-02-01 00:00:00












  • A modified Raman multidimensional spectroscopic signature of blood to account for the effect of laser power.

    abstract::Raman spectroscopy has been used for the development of a universal method for the identification of traces of all major body fluids. Multidimensional spectroscopic signatures, which account for the intrinsic sample heterogeneity and variations between donors, have been described for blood, semen, saliva, vaginal flui...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McLaughlin G,Lednev IK

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis and impurity profiling of MDMA prepared from commonly available starting materials.

    abstract::This work examines the synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from common starting materials that may be utilised by clandestine laboratory operators. Piperonal was prepared from two common starting materials, piperine (from pepper) and vanillin (a common flavouring). Piperine was converted to pipe...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallagher R,Shimmon R,McDonagh AM

    更新日期:2012-11-30 00:00:00

  • Fluoromethcathinone, a new substance of abuse.

    abstract::We have identified a new compound in capsules marketed as plant feeders available from internet suppliers. It is apparent from internet forums that these so-called plant feeders are being used as recreational drugs. The material is identified as being 3'-fluoromethcathinone. The compound in the capsule was identified ...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Archer RP

    更新日期:2009-03-10 00:00:00

  • A review of impurity profiling and synthetic route of manufacture of methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, amphetamine, dimethylamphetamine and p-methoxyamphetamine.

    abstract::Amphetamine-type substances (ATS), like other synthetically derived compounds, can be produced by a multitude of synthetic pathways using a variety of precursors and reagents, resulting in a large number of possible contaminants (by-products, intermediates and impurities). This review article describes the common cont...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stojanovska N,Fu S,Tahtouh M,Kelly T,Beavis A,Kirkbride KP

    更新日期:2013-01-10 00:00:00

  • Screening and determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    abstract::Benzodiazepines are one of the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of a wide spectrum of clinical disorders. They are used as anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, hypnotics or muscle relaxants with different duration of action. In this paper, a simple and sensitive method for the determination of benzodiazepines i...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Inoue H,Maeno Y,Iwasa M,Matoba R,Nagao M

    更新日期:2000-09-11 00:00:00

  • Human identification by FSS system adapted to cephalometric radiographs.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to verify the applicability and reproducibility of the FSS system [8] adapted for frontal and lateral cephalometric radiographs of the frontal sinus for human identification purposes. Eighty lateral and frontal digital cephalometric radiographs from a private Dental Radiology service's databa...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rabelo KA,Dos Anjos Pontual ML,de Queiroz Jordão N,de Paiva KM,de Moraes Ramos-Perez FM,dos Santos MS,dos Anjos Pontual A

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic profile of the Açores Archipelago population using the new PowerPlex 16 system kit.

    abstract::Allele and haplotype frequencies of 16 chromosome STR loci, 15 of them included in the Kit PowerPlex16 System from Promega were determined in a sample of unrelated males from the Açores Archipelago. All subjects were subjected to an interview in order to make sure that their ancestors belonged to the same island at le...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Velosa RG,Fernandes AT,Brehm A

    更新日期:2002-09-10 00:00:00

  • Third molar root development in relation to chronological age: a large sample sized retrospective study.

    abstract::The aim of the present investigation, which is a continuation and extension of a previous published pilot study [Forensic Sci. Int. 129 (2002) 110], was to calculate the chronological age of an individual based on the dental developmental stages of third molars (so-called wisdom teeth). The evaluated material consiste...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gunst K,Mesotten K,Carbonez A,Willems G

    更新日期:2003-09-09 00:00:00

  • Interlaboratory comparison studies on the analysis of hair for drugs of abuse.

    abstract::Eleven laboratories interested in the analysis of human hair for drugs of abuse participated in a study to determine how well drugs could be detected and quantified in hair. For the two exercises completed to date, substances to be determined were limited to cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and morphine. Samples sent to the ...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Welch MJ,Sniegoski LT,Allgood CC

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Haplotype of 12 Y-STR loci of the PowerPlex Y-system in Sichuan Han ethnic group in west China.

    abstract::Haplotypes and allele frequencies for 12 Y-STR loci were determined in Sichuan Han ethnic population samples of 237 unrelated males living in west China. Only one haplotype was encountered in triple. Twelve of the haplotypes were encountered in duplicate, while 210 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity was 0.9952...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang H,Yun L,Li Y,Zhang J,Wu J,Yan J,Hou Y

    更新日期:2008-03-05 00:00:00

  • The effect of seasonality on the application of accumulated degree-days to estimate the early post-mortem interval.

    abstract::This study investigated the effect of seasonal variables on decomposition in the early post-mortem period using 26 donated human cadavers at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility (ARF), USA. The rate and pattern of decomposition in human cadavers (as measured by TBS and the revised TBSsurf metho...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giles SB,Harrison K,Errickson D,Márquez-Grant N

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Willems I VS Willems II: A comparative study of accuracy in 5-15 year old Indian children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Studies testing the Willems method of age estimation with gender-specific scores on different population groups have reported consistently more accurate results over other methods. Not enough is known about the validity of Willems non-gender specific scores. AIM:The present study aimed to compare the accura...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hegde S,Patodia A,Dixit U

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Preliminary data on carrion insects in urban (indoor and outdoor) and periurban environments in central Spain.

    abstract::Although most cases involving entomological evidence occur in urban environments and under indoor conditions, there is a lack of studies determining the insect fauna of forensic importance in those environments. In the current paper we provide the first data on the composition of the forensically important insect spec...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baz A,Botías C,Martín-Vega D,Cifrián B,Díaz-Aranda LM

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental and theoretical studies of the spreading of bloodstains on painted surfaces.

    abstract::The spreading of bloodstains on matt, vinyl silk and gloss painted surfaces, following both perpendicular and non-perpendicular impact, has been studied with a view to understanding whether surface-specific properties affect the size and shape of the final stain. In all cases the dimensions of the stains on the roughe...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adam CD

    更新日期:2013-06-10 00:00:00

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    abstract::One of the most consistently used methods of postmortem interval estimation (PMIE) is by means of body temperature measurements. Several variations of this method exist, from simple 'rules of the thumb' to quite complex equations requiring a knowledge of body mass and height. All of these methods employ a certain degr...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green MA,Wright JC

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Of earprints, fingerprints, scent dogs, cot deaths and cognitive contamination--a brief look at the present state of play in the forensic arena.

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    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Broeders AP

    更新日期:2006-06-02 00:00:00

  • Implications of dimorphism, population variation, and secular change in estimating population affinity in the Iberian Peninsula.

    abstract::Morphometric cranial variation among Spanish samples was compared to a 19th century Portuguese sample using both traditional and three-dimensional approaches. The Spanish samples included the regional 19th century Oloriz collection and the local 16-17th century Villanubla and Vallolid sample from northwestern Spain. R...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Ross AH,Ubelaker DH,Kimmerle EH

    更新日期:2011-03-20 00:00:00

  • Simultaneous determination for oxicam non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    abstract::A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory oxicam drugs (ampiroxicam, tenoxicam, piroxicam, meloxicam and lornoxicam) in human plasma. These five oxicam drugs and isoxicam (internal stan...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shirako J,Kawasaki M,Komine K,Kunisue Y,Terada M,Sasaki C,Irie W,Murakami C,Tonooka K,Tomobe K,Shinozuka T

    更新日期:2013-04-10 00:00:00

  • Cannabinoid level in the leaves as a tool for the early discrimination of Cannabis chemiovariants.

    abstract::One hundred and seventy-six plants of 22 different lots of Cannabis sativa L., grown at the Botanical Garden of Siena (Italy) were chromatographically analysed in order to define the cannabinoid content in their leaves. The content of the major cannabinoids, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabinol and ca...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barni-Comparini I,Ferri S,Centini F

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physicians working under the influence of alcohol: An analysis of past disciplinary proceedings and their outcomes.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The intoxicated person may cause harm to others, often requiring expert evaluation for the determination of guilt. The primary aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms of mistakes that led 17 doctors accused of working under the influence of alcohol to face malpractice. We also wanted to clarify w...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sendler DJ

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • A novel approach in personal identification from tissue samples undergone different processes through STR typing.

    abstract::Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites have been recognized worldwide as a powerful tool for human identification. They have become widely used in human identification especially in criminal cases and mass disasters. Police departments are often interested in cases where tissues are already decomposed and only...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staiti N,Di Martino D,Saravo L

    更新日期:2004-12-02 00:00:00

  • Forensic analysis of condom traces: Chemical considerations and review of the literature.

    abstract::The analysis of condom traces has recently been added to the standard forensic examination protocol of sexual assault and rape cases. Several recent studies have thus focussed on the detection of condom components and classification of the chemical profiles using statistics, obtaining very promising results. The purpo...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burnier C,Massonnet G

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Morphological damage to the central nervous system (CNS) following open heart surgery.

    abstract::We investigated 40 patients who had died following open heart surgery between January 1990 and May 1992. Between this time, 703 open heart procedures were carried out at the University Medical School of Debrecen, 2nd Department of Surgery's Cardiac Surgery Unit with a mortality rate of 8.3%. We studied each individual...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herczeg L,Gorombey S,Vaszily M

    更新日期:1996-05-31 00:00:00

  • Development of a candidate method for forensic microbial genotyping using multiplex pyrosequencing combined with a universal biotinylated primer.

    abstract::Bacterial genotyping can be used for crime scene investigations and contribute to the attribution of biological attacks for microbial forensics. PyroMark ID Pyrosequencer as an accurate detection platform for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been applied to identify and resolve microorganisms involved in clo...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gu Y,Mao X,Zha L,Hou Y,Yun L

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • An international survey into the analysis and interpretation of microscopic hair evidence by forensic hair examiners.

    abstract::Due to inadequacies in historical hair examinations, the use and perceived value of microscopic hair evidence has reduced. Many reports have heavily criticised the use of pattern-based evidence including hair evidence as being unreliable, with police forces focussing on more individualising evidence. Hair evidence has...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkinson L,Gwinnett C

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Uncertainty about the true source. A note on the likelihood ratio at the activity level.

    abstract::This paper focuses on likelihood ratio based evaluations of fibre evidence in cases in which there is uncertainty about whether or not the reference item available for analysis - that is, an item typically taken from the suspect or seized at his home - is the item actually worn at the time of the offence. A likelihood...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taroni F,Biedermann A,Bozza S,Comte J,Garbolino P

    更新日期:2012-07-10 00:00:00

  • Polymorphism of 17 STRs by multiplex analysis in Japanese population.

    abstract::Genotype and distribution of allele frequencies at 17 STRs were studied in 526 unrelated Japanese individuals using the PowerPlex 16 system and the AmpFlSTR Identifiler. ...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hashiyada M,Itakura Y,Nagashima T,Nata M,Funayama M

    更新日期:2003-05-05 00:00:00

  • Genetic analysis of 18 X-linked short tandem repeat markers in Korean population.

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    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shin SH,Yu JS,Park SW,Min GS,Chung KW

    更新日期:2005-01-06 00:00:00

  • Pistol image retrieval by shape representation.

    abstract::Databases have been used to record data in forensic science, such as fingerprints, shoeprints, and photos. In traditional databases, we use "text" as the "keyword" for retrieving data (text-keyword retrieval); however, in some applications, "text" is not proper to describe the searching target, and in this case, "imag...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wen CY,Yao JY

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Hypericum pollen determines the presence of burglars at the scene of a crime: an example of forensic palynology.

    abstract::Two male intruders entered a house in which the sole female occupant slept having left the back door unlocked for the return of her live-in boyfriend. She awoke and saw strangers in her bedroom. The intruders ran off, one leaving a jacket behind on the kitchen floor. One of the intruders subsequently returned to recov...

    journal_title:Forensic science international

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mildenhall DC

    更新日期:2006-11-22 00:00:00